Sayana, Śayana, Sāyana, Sayāna, Sāyaṇa, Śayāna, Shayana: 21 definitions

Introduction

Sayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śayana and Śayāna can be transliterated into English as Sayana or Shayana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Śayana (शयन) is a Sanskrit word referring to “resting”, “sleeping”. It is used in Yoga.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Sāyaṇa (सायण).—A hermit who was an expounder of the Vedas. In course of time, due to the differences in languages and grammar, the Vedas became difficult to be grasped. It was Yāska and Sāyaṇa who saved the Indians from this difficulty. For the Vedas to be grasped easily, Yāska made the Nirukta (Etymology) and Sāyaṇa wrote the Book Vedārthaprakāśa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Sāyana (सायन).—A lake on the slopes of the Hemakūṭa hill.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 63.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śayana (शयन) refers to “lying-down” (postures in the bed); it is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 12.

There are six kinds of postures for lying down (śayana) defined:

  1. ākuñcita,
  2. sama,
  3. prasārita,
  4. vivartita,
  5. udvāhita,
  6. nata.
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Sāyaṇa (सायण).—(or सायणाचार्य (sāyaṇācārya)) the celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति (mādhavīyā dhātuvṛtti). As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya; cf. इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसु-तेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ (iti mahāmantriṇā māyaṇasu-tena mādhavasahodareṇa sāyaṇācāryeṇa viracitāyāṃ mādhavīyāyāṃ dhātuvṛttau)...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । (tena māyaṇaputreṇa sāyaṇena manīṣiṇā | vyākhyeyā mādhavī ceyaṃ dhātuvṛttirviracyate |) Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Śayana (शयन) refers to the “reclining pose”, and represents one of the five types of “body poses” (āsana), according to Ganapati Sthapati in his text Ciṟpa Cennūl, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The lying pose of the deity with legs and hands stretched on the seat (pīṭa-sthāna) is called śayana.

Śayanāsana shows the body and head resting on the pedestal, with arms and legs stretched out. Śayana or recumbent images of Hindu divinities are very rare.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Śayana (शयन) refers to the procedure of “putting the deities to rest”, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—After the [noontime or nighttime] ārati, remove the crowns, flute and other ornaments from the deities, and pray to Them to lay down on Their bed to take rest (śayana) by saying:

āgaccha śayana-sthānaṃ priyābhiḥ saha keśava
divya puṣpaḍya-śayyāyāṃ sukhaṃ vihara mādhava

“O Keśava, kindly come to Your bed along with Your beloved Śrīmatī Rādhikā. O Mādhava, this effulgent bed of fragrant flowers is made for Your joyful sporting.”

Then invite śrī gurudeva to his resting place with the following mantra:

āgaccha viśrāma-sthānaṃ
sva-gaṇaiḥ saha śrī-guro

“O Gurudeva, kindly come to your resting place along with all your associates.”

After this, offer fragrant drinks, tāmbūla with camphor, a garland and some flowers. [or, one may simply place a fresh glass of water before the deities.] After paying prostrated obeisances, close the temple doors. [...]

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Oxford Index: Hinduism

The author of the most celebrated commentary on the Vedas, the Vedārtha Prakāśa (‘Light on the Meaning of the Veda’). He is said to have been a general and a minister under the Vijayanagara kings of the 14th century, and the younger brother of the Advaitin chief minister, Mādhava. In addition to his extensive Veda commentaries, some of which appear to have been collaborations with his brother and his pupils, or the work of later scholars, Sāyaṇa is also credited with numerous works on other aspects of Indian culture, including ritual, grammar (vyakāraṇa), Āyurveda, and literature.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Sāyaṇa (सायण) was an important commentator on the Vedas. He was also known as Sāyaṇācārya. More than a hundred works are attributed to him, among which are commentaries on nearly all parts of the Veda; some were carried out by his pupils, and some were written in conjunction with his brother Mādhava or Vidyāraṇya-svāmin.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Tasting;

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sāyana.—(CII 3), ‘inclusive of precission of the equinoxes’. Note: sāyana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sayana : (nt.) a bed; sleeping. || sayāna (adj.) sleeping; lying down. sāyana (nt.), tasting.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sayana, (nt.) (fr. śī) 1. lying down, sleeping Vism. 26; PvA. 80 (mañca°).—2. bed, couch Vin. I, 57, 72; II, 123; D. I, 5, 7; A. I, 132; J. II, 88; V, 110 (°ṃ attharāpeti to spread out a bed); Miln. 243, 348; Nd1 372 (°sannidhi); Pv. I, 117 (kis°=kiṃ°); PvA. 78.—sayanakalaha a quarrel in the bedroom, a curtain-lecture J. III, 20; sayanāsana bed & seat It. 112; Dh. 185, etc. : see senāsana. (Page 697)

— or —

Sayāna, is ppr. of sayati lying down (e.g. A. II, 13 sq.): see seti. (Page 697)

— or —

1) Sāyana, 2 the Nāga tree (cp. nāga 3) J. VI, 535 (vāraṇā sā yanā=nāgarukkhā, C. , ibid. 535, var. read. vāyana). Kern, Toev. II. 77 conjectures sāsanā “with Asana’s Terminalia’s. ” (Page 705)

2) Sāyana, 1 (nt.) (fr. sāyati) tasting, taste Dhtp 229. (Page 705)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śayana (शयन).—n S Sleeping, reposing: also reclining or lying. 2 A bedstead, couch, mat, anything on which to lie and repose.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śayana (शयन).—n Sleeping. A bedstead.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śayana (शयन).—[śī-lyuṭ]

1) Sleeping, sleep, lying down.

2) A bed, couch; शयनस्थो न भुञ्जीत (śayanastho na bhuñjīta) Ms.4.74; R.1.95; V.3.1.

3) Copulation, sexual union.

Derivable forms: śayanam (शयनम्).

--- OR ---

Śayāna (शयान).—

1) A chameleon.

2) A kind of snake, the boa.

Derivable forms: śayānaḥ (शयानः).

See also (synonyms): śayānaka.

--- OR ---

Sāyaṇa (सायण).—Name of a very learned Brāhmaṇa and a Vedic commentator, supposed to have flourished about 137 A. D.

Derivable forms: sāyaṇaḥ (सायणः).

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Sāyana (सायन).—The longitude of a planet reckoned from the vernal equinoctial point.

Derivable forms: sāyanam (सायनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śayana (शयन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Sleep. 2. A bed, a couch. 3. Copulation. E. śī to sleep, lyuṭ aff.

--- OR ---

Śayāna (शयान).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Sleeping, asleep. E. śī to sleep, śānac aff.

--- OR ---

Sāyana (सायन).—n.

(-naṃ) The longitude of a planet reckoned from the vernal equinoctial point. E. sa with, ayana the equinoctial period.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śayana (शयन).—i. e. śī + ana, n. 1. Sleeping, reposing, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 23, 1; sleep, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 28, M. M. 2. A bed, a couch, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 51 (kusuma-, of flowers).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śayana (शयन).—[adjective] & [neuter] resting, sleeping; [neuter] also couch, bed.

--- OR ---

Sayana (सयन).—[neuter] binding.

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Sāyaṇa (सायण).—[masculine] [Name] of a celebrated scholar.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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