The Agnistoma Somayaga in the Shukla Yajurveda

by Madan Haloi | 2018 | 109,416 words

This page relates ‘Part 2.5: The Pravargya rite’ of the study on the Agnistoma Somayaga as described in the Shukla Yajurveda (dealing with Vedic Rituals). The Agnistoma sacrifice (lit. “praise of Agni”) connects god with men and is performed in the spring season. It is the model of all the Soma sacrifices and forms a large and complicated ceremony preceded by four preliminary ritualistic days. This thesis deals with all the details involved in the Agnistoma sacrifice.

Part 2.5: The Pravargya rite

[Full title: Rites Performed on the Second Day: (e) Pravargya]

In addition to the Ātithyeṣṭi in the Agniṣṭoma Somayāga, come the rites called Pravargya and Upasad which are considered to be integral parts of the Agniṣṭoma Somayāga. As stated in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, of these two (Pravargya and Upasad), first the Pravargya is performed and then the Upasad.[1] These two rites are performed on the second, third and fourth day of the Agniṣṭoma.[2] In the Agniṣṭoma if the soma pressing is done on the fifth day, then, the rites Pravargya and Upasad take place on second, 3rd and fourth day.

These two are performed twice on a day—

ayaṃ ca pravargyaḥ pūrvāhṇe aparāhne ca pratyupasadaṃ kāryaḥ/[3].

However, the following sentence of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa implies that in the first sacrifice i.e., in his very first performance of Somayāga the sacrificer should not perform the Pravargya rite in Agniṣṭoma

taṃ na prathame yajñe pravṛñjyāt/[4]

Kātyāyana too states it thus—

na prathamayajñe/[5]

Kātyāyana states that in the absence of the Pravargya rite, the Agniṣṭoma ritual is to be completed with the Upasad Iṣṭi or alternately one may perform it—

upasadeva vāpravargye/[6]

Here Karka states that the word apravargya refers to first sacrifice and it is the first application of Somayāga by a man.[7] The Pravargya rite is said to be independent, not a modification of the other.[8] Karka applies the word apūrva for this rite.[9] As stated in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, by performing the Pravargya rite, one attains a celestial body.[10] The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa states that the materials are placed on a black antelope skin, but on the northern part of the skin and the skin should be placed keeping its neck towards the east.[11] Kātyāyana says that while the consecration rite is being continued, the Adhvaryu makes ready the mahāvīra cups. The essential materials such as clay, fossilized ant hill, clay dug up by a boar, the pūtikā grass , milk of a she goat, wild grain etc . All these are placed in the place of the antaḥpātya peg. Again, in the northern side of these materials, a black antelope’s skins and a spade are placed.[12] The mahāvīra cup refers to an earthen pot in which milk for pravargya is boiled. In Pravargya there are three mahāvīra cups being one main and other two secondary pots kept as reserved i.e., apracaranīya.[13] The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as well as the Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra mention that the spade should be of udumbara wood or vikaṅkata having the length of an aratṇi i.e., of one cubit.[14] Having taken the spade by his right hand with the prescribed formula of the Vājasaneyī Saṃhitā and then transferring the spade in his left hand, the Adhvaryu touches the spade and mutters a formula of the Vājasaneyī Saṃhitā.[15]

The formula to be applied during the taking of the spade runs as follows—

devasya tvā savituḥ prasaveśvinorbāhubhyāṃ pūṣṇo hastābhyām/ ādade nārirasi//[16]

Again the formula to be muttered while touching the spade runs as follows—

yuñjate mana uta yuñjate dhiyo viprā viprasya bṛhato vipaśvitaḥ/ vi hotrā dadhe vayunāvideka inmahī devasya savituḥ pariṣṭutiḥ/[17]

Thereafter, the Adhvaryu takes the lump of clay dug by the spade.[18] During this time, he utters the following formula—

devī dyāvapṛthivī makhasya vāmadya śiro rādhyāsaṃ devayajane pṛthivyāḥ/ makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[19]

Sāyaṇa states that with this formula, he mingles the water with a lump of clay and takes the clay in accordance with the need for making the mahavīra pot.[20] He places the clay on the black antelope’s skin which has already been kept towards the north.[21] It has already been stated that the Adhvaryu places various materials on the black antelope’s skin and with the placement of each material, he utters separate formula of the Vājasaneyī Saṃhitā. All these have been stated in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.[22]

While he places the fossilized ant-hill, he utters this formula—

devyo bamryo bhūtasya prathamajā makhasya vo’dya śiro rādhyasaṃ devayajane pṛthivyāḥ/ makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/,

During the time of placing the clod of clay dug up by a boar, he utters the following formula—

iyatyagra āsīnmakhasya te’dya śiro rādhyāsaṃ devayajane pṛthivyāḥ/ makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe /,

The formula to be applied for placing the putikā runs as follows—

indrasyaujaḥ stha makhasya vo’dya śiro rādhyāsaṃ devayajane pṛthivyāḥ / makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/

And on the otherhand, the milk of the she-goat is placed with the following formula-makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[23] Kātyāyana too states all these and he adds that the Adhvaryu places the wild grains (Gāvedhukas)without uttering any formula.[24] Having placed the above mentioned five materials on the antelope -skin, the Adhvaryu touches the materials with the prescribed formula.[25]

The formula runs as follows—

makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[26]

Then the materials with the skin are taken to the north of the devayajana where a pariśrita is prepared. It is done muttering a prescribed formula.[27] Mahīdhara states that pariśrita is parivṛta which is of five cubit and having equal measurement of four sides and door in the eastern part.[28] The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa does not mention exactly who proceeds to the north with the materials. Vidyadhar states that the Adhvaryu, Pratiprasthātṛ, Neṣṭṛ and the Unnetṛ go to the pariśrita.[29] Kātyāyana too has referred to the act of using a formula, but it is not clear whether the mantra is to be muttered or uttered.[30]

The formula runs as follows—

praitu brahmaṣaspatiḥ pra devye tu sūnṛtā/ acchā vīraṃ naryaṃ paṅktirādhasaṃ devā yajñaṃ nayantu naḥ/[31]

Having reached the pariśrita, the Adhvaryu puts the materials on a mound. Before the act of putting the materials, the preliminary rites of the digging up of the mound, sprinkling of water and spreading of pebbles on it are done.[32] During this time, the Adhvaryu applies the following formula-makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe /[33] Thereafter the Adhvaryu mixes all the materials and prepares the mahāvīra pot.[34] Here too, he applies the formula makhāya…[35] etc. in mixing the materials and in making the pot. but separately for each act. The mahāvīra refers is a pot in which gharma haviḥ etc. is boiled and heated.[36] Its hight should be one span, narrow in the middle and from that narrow part, it should be three fingers in hight.[37] Kātyāyana clearly states that beside its span hight, the mahāvīra pot should be hollow, should be narrow in the middle part, a mekhalā should be bound in that part from which its high rises three fingers.[38] After having completed, the Adhvaryu touches it with the prescribed formula.[39]

Mahīdhara mentions that Adhvaryu takes the mahāvīra pot at his left and he touches it with his right hand.[40] During this time, the Adhvaryu applies the following formula—

makhasya śiro’si/[41]

In the same way, the Adhvaryu makes two more Mahāvīras and touches these two applying same formula like the first mahāvīra pot. But, the formulae are utterd separately with each. After this comes the preparation of two vessels to use as milking pot known as pinvana and two Kapālas i.e., plates by the name rauhiṇa and these are completed without the application of any formula.[42] Sāyaṇa cites that the two pinvana vessels are used for milking the cow and she goat. On the other hand, the rauhiṇa plates are used for baking the rauhiṇa Purodāśas.[43] Though the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa is silent regarding the size of the vessels and the plates, the Kātyāyana mentions that the pinvana vessels should be like the sruk i.e., the offering ladle and the rauhiṇa plates should be round.[44] Having completed all these, the remaining clay is kept aside for the rite of expiation.[45] Sāyaṇa states that this clay is essential for remaking the mahāvīra pot if it breaks.[46] The polishing of the mahāvīra pots are made by the gavedhukā grass with prescribed formulae while

Pinvanas and Rauhiṇas are polished without formula.[47] Sāyaṇa by the word gavedhukā refers to godhūma plants born in forest.[48]

The Adhvaryu makes smooth the mahāvīra pots with the following formula to be uttered with each act of smoothening

makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[49]

The mahāvīra pots are purified by fumigating them with burning horse dung.[50] According to Mahīdhara, it is the dakṣiṇa fire where the horse dung is inflamed[51] and on the other hand, Kane opines that the fire is gārhapatya.[52]

The first mahāvīra is purified with the following formula

aśvasya tvā vṛṣṇaḥśaknā dhūpayāmi devayajane pṛthivyāḥ/makhāya tvāmakhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[53]

The other two Mahāviras are purified by uttering the following formula separately in each case

aśvasya tvā vṛṣṇaḥ śaknā dhūpayāmi devayajane pṛthivyāḥ/ makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[54]

The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions that like the former rites connected with the Pinvanas and Rauhiṇas, this purification is also done without formula.[55] Kātyāyana states that the fire for purifying the mahāvīra should be prepared in the same way in which the fire is prepared for baking the ukhā i.e., fire pan.[56] The fire pan is purified by the seven pieces of horse dung kindled in the dakṣiṇa fire.[57] There after the mahāvīra pots are baked.

The mahāvīra pots are baked with the same formula and the formula runs as follows

makhāya tvā makhasya tvā śīrṣṇe/[58]

But the Pinvanas and Rauhiṇas are heated without formula.[59] The rite of baking these pots is done near the dakṣiṇa fire by digging ahole and this rite is done by the Adhvaryu.[60] Having baked the mahāvīra pots, the Adhvaryu takes the pots one by one from the fire.[61]

During this time, he applies each of the following formulae viz. respectively[62],

(a) ṛjave tvā
(b) sādhave tvā and
(c) sukṣityai tvā.

Apart from the earthen vessel, the Pravargya rite needs some wooden implements and in order to perform the purifying rite i.e., saṃskāra of these, the Adhvaryu places them in the eastern side of the gārhapatya fire. Before it, he scatters kuśa grass on that place pointing with their blades towards the east. On the kuśa grass, the Adhvaryu places the vessels in pairs. First he places the upayamanī tray and the mahāvīra pot making these into a pair, then two Parīśāsas i.e., lifting trays , two Pinvanas , two Rauhiṇas, two Rauhiṇa havanīs i.e., ladles to be used in offering the rauhiṇa breads. All these are placed in pairs. Apart from these, there are other vessels or instruments to be placed thereon. But, the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa does not state the names of all these but states only the number as ten[63] and on the contrary Kātyāyana states all these in his śrautasūtra. Accordingly, these are sthūṇā i.e., a post, mayukha, i.e., a peg, two Dhṛṣṭis i.e., sticks for stirring the fire , two Śatamānas i.e., two pieces of gold and silver weighing hundred grains,a blade of muñja grass , twenty pieces of vikaṅkata wood having the length of a span each, sruva, a sheaths of muñja grass , Dhavitras.i.e., leather fans, enclosing sticks, rajju and sandāna i.e., a cord and a rope, āsandī i.e., a throne or a seat, one black antelope’s skin,hoe, gravel and other necessary things such as sphya etc.needed for making the khara(firealtar)[64] According to Sāyaṇa , the upayamanī tray is used to hold the heated mahāvīra pot and it is made of udumbara wood. This upayamanī is attached with the first mahāvīra pot and made a pair. The two Parīśāsas are attached with the other two Mahāvīras and thus the second pair is made. The two pinvana bowls, two rauhiṇa plates and the two rauhiṇa havanī ladles made of udumbara are made into one pair each and thus these three pairs are placed on the kuśa grass.[65] As stated by Chitrabhanu, parīśāsa is a pair of tongs for raising up the pot of gharma from fire. Again, gharma refers to boiled milk of cow or she goat mixed with boiling ājya contained in the mahāvīra pot. Thus, it is clear that the Parīśāsas are used for lifting up the mahāvīra pot in which gharma is prepared. Moreover, dhṛṣṭi refers to two stirring sticks held by the Adhvaryu and the Pratiprasthātṛ in order to separate the burning coals from the gārhapatya.[66] According to Thite, sthūṇā i.e., the post is used for binding the cow and mayukha for binding the she-goat.[67] Cinnasvami uses the word rukma in the place of the term śatamāna used by Kātyāyana.[68] According to Chitrabhanu, it refers to two plates one of gold and the other of silver. Both are placed on the mahāvīra pot, the golden plate is placed on the māhavīra and the silver plate below of the pot. Again, dhavitra refers to fans three in number made of the skin of black antelope with black and white hair for fanning the gharma.[69] The words rajju and sandāna refers to ropes.

As stated by Vidyadhar, rajju is used for binding the cow and the she-goat while. Sandāna is used for binding the feet of the cow during her milking.[70]

After the completion of the rite of purification of the prokṣaṇī water, the Adhvaryu takes it in his hand and being permitted by Brahmā priest, he sprinkles water on the first mahāvīra pot with one formula or he may sprinkle water on each of the mahāvīra pots with three different formulae.[71]

The formulae are respectively[72]

(a)yamāya tvā
(b) makhāya tvā and
(c) sūryasya tvā tapase.

Apart from the mahāvīra pots, the Adhvaryu sprinkles the prokṣaṇī water on the vessels related to the gharma without formula.[73] Thereafter the sthūṇā is brought in through the eastern door of the prāgvaṃśaśālā and is raised in the southern part so that the Hotṛ can see it.[74] Here Sāyaṇa adds that the sthūṇā is placed in the southern part of the prācīnavaṃśa śālā.[75] Kātyāyana is of the opinion that both the sthūṇā and mayukha are brought through the eastern door and are raised in the southern side as well as within the vision of the Hotṛ[76] who sits beside the gārhapatya[77].Regarding the preparation of the fire mounds (Kharas), the Śatapaha Brāhmaṇa states that in northern side, sands are scattered in order to prepare the fire mounds[78]. Sāyaṇa makes it clear that in the northern side of the gārhapatya, a four cornered fire mound is prepared with the sand.[79] Again Kātyāyana puts his view that in the northern part of the gārhapatya and the āhavanīya, two fire mounds are prepared and in the southern part, the Adhvaryu prepares the third fire mound.[80] It is to be noted here that the Pravargya rite contains a samrāḍāsandī i.e., an emperor throne seat apart from the rājāsandī i.e., the throne for soma of the Somayāga. In the Pravargya rite, the word samrāṭ denotes the pravargya as well as the mahāvīra. Hence, the asandi meant for the mahavira is called samrāḍāsandī. On the other hand, the āsandī where the soma which has already been bought and placed is called rājāsandī.[81] The samrāḍāsandī should be placed in the north of the rājāsandī. The samrāḍāsandī should be of udumbara wood, shoulder-high (amsadaghna), should be decorated by the rope made of balvaja grass.[82] Kātyāyana also has similar view and he states that on the samrāḍāsandī a black antelope’s skin is spread where the Adhvaryu puts the spade, the rest of the clay and the second and the third mahāvīra pots. The Adhvaryu may screen the pots or he may not.[83] The rājāsandī is placed beside the āhavanīya.[84] Moreover Kātyāyana states that the supporting rites of the Pravargya may completed by a priest other than the Adhvaryu due to engagement of the Adhvaryu in other duties.[85] Vidyadhar says that the other person is not other than the Pratiprasthātṛ and he should perform the supporting rites such as bringing of the sthūṇā, mayukha, arrangement of the vessels etc.[86] As soon as the Hotṛ utters a Ṛgvedic formula viz., añjanti…[87] etc. the Adhvaryu too performs the rite of anointment of the mahāvīra pot with ājya.[88] Sāyaṇa states that the first mahāvīra pot is anointed by taking ājya in the sruva ladle.[89]

During this time, the Adhvaryu utters the following yajuṣ formula—

devastvā savitā madhvānaktu[90] /

Thereafter he places the silver plate below the mound of the southern side.[91]

During this time, he recites the following formula—

pṛthivyāḥ saṃspṛśaspāhi/[92]

Kātyāyana states that the Adhvaryu purifies the ājya and then he puts the silver plate under the southern fire mound with the formula.[93] Karka states that saṃskāra i.e., the purification of ājya means making a libation of full spoon (pūrṇāhuti).[94]

While the Hotṛ recites a verse saṃsīdasva… etc.[95] the Adhvaryu kindles the muñja grass and puts them in the fire mound where the mahāvīra pot is placed by uttering the yajuṣ formula.[96]

He utters the following formula—

arcirasi śocirasi tapo’si/[97]

Kātyāyana states that the Adhvaryu folds in the middle of the muñja grass in its mid section and thus having made them doubled, he inflames them and places them in all directions of the fire mound. On the kindled muñja grass , he places the mahāvīra pot after having poured ghee into it.[98] On the other hand, Cinnasvami clearly states that in the northern side of the gārhapatya, having prepared a fire mound with the sands and having kindled the muñja grass in the gārhapatya fire, the fire is placed on the mound and on that fire, the mahāvīra pot is placed after pouring ghee into it.[99] Then, the Adhvaryu leads the sacrificer to recite a yajuṣ formula.[100]

The formula runs as follows—

anādhṛṣṭā purastādagnerādhipatya āyurmedāḥ/ putravatī dakṣiṇata indrasyādhipatye prajāṃ me dāḥ/ suṣadā paścāddevasya saviturādhipatye cakṣurme dāḥ/ āśrutiruttarato dhāturādhipatye rāyaspoṣaṃ me dāḥ/ vidhṛtirupariṣṭādvṛhaspaterādhipatya ojo me dā//[101]

Kātyāyana here adds that during this time, the sacrificer keeps his palm above the mahāvīra pot.[102] Mahīdhara while commenting on the above mentioned yajuṣ formula has referred to this sūtra of the Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra and mentions that the Adhvaryu makes the sacrificer to recite the formula while keeping his fingers on the mahāvīra pot.[103] But, as stated by Kātyāyana, according to some ritualists the Adhvaryu should recite the formula by pointing towards each direction.[104] In this case, the formula is to be divided for each direction viz., east, south, west, north and the upper region . Sāyaṇa states all these formula for each direction.[105] After this, the sacrificer by positioning himself in the southern side of the mahāvīra, places his right hand on the ground by keeping his palm upwards.[106]

During this time, he utters the following formula—

viśvābhyo mā nāṣṭrābhyaspāhi/[107]

Again, in the north part of the mahāvīra, he keeping his palm touches the earth muttering a yajuṣ formula.[108]

He mutters this formula—


Kātyāyana too mentions it, but does not clarify whether this formula is to be uttered or muttered.[110] Then comes the placing of the vikaṅkata woods around the mahāvīra pot. The Adhvaryu places thirteen pieces of vikaṅkata woods in a spacific order.Mahīdhara states that the Adhvaryu after scattering the ashes and the coals of the gārhapatya fire with the Dhṛṣṭis around the mahāvīra, places 13 pieces of vikaṅkata woods on the ashes pointing towards the east and north.[111] As stated in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, the first two pieces are placed keeping their pointers towards the east and these are placed with the prescribed formula. Next two are laid pointing towards the north silently. Again, two pieces are laid pointing towards the east silently and thus, the rest is laid down silently.[112] Sāyaṇa makes it clear that the first two pieces of wood are laid in the south and north sides of the mahāvīra pointing towards the east with the prescribed formula, then two pieces are placed in the front side of the mahāvīra pointing towards the north and these are laid silently, again two more are laid like the first two and thus alternately with and without accompanying formula thirteen woods are placed. Of these, six are laid pointing towards the east, six pointing towards the north and the thirteenth piece is placed pointing towards the south.[113]

The formula to be recited while the first two vikaṅkata woods are placed runs as follows—

svāhā marudbhiḥ pariśrīyasva/[114]

Having completed this ritual, the Adhvaryu screens the mahāvīra pot with the suvarṇaśatamāna plate i.e., the plate of gold.[115]

During this time, he utters the following formula—

divaḥ saṃspṛśaspāhi/[116]

In order to keep the coals placed round the mahāvīra pot burning, the Adhvaryu fans them three times with the help of the three Dhavitras with prescribed yajuṣ formula.[117] The formula runs as follows-madhu madhu madhu/[118] When the fire is inflamed around the pot, the Adhvaryu separates the suvarṇaśatamāna plate from the mahāvīra pot.[119] Kātyāyana states here that after separating the gold plate, the Adhvaryu scatters ājya around the mahāvīra pot with the help of sruva by uttering the praṇava i.e ., by the word om.[120] Thite states that the sound om is uttered by the Hotṛ.[121] Then two rauhiṇa cakes are baked on fire.[122] Kātyāyana mentions that these two cakes are made of ordinary flour and are baked silently.[123] According to Sāyaṇa, the baking is done by the priests of the Adhvaryu group–adhvaryupuruṣāḥ[124] and Vidyadhar states that the Pratiprasthātṛ puts them on the fire.[125] Moreover, Kātyāyana mentions that as soon as the Hotṛ utters the formula ide dvyāvāpṛthivī… etc., the rauhiṇa plates of the rauhiṇa cakes are taken down from the fire and the cakes are placed on the offering ladles which have already been kept respectively in the southern and northern parts of the āhavanīya fire.[126] As stated by Thite, the above mentioned formula uttered by the Hotṛ belongs to the Ṛgveda (6.112.1)[127]

In addition to this comes the rite of offering of the rauhiṇa cakes. The breads are offered in the morning and in the evening.

The formulae for the morning and evening rauhiṇa cakes run as follows respectively.—[128]

(a) ahah ketuna jusatam sujyotirjyotisa svaha/

(b) ratrih ketuna jusatam sujyotirjyotisa svaha/

The rauhina purodasa offered in the evening belongs to Agni while that of the morning belongs to Sūrya . By offering these two Purodasas to Agni and Sūrya , the sacrificer is expected to attain heaven. Hence, these two deities are called rauhiṇa.[129] Kātyāyana mentions that the rauhina cake kept in the southern part of ahavaniya is offered in the morning and that kept in the northern is offered in the evening with prescribed formula.[130] It may be noted here the view of Kane where he opines that the morning and the evening rauhina breads are offered to Day and Night respectively.[131]

The Adhvaryu for milking the cow completes the rites of taking the rajju and sandāna for binding the cow to the post i.e., sthuna, binding her hinds legs, releasing the calf, separating the calf from the cow etc.[132] All these are performed with the prescribed yajus formula. Then he milks the cow in the pinvana vessel.[133]

During this time he utters the following formula of the Vajasaneyi Samhita

asvibhyam pinvasva sarasvatyai pinvasvendraya pinvasva/[134]

At the same time, he invokes the drops of milk that have fallen on the ground during the milking of the cow.[135]

He does it with the following yajuṣ formula—

svāhendravat svāhendravat svāhendravat/[136]

Kātyāyana states that the Pratiprasthātṛ binds the she goat to the peg called mayukha, but, he does it silently—

evaṃ pratiprasthātājāṃ mayukhe tūṣṇīm/[137]

From the commentary of Karka on this sūtra it can be said that the Pratiprasthātṛ completes all the functions related to the milking of the she-goat.[138] After having finished the act of milking the cow, the Adhvaryu proceeds towards the gārhapatya fire.[139] According to Vidyadhar, the Pratiprasthātṛ too goes there.[140] Then, the Adhvaryu takes the two Parisāsas one by one with the prescribed formula.[141]

With each act of lifting, he utters the formula of following yajuṣ formulae respectively.[142]

gāyatraṃ chando’si/


traistubhaṃ chando’si/

With the Parisasas, the Adhvaryu takes the mahāvīra pot from the fire mound.[143]

During this time, he applies the following yajuṣ formula—

dvyāvāpṛthivībhyāṃ tvā parigṛhṇāmi/[144]

Thereafter, having placed the mahāvīra on the upayamani, the milk of the she goat is poured into it.[145] Sāyaṇa states that the Pratiprasthātṛ pours the milk without uttering any formula.[146] As the mahāvīra pot becomes very hot due to its placing on the fire for quite some time, hence, the milk of the she goat is poured into it. When the pot becomes some what cool, the Adhvaryu pours the cow milk in the mahāvīra pot.[147] During this time he applies the following formula—

indrasvina madhunah saraghasya gharmam pata vasavo yajata vat/[148]

The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as well as the Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra state that as soon as the Hotṛ utters the formula viz., apnasvatim… etc. the Adhvaryu declares that the gharma contained in the mahāvīra has been boiled purely.[149]

The formula uttered by the Hotr runs as follows—

apnasvatimasvina vacamasme/[150]

This formula is recited while the Adhvaryu is in standing position, the other five priests and the sacrificer also follow him and worship the gharma.[151] As stated by Sayana , the six worshippers are the Hotr, Adhvaryu, Brahma, Pratiprasthatr, Agnidhra and the sacrificer himself.[152] During this time, they utter some yajus formulae of the Vajasaneyi Samhita.[153] Vidyadhar points out the formulae to be uttered in the rite of worshipping the gharma the formulae begin with garbho devanam… and end with the formula ma ma himsih.[154] The wife of the sacrificer remains present at the venue till this moment with her head covered. Thereafter, the Adhvaryu makes free her head and leads her to recite a formula of the Vajasaneyi Samhita while she looks at the mahavira pot.[155]

The formula runs as follows—

tvastrmantastva sapema/[156]

Thereafter comes the offering of gharma. During the pouring of milk and ghee in the mahavira pot, some drops of milk and ghee fall in the upayamani. Before making the libation of gharma, the Adhvaryu pours the content of the upayamani in the mahavira pot.[157] The formula to be uttered here runs as follows-svaha gharmaya/[158] As soon as the Hotr utters the word vasat, the Adhvaryu makes the first libation of gharma in the ahavaniya fire.[159]

He makes this libation with a yajus formula viz.,—

visva asa daksinasadvisvandevanayadiha/ svāhakṛtasya gharmasya madhoḥ pivatamaśvinā/[160]

From the commentaries of Uvaṭa and Mahīdhara, it is learnt that in the formula the Aśvins are requested to drink the gharma offered to them.[161] The Adhvaryu makes the second libation after the utterance of the word vaṣaṭ. This libation known as sviṣṭakṛthoma. Hence, it is offered to Agnisviṣṭakṛt.[162]

He makes the second libation with the following formula—

svāhāgnaye yajnīyāya śaṃ yajurbhyaḥ/[163]

This second libation is made after anuvasat i.e., the second vasatkara, hence this libation is called svistakrt.[164] As stated by Cinnasvami, the deities of gharma are the Asvins and Indra.[165] On the otherhand, Kane opines that gharma is offered to Asvins, Vayu , Indra along with the gods Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, Savitr, Brhaspati and Yama.[166] As stated in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, after having made the two libations and having placed the mahavira pot on the mound i.e., towards the north of the ahavaniya, the Adhvaryu makes some libations by means of the vikankata woods which are known as Sakalahomas . It has also been said that after the libations, the vikaṅkata woods are placed on the madhyama paridhi.[167] Though the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa does not clearly mention how to make these libations, the Katyayana Srautasutra states that these libations are made with the Vikankatas by first merging them in the gharma contained in the mahavira. Each time, the Adhvaryu has to utter one yajus formula. Moreover, it has also been said that after the libations, the vikankata woods are placed on the prathamaparidhi i.e., on the first enclosing stick[168] which has been said as madhyamaparidhi in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa.

The first, second and the third libations are made with the following formulae—

svaha pusne sarase, svaha gravabhyah/


svaha pratiravebhyah/ respectively.[169]

The fourth libation is not made, the vikankata piece is placed under the barhis in the south of the vedi.[170]

He does it with the following formula—

svaha pitrbhya urdhabarhibhyor gharmapavabhyah/[171]

Again, the fifth and the sixth libations are made with the formulae svaha dvyavaprthivibhyam/ and svaha visvebhyo devebhyah/ respectively.[172] The seventh libation is also not made, but, by looking towards the south, the Adhvaryu gives the vikaṅkata wood to the Pratiprasthatr who throws it to the north of the pragvamsasala.[173] During this time, the Adhvaryu utters the following formula—

svaha rudraya rudrahutaye/[174]

The Satapatha Brāhmaṇa as well as the Katyayana Srautasutra state that altogather five pieces are offered in the fire.[175] According to Vidyadhar, these are offered in the ahavaniya fire.[176] The gharma contained in the mahavira is again poured in the upayamani.[177]

During this time, the Adhvaryu recites the following yajus formula—

svaha sam jyotisa jyotih/[178]

After this as stated in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa as well as in the Katyayana Srautasutra, the Adhvaryu offers the remaining rauhina cakes.[179] From the commentary of Sayana, it is clear that here, the rauhina cakes refer to the uttara i.e., the later rauhina cakes of evening and morning. Of these two, one should be offered before milking the cow for gharma and another should be offered after completion of the gharma libations. The first i.e., the morning offering is made with the formula aham ketuna… etc. and the evening offering is made with the ratrih ketuna… etc.[180] Vidyadhar too state this view.[181] Having completed the libations of gharma, the Adhvaryu gives the remnants to the sacrificer contained in the upayamani and he consumes it.[182] As indicated by Katyayana, making a libation (homa)of gharma the priests along with the sacrificer consume the remnant with prescribed formula.[183]

Hence, Karka says that the priests related to gharma consume the remnant—

gharmartvijo bahuvacanopadesat/[184]

They consume uttering the following yajus formula—

madhuhutamindratame agnavasyama te deva gharma namaste astu ma ma himsih/[185]

Kane however states that the sacrificer drinks remnant of gharma and the priests only smell it.[186] Thus, having completed the rites related to gharma, the performers of the rite make clean themselves on the mound built in the southern part.[187] Sayana makes it clear that on the southern mound, all the men related to Pravargya rite make themselves clean, all the vessels related to the preparation and offering of gharma such as upayamani etc. are also made clean.[188] Again, it has been optionally stated in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa that the rite of throwing of the vikankata woods in fire may be performed at this juncture.[189] Katyayana clearly states that it is the ucchistakhara where the upayamani tray is made clean and then the Adhvaryu places it somewhere else. Moreover, he also states that the Adhvaryu may perform the rite of throwing of the vikankata woods in the fire. The Adhvaryu keeps all the vessels on the throne seat.[190]

It has been said in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa that having performed the Pravargya, the Adhvaryu and his company should perform the Upasad rite. Moreover, it has also been said that on the third, sixth and twelfth upasad days, the Pravargya and Upasad are performed together and then the vessels for the next ritual are arranged separately.[191] Sayana in his commentary on the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa clarifies that in the sacrifices having three, six and twelve upasad days, on the third, sixth and twelfth day respectively, the Adhvaryu, having performed the morning Pravargya and Upasad, should perform the evening Pravargya and Upasad jointly and then the rite called Pravargyotsādana should be performed.[192] For this, having collected all the vessels used in the rite of preparing and offering gharma of Pravargya along with all the persons related to the rite proceed through the front part of the prācīnavaṃśa towards the vedī of the Soma sacrifice.[193]

Kātyāyana simply states it thus—

upasadante pravargyotsādanam/[194]

He too holds that after the completion of the Upasad rite, the vessels used in Pravargya should be re-arranged. All the vessels related to gharma along with the ucchiṣṭakhara i.e., the additional mound are placed in the region of antaḥpātya.[195] When they all reach the vedī, the Āgnīdhra proceeds towards the āhavanīya fire and having taken three bunches of faggots, he kindles one of them in the āhavanīya fire. While the Agnidhra holds the burning fagot in the level of the mouth (of the enclosing stone of the fire altar i.e., parisrita), the Adhvaryu makes one libation on the fire in which the bunch has been kindled. While the Agnidhra kindles the second of the fagots and holds at the level of the navel (of the enclosing stoneof the fire altar), the Adhvaryu makes the second libation in the ahavaniya fire and he makes the third libation throwing the bunch in to the fire after taking his seat. At each libation, he utters one yajus formula.[196] The Katyayana Srautasutra too has referred to this ritual and mentions that the Adhvaryu makes the libations of clarified butter taken in four scoops which he

divides into three portions for the three libations. Regarding the third libation too, he has similar view with the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa.[197] Thite states that each offering is made at the level of the mouth, navel and knee of the sacrificer respectively.[198] As stated in the Satapatha Brahmana, in order to put away the pravargya vessels such as mahavira etc. the priests proceed to the river or a pond. Because, the pravargya vessels should be either kept away or should be left in the water. On the other hand, it has also been said that one should put the pravargya vessels in the uttaravedi.[199] Katyayana too supports this view.

But he states that the last option should be applied in case of the sacrifice where there is no rite of making the fire altar—

utsadanadesam gacchantyanagna uttaravedim/[200]

The Pravargya rite is completed with the offering of dadhigharma and it is offered on the soma pressing day.[201] The Satapatha Brāhmaṇa states that when the soma is pressed during the midday pressing, the priests proceed to perform the rite of dadhigharma i.e., offering of hot milk mixed with curds. This rite is performed by the agnihotrahavani i.e., the offering ladle by which the Agnihotra libation is made.[202] At the end of the rite, sacrificial fees are given to the priests. As stated in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, the golden and silver satamana plates are given to the Brahma priest as his fee, the cow of which milk is used for preparing gharma is given to the Adhvaryu, the cows from which milk is used for fast-milk of the sacrificer and his wife are given to the Hotr and the saman singers respectively.[203] Katyayana adds here that the she goat is given to the Agnidhra.[204]

Katyayana has pointed out some peculiarities of the Pravargya rite. For instance, one cannot perform the Pravargya rite in an open hall. The doors of the hall should be closed. Moreover, the wife of the sacrificer is barred from seeing the mahavira pot. Again, the person who have lacks of Vedic knowledge should not see the mahavira pot. The vessels should not be other than the ones made of udumbara. The rope to be used in this rite should be of munja grass and it should be of three fold.[205]

Footnotes and references:


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Chitrabhanu Sen, op.cit., p.91; P.V.Kane,op.cit, Vol.2, Part. 2,p.1147


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,8.2.15.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.7.37; But Sāyaṇa is of the opinion that this restriction is for the Atirātrasaṃsthā and not for the Agniṣṭoma Saṃsthā. cf., catuḥsaṃsthasya jyotiṣṭomasya prathamakartavya yo’tirātrasaṃstho yajñaḥ tasmin taṃ pravargyaṃ na pravṛñjyāt pravṛṃjanaṃ na kuryāt/ agniṣṭomasaṃsthe tu prathamayajñe ayaṃ pratiṣedho na bhavati/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,8.2.14.


Karka on ibid.


P.V. Kane, op.cit, Vol.2, Part.2 , p.1148.


cf., …ato’pūrvaḥ pravargyaḥ/ Karka on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.5.


Aitareya Brāhmaṇa , 1.4.5.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.1-3; The word antaḥpātya refers to a peg driven in the middle of the sacrificial ground. Chitrabhanu Sen, op.cit.,p.38. It will be discussed in the context of the construction of the mahavedī to be prepared on the third day.


Chitrabhanu Sen, op.cit., pp.97,98


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.4; According to Sāyaṇa, aratni is length of twenty four fingers. cf., caturviṃśatyaṅgulaparimitaḥ kūrparādārabhya kaniṣṭhikāgraparyantaḥ bāhvorekadeśo’ratniḥ/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.1.4.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 37.2.


cf., atha mṛtpiṇḍaṃ parigṛhṇāti/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf., mṛdamādatte piṇḍavat devī dvyāvāpṛthivī iti/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.1.5.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.3.


cf., …devī dvyāvapṛthivī iti mantreṇa mṛtpiṇḍaṃ jalena miśrīkṛtaṃ mṛttikāghanaṃ gṛhṇāti mahāvīrākhyamṛṇmaya-pātraparyāptaṃ svīkuryāt/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., kṛṣṇājine nidadhātyuttarataḥ/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.6.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.4, 5, 6(a)&(b) respectively.


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.7-11.


cf., tān vā etān pañca saṃbhārān saṃbharati/...tān saṃbhṛtān abhimṛśati makhāya…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.12.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.6(c)


cf., athottarataḥ pariśritaṃ bhavati/ tadabhiprayanto japanti…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.7; According to Sāyaṇa, pariśrita is a place of which each side is covered with clothpariśritaṃ kaṭādibhiḥ sarvato veṣṭitaṃ sthānam…/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.13.


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.13.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.7(a)


cf., atha khare sādayati-makhāya tvā makhasya tvā sīrṣṇe/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.1.14.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.7(b)


cf., atha prayautī makhāya tvā makhasya tvā sīrṣṇe/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf., atha mṛtpiṇḍamupādāya mahavīraṃ karoti…/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.1.15-16.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.7(c)


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.16.


cf., taṃ niṣṭhitamabhimṛśati-makhasya śiro’si/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.17.


cf., niṣpannaṃ mahāvīraṃ vāmakarasthaṃ dakṣiṇena spṛśatītyarthaḥ/ Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.8.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.8(a)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.19.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


cf., srukpuṣkarākṛtī pinvane rauhiṇakapāle parimaṇḍale mṛdamupaśayānnidadhāti/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.1.20.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.1.20.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., atha gavedhukābhirhinvati/,...evamitarau/tūṣṇīṃ pinvane tūṣṇīṃ/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.21./


cf., gavedhukā āraṇyagodhumākhyā oṣadhayaḥ…/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.8.


cf., athainān dhūpayati ‘aśvasya tvā vṛṣṇaḥ śaknā dhūpayāmi iti/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.22.


Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.9.


P.V. Kane, op.cit., Vol.2,Part. 2, p.1148.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.9(a)




Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


cf., ukhāvadagniḥ…/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.23.


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,16.4.8.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.9(c,d,e).


cf., athainān śrapayati/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf. …pradahanaṃ ca makhāyeti pratimantram/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.23.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.1.24.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.10(a,b,c)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.2.10


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Chitrabhanu Sen, op.cit., pp.83, 65, 76 respectively.


Thite,op.cit., Vol. 2, p. 968, fns. 1&2 under sūtra 26.2.10


Cinnasvamishastri, Pattabhiramashastri (ed.),op.cit., p.55.


Chitrabhanu Sen, op.cit., pp.103, 75 respectively.


cf., rajju gobandhanārtha ajabandhanārtha ca/sandāna śabdena dohanakāle goḥ pādabandhanārtha rajjuḥ/ Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.2.21.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.11-13.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.11(a,b,c)


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.14.


cf., purvayā dvārā sthūṇāṃ nirhṛtya dakṣiṇato niminvaṃti/yathainaṃ hotābhiṣṭuvan parāpaśyet/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., purvayā dvārā sthūṇāmayukhaṃ nirhṛtya dakṣiṇato nikhanati hotuḥ sandarśane/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.2.15.


cf., …hotuḥ sandarśane gārhapatyasamīpe upaviśati hotā/ Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.29.


cf., athotottarataḥ sikatā upakīrṇā bhavanti/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Sāyaṇa on ibid.


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.16.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.17.


Cinnasvamishastri, Pattabhiramashastri(ed.), op.cit. , p.54.


cf., anyo vā paridharmya yojanamadhvaryoḥ kāla sampatteḥ/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.2.18.


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.37.


Ṛgveda Saṃhitā , 5.43.7.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., …mahāvīram ājyena sruvapūritena samanakti…/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.11(d)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.11(e)


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.2.19-20.


cf., saṃskāraśca pūrṇāhutikaḥ/ Karka on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.2.19.


The formula belongs to both Ṛgveda Saṃhitā , 1.36.9 & Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.17


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.11(f)


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.3.3-4.


Cinnasvamishastri, Pattabhiramashastri(ed.),op.cit., p.55.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.12(a).


cf., anādhṛṣṭeti vācayati prādeśamadhyadhi dhārayantam/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.3.5.


cf., mahāvīroparyaṅguṣṭhāṅgulideśaṃ dhārantaṃ yajamānamadhvaryurmantrān vācayatīti sūtrārthaḥ/ Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.72.


cf., pratidiśameke/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.3.6.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., evaṃ pañcaṣu dikṣu prādeśa karaṇānantaraṃ dakṣiṇataḥ mahāvīrasya dakṣiṇadeśe uttānena pāṇinā dakṣiṇahastena viśvābhyaḥ iti mantreṇa nihnute…/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.3.7.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.12(b)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.12(c)


cf., manoraśveti prādeśamuttarataḥ/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.3.8.


Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.13.


cf., atha vaikaṃkatua śakalau pariśrayati prāñcau svāhā…/, tūṣṇīmudañcau/tūṣṇīṃ prāñcau/ tūṣṇīmudañcau/ tūṣṇīṃ prāñcau/, trayodaśa saṃpādayati/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, 14.1.3-26-28; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.3.9


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.13(a)


cf., atha suvarṇaṃ hiraṇyamupariṣṭānnidadhāti divaḥ…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.3.10.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.13(b)


cf., atha dhavirairadhunoti/ madhu madhu iti triḥ/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; The Dhavitras are made of black antelope’s skin connecting sticks with them. cf., kṛṣṇājinanirmitāni vyajanāni daṇḍavanti dhavatrāni ucyante/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.13(c)


cf., sa yadārcirjāyate/ atha hiraṇyamādatte/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.5.


Thite, op.cit,Vol.2, p.973. fn. 2 under sūtra 26.4.5


cf., śrapayanti rauhiṇau/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., rauhiṇāvadhiśrayati tūṣṇīṃ grāmapiṣṭānam/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.6.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.7.


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.9.


Thite, op.cit.,Vol.2 , p.974 under sūtra 26.4.9


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.21(a,& b)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf., rohati svargam yajamano yabhyam tau rauhinau agnyadityau ahoratre…/ Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.21


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.14.


P.V. Kane, op.cit., Vol. 2, Part.2, p.1148.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.1-5.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf., aśvibhyāṃ pinvasveti pinvane dogdhi/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.6.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.4(a)


cf., atho vipruso’bhimantrayate…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.5.7.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.4(b)


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.9.


Karka on ibid.


cf., atha gahapatyasyardhamaiti/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.5.12.


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.11.


cf., atha saphamadatte “gayatram…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf., parisasavadatte gayatram chando’sitipratimantram/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.13.


[??] Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.6(a &b)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.5.15.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.6(c)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.16-17.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.5.17.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.6(d)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.10.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 34.29; Ṛgveda Saṃhitā , 1.112.24.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa , 14.1.4-1-15; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.4.11.


cf., hota adhvaryuh brahma pratiprasthata agnit iti panca rtvijo yajamana sasthah sat purusah etairavakasaih upatisthante/ Sayana on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


The formulae are Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 & 20.


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.13.


cf., atha patnai siro’pavrtya mahaviramiksamanam vacayati…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.4.12-13.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 37.20(b).


cf., athopayamanya mahavira anayati-svaha…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,, Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.2.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.9(b)


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; cf., vasatkrte juhoti visva asa iti/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.4.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.10.


Uvaṭa and Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.10.


cf., anuvasat krte juhoti/, tat svistakrtbhajanam/agnirhi svistakrt/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.6.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.11.


cf., ayamanuvasatkare yo homah sa svistakrtsthaniyah/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Cinnasvamishastri, Pattabhiramashastri(ed.),op.cit., p.56.


P.V. Kane, op.cit.,Vol.2, Part. 2, p.1148.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,;


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.12-13.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.15(a&b).


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.14.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.15(c).


Ibid., 38.15.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.15-16.


(a) Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.16


cf., upasritani ca praharati/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.19.


Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.18.


cf., atha mahaviradupayamanyam pratyanayati svaha…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.17.


(b) Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.16


cf., atha rauhinau juhoti ahah ketuna…/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; cf. rauhinam juhoti/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.18.


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., ato’hah ketuneti dvitiyam rauhinam pratarjuhoti ratririti sayam/ Vidyadhar Sharma on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.17.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


cf., agnihotravrta hutva vajinavadbhaksayanti madhu hutamiti/ Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.20. Here Katyayana states the verb in plural form and hence, the consumer have to be more than the one.


Karka on Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.6.20.


Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā , 38.16.


P.V. Kane, op.cit.Vol.2, Part.2 , p.1148.


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,


Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.6.21, 24


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,,3.1.1


Sāyaṇa on ibid.,




Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.7.1




Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.7.2; 16.8.28


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.7.3-4


Thite, op.cit,Vol. 2, p.983,fn.1 under sūtra 26.7.3


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,14.7.8


cf., sutyadivasanustheyasyapyatra-nuvidhanam dadhigharmasya pravargyasesatvadyotanartham/ Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


cf., atha prasute dadhigharmena pracaranti/…madhyandine savane/agnihotrahavanya/ Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa,; Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.7.38


Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ,


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra , 26.7.29


Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra ,26.2.2-7.

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