Garbha, Garbhā, Gārbha: 25 definitions
Garbha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Garbh.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Garbha (गर्भ, “development”) refers to one of the “five segments” of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These five segments are assigned to the principal plot (ādhikārika).Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Garbha (गर्भ).—One of the five segments (sandhi) of a dramatic play;—The sprouting of the Seed, its attainment or nonattainment and search for it, is called the Development (garbha).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Garbhā (गर्भा):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Ananta (emanation of Ananta himself, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Garbha (गर्भ).—A son of Bharata, the son of Duṣyanta. Suhotra, Suhotā, Gaya, Garbha and Suketu were the five sons of Bharata. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278). (See full article at Story of Garbha from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Garbha (गर्भ).—The Purāṇas have described the views of sages about the origin of ātman in woman’s womb. Asitamahāmuni stated the following about the birth of a child to King Janaka. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa. ChapterSource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Garbha (गर्भ).—A son of Turvasu.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 48. 1.
1b) The child in embryo;1 a union of Śukra— springing from majja which is from bone which is due to medas, which again results from flesh, that is due to śoṇita, emerging from Rasa or waters, Śukra constitutes of Soma and soṇitam of Agnī. The former resides in Kaphavarga and the latter in Pittavarga. The place of kapha is heart, and that of pitta is the navel region. Stages in the garbha and formation described.2
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 31. 1-10. Vāyu-purāṇa 97. 46-57.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 45-57. Vāyu-purāṇa 14. 18-26.
1c) The four central parts out of 16, into which a site (of a temple to be built) is divided; measurements of its foundations, walls, doorways, etc.; likewise other parts of temple bear specific relation to the garbha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 269. 1-8.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)Source: Shodhganga: Ajanta’s antiquity (nirukta)
Garbha (गर्भ, “womb”) is synonymous to womb, foetus, embryo, inner apartment, interior chamber, hole, and hollow. Its root is also traced in grabha, which means to conceive, womb, having in the interior, containing, filled with, inner apartment, sleeping room, interior chamber, adytum, sanctuary of a temple, and the inside, middle, or interior of anything. What garbha is to the human body gṛha and guhā are to the world of habitation.
Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Garbha (गर्भ) refers to the “consecration deposit”, as mentioned in the twelfth chapter of the Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra, which deals with the offering in the hole according to the different deities, division of the construction of the foundation, and instructions for the measurements for the temple.
Notes: Thus if one takes garbha as consecration deposit and bhājana as repository then garbhabhājana would be consecration deposit repository (or box). Thus the term garbha is the consecration deposit (verse 12.42). In verse 13.6 it seems to be short for garbhagṛha–inner sanctum or aytum–which is also an alternative according to Acharya (womb is his first alternative, 1946:vol. 7, p. 145). The term bhājanam means repository (verse 12.39).
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images
Garbha (गर्भ) refers to the “core” of the mould in the process beeswax modeling (madhūcchiṣṭa), as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Agamas divide the process of Madhūcchiṣṭa-kriyā into three steps:—(a) creation of icon using bee wax (madhūcchiṣṭa), (b) creation of garbha (core or mould in full), (c) casting of metal icon and finishing work. [...] The second step is the creation of garbha (core). The clay, both fine and normal is smeared on the bee wax model, dried for some time, once again smeared and finally iron tapes or metallic strips are wound around the core to strengthen in order to avoid bursting and cracking at the time of drying as well as pouring the molten metal inside the garbha. The garbha is heated and the wax is drained out.
The third step is casting of metal icon and finishing work. The garbha is well heated before the molten metal is poured in. The Āgamas insist on the casting work only in the night, probably for concentration and adjustment of the climate. This takes place after performance of certain sacrificial rituals. The mould with metal poured in should be kept till it becomes cool and solid or strong. The next day morning, the outer shell should be broken carefully to take out the unfinished metal icon.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study
Garbha (गर्भ) or Garbhagītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Garbha-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Garbha (गर्भ) refers to “- 1. foundation deposit § 2.24. - 2. = garbhagṛha §§ 4.7; 5.13. - 3. see iṣṭakāgarbha. - 4 · see sagarbha.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Leiden Repository: Chapter 6 The function and meaning of the garbhanyāsa
The fertility aspect of garbhanyāsa is reflected in the very term by which the ritual is referred to, which means ‘the depositing (nyāsa) of the embryo (garbha)’.
According to the majority of the texts, the garbha should be installed at night, for – as formulated by one work – if done du ring daytime it will be destroyed. The Kāśyapaśilpa, moreover, warns that one should not stay in a house without a garbha and assures that no god will ever commit such a deed.
Apart from the association with an embryo, the texts provide other hints as to the nature of the garbha, all of them, however, emphasising the life-giving character of the deposit. In certain works the deposit is equated with earth or the earth is invoked to enter the deposit casket. The invocation is pronounced before the final act of placing the casket in the pr escribed location. This is not surprising considering that the contents of the deposit casket chiefly consist of the ‘riches of the earth’, such as minerals, metals, grains, herbs and soil taken from various locations (from a river, a marsh or a mountain), which represent the totality of the earth.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Thrangu Rinpoche: Uttaratantra as taught at Shambhala
The Sanskrit word garbha can mean a variety of things, “womb” or “a germ” (of a seed) where something is created or grows out of. This was translated by Takasaki as “matrix” because matrix in Latin means “womb,” and is “something within which something else originates or develops ” (Merriam-Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary). The word garbha also means the “essence” or the “essential nature” which gives us the phrase “Buddha-essence” or essence of the Buddha.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Garbha (गर्भ, “womb”) refers to the uterus or womb and represents one of the three types of birth (janman, method of getting born), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.31. What is the meaning of uterus birth (garbha)? The birth that occur due to the union of the sperm of the father and the egg of the mother in the womb of the mother is called uterus birth e.g. of human beings.
Which living beings have the uterine birth (garbha, birth from the uterus)? The living beings with placenta (jarāyuja), egg (aṇḍaja) and without placenta (potaja) have uterine birth.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Garbha.—(LL), a cell; cf. pañca-garbha (LL), ‘a five-celled building’; nava-garbha (LL), ‘a nine-celled building’; sapta- garbha (LL), ‘seven-celled building’. Note: garbha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
garbha (गर्भ).—m (S) A fœtus or an embryo. 2 Pulp, pith, kernel, marrow, heart, interior portion gen.: the essence, moral, sum, substance, figuratively. 3 Surface or space included, area. 4 The middle, the exact centre. 5 Meaning or import; as grantha- garbha, ślōkagarbha, vākyagarbha. 6 The interior or inside: e. g. the womb; the belly; an inner apartment; a lying-in-chamber; the adytum of a temple. Arbitrary or occasional compounds occur; as garbha- kavi-gāyaka-bṛhaspati A poet, singer, orator from birth. garbha sambhavaṇēṃ-samāvaṇēṃ-rāhaṇēṃ in. con. To conceive in the womb. garbhācēṃ karaṇēṃ or, with g. of s., hōṇēṃ To dine, esp. to dine luxuriously; to fill out one's bags. garbhīṃ Whilst in the womb; whilst as yet unborn; e. g. garbhīṃ andhaḷā-rōgī-śāhaṇā-jñānī-śrīmanta Blind, sickly, clever, wise, rich from the very birth; garbhīṃ rōga-rājya-vairāgya Sickness, kingly rule, holy affections obtained at birth. garbhīṃ rōjamurā Provision made for the unborn offspring of.
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garbhā (गर्भा).—m (garbha Womb.) A rite amongst Gujarathi women and girls, pregnant and hopeful of pregnancy, in propitiation of Devi. It consists in running round in a ring vociferously singing; and it is observed from the light tenth to the day of full moon of āśvina. Also the piece sung on the occasion. Also similar merry worship performed and the merry piece sung during the navarātra of āśvina, or through the whole of the bright fortnight of āśvina.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
garbha (गर्भ).—m A fœtus or an embryo. Pulp, ker- nel, marrow; heart, interior portion. Fig. The essence, moral, substance. The middle, the exact centre. The interior or inside, e. g., the womb, an inner apartment, the adytum of a temple. garbha sambhavaṇēṃ,-samāvaṇēṃ-rāhaṇēṃ Conceive in the womb.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Garbha (गर्भ).—[gṝ-bhan Uṇ.3.152]
1) The womb, the belly; गर्भेषु वसतिः (garbheṣu vasatiḥ) Pt.1; पुनर्गर्भे च संभवम् (punargarbhe ca saṃbhavam) Ms.6.63.
2) A fœtus, embryo; act of conception, pregnancy; conception; नरपतिकुलभूत्यै गर्भमाधत्त राज्ञी (narapatikulabhūtyai garbhamādhatta rājñī) P.2.75; गर्भोऽभवद्भूधरराज- पत्न्याः (garbho'bhavadbhūdhararāja- patnyāḥ) Ku.1.19; गर्भं वहति (garbhaṃ vahati) Pt.1.3 bears a child in the womb.
3) The time of conception; गर्भाष्टमेऽब्दे कुर्वित ब्राह्मणस्योपनायनम् (garbhāṣṭame'bde kurvita brāhmaṇasyopanāyanam) Ms.2.36.
4) The child (in the womb); Ś.6; ततः कुमारं सुरगर्भकल्पम् (tataḥ kumāraṃ suragarbhakalpam) Bu. Ch.2.19; cf. 'गर्भो भ्रूणेऽ- र्भके कुक्षौ (garbho bhrūṇe'- rbhake kukṣau)' Medinī.
5) A child, brood or offspring of birds.
6) The inside, middle, or interior of anything (in comp. in this sense and translated by 'full of', 'filled with', 'containing' &c); हिमगर्भैर्मयूखैः (himagarbhairmayūkhaiḥ) Ś.3.4; शुक° कोटर (śuka° koṭara) 1.14;7.7; °पत्रम् (patram) U.3.5. inwardly situated; अग्निगर्भां शमीमिव (agnigarbhāṃ śamīmiva) Ś.4.4; R.3.9;5.17;9.55; Śi.9.62; Māl.3.12; Mu.1.12.
7) The offspring of the sky, i. e. the vapours and fogs drawn upwards by the rays of the sun during 8 months and sent down again in the rainy season; cf. Ms.9.35; नवमासधृतं गर्भं भास्करस्य गभस्तिभिः (navamāsadhṛtaṃ garbhaṃ bhāskarasya gabhastibhiḥ) Rām.4.28.3.
8) An inner apartment, a lying-in-chamber.
9) Any interior chamber.
1) A hole.
13) The rough coat of the jack-fruit (panasakaṇṭaka).
14) the bed of a river, especially of the Ganges on the fourteenth day of the dark half of Bhādrapada or in the very height of the rains when the river is fullest.
15) The fruit (of plants).
16) Joining, union.
17) The calyx of the lotus.
18) (In dramas) One of the Sandhis q. v.
Derivable forms: garbhaḥ (गर्भः).
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Gārbha (गार्भ).—a. (-rbhī f.) [गर्भे साधु अण् (garbhe sādhu aṇ)],
-gārbhika (-kī f.) a.
1) Uterine, fetal; Bhāg.3.7.27.
2) Relating to gestation; Ms.2.27.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Garbha (गर्भ).—name of an author: Sādhanamālā 295.18.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-rbhaḥ) 1. A fœtus or embryo. 2. A child. 3. The belly. 4. The inside, the middle. 5. Joining, union. 6. The rough coat of the fruit of the Jaka. 7. An inner apartment, a lying-in chamber. 8. Any interior chamber, the adytum of a temple, &c. 9. The bed of the Ganges, when the river is fullest; that is, on the fourteenth day of of the dark half of the month Bhadra, or in the height of the rains; as high as the river flows at this period, so far extends the Garbha, after which the Tir or proper bank begins, and extends for 150 cubits; this space is holy ground. 10. The calyx of the lotus. The interior or inner part of any thing. E. gṛ to drop, or gṝ to swallow, Unadi affix man; also read garbha.
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(-rbhaḥ-rbhī-rbhaṃ) 1. Uterine, fœtal. 2. Relating to conception, (any act or ceremony, &c.) E. garbha and aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Garbha (गर्भ).—i. e. grabh (ved. = grah) + a, m. 1. The womb, [Pañcatantra] [prologue.] 8. 2. The interior, Mahābhārata 9, 2741. 3. A fœtus or embryo, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 3, 38. 4. A sprout, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 28, 6. 5. Conception, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 36. 5. As former part of comp. words it has often the second signification; cf. garbha-gṛha. As latter part of comp. adj. Holding in one’s interior, containing; e. g. śuka-, adj. Containing parrots, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 14. sneha-, adj. Containing oil, Mahābhārata 12, 13414.
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Gārbha (गार्भ).—i. e. garbha + a, adj. 1. Born of a womb, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 7, 27. 2. Referring to pregnancy, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 27.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Garbha (गर्भ).—[masculine] womb, inside, interior (adj. —° having in the interior, containing, filled with); fetus, embryo, scion, fruit, offspring, child.
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Gārbha (गार्भ).—[adjective] born from the womb, relating to the fetus or the pregnancy.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Garbha (गर्भ):—m. (√grabh = grah, ‘to conceive’; √2. gṝ, [Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 152]) the womb, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.
2) the inside, middle, interior of anything, calyx (as of a lotus), [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , ‘having in the interior, containing, filled with’ [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Mahābhārata] etc.)
3) an inner apartment, sleeping-room, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) any interior chamber, adytum or sanctuary of a temple etc., [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Religious Thought and Life in India] p.445
5) a foetus or embryo, child, brood or offspring (of birds), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.
6) a woman’s courses, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]
7) ‘offspring of the sky’ id est. the fogs and vapour drawn upwards by the rays of the sun during eight months and sent down again in the rainy season (cf. [Manu-smṛti ix, 305]), [Rāmāyaṇa iv, 27, 3; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Bālarāmāyaṇa viii, 50]
8) the bed of a river ([especially] of the Ganges) when fullest id est. on the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month Bhādra or in the height of the rains (the Garbha extends to this point, after which the Tīra or proper bank begins, and extends for 150 cubits, this space being holy ground)
9) the situation in a drama when the complication of the plot has reached its height, [Daśarūpa i, 36; Sāhitya-darpaṇa vi, 68 and 79]
10) the rough coat of the Jaka fruit, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) joining, union, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) Name of a Ṛṣi (called Prājāpatya), [Kāṭhaka]
14) cf. amṛta-, ardha-, kṛṣṇa-, mūḍha-, viśva-, hiraṇya-; cf. also δελφός; [Hibernian or Irish] cilfin, ‘the belly’; [Anglo-Saxon] hrif; [German] kalb: Engl. calf.
15) Gārbha (गार्भ):—mfn. ([from] garbha), born from a womb, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 7, 27]
16) relating to a foetus or to gestation, [Manu-smṛti ii, 27.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Garbha (गर्भ):—(rbhaḥ) 1. m. Idem.
2) Gārbha (गार्भ):—[(rbhaḥ-rbhī-rbhaṃ) a.] Uterine.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+202): Garbhabhajana, Garbhabhara, Garbhabharman, Garbhabhartridruh, Garbhabhavana, Garbhabhumi, Garbhacalana, Garbhacchidra, Garbhaceta, Garbhachalana, Garbhachata, Garbhachaya, Garbhacheta, Garbhachyuta, Garbhachyuti, Garbhacikitsa, Garbhacyuta, Garbhacyuti, Garbhada, Garbhadana.
Ends with (+229): Acintyarthagarbha, Adityagarbha, Agarbha, Agnigarbha, Akashagarbha, Amagarbha, Amalagarbha, Amaragarbha, Ambhogarbha, Amritagarbha, Amritashmagarbha, Anandagarbha, Anantargarbha, Anavaranajnanavishuddhigarbha, Antargarbha, Anucinagarbha, Anurachitagandhagarbha, Anuracitagandhagarbha, Anushtubgarbha, Apamgarbha.
Full-text (+521): Garbhagriha, Garbhadhana, Shrigarbha, Ratnagarbha, Garbhamandapa, Devagarbha, Bhasmagarbha, Garbhacyuti, Prathamagarbha, Garbhaghatin, Somagarbha, Gandhaligarbha, Bijagarbha, Garbhaspandana, Aptagarbha, Garbhika, Vriddhagarbha, Garbheshvara, Sagarbha, Vedagarbhamahatmya.
Search found 65 books and stories containing Garbha, Garbhā, Gārbha; (plurals include: Garbhas, Garbhās, Gārbhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 3.38 < [Chapter 3 - Karma-yoga (Yoga through the Path of Action)]
Verse 14.3 < [Chapter 14 - Guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yoga]
Verse 11.52 < [Chapter 11 - Viśvarūpa-darśana-yoga (beholding the Lord’s Universal Form)]
Shiva Gita (study and summary) (by K. V. Anantharaman)
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
Lankavatara Sutra (by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)