Sayana, aka: Śayana, Sāyana, Sayāna, Sāyaṇa, Śayāna, Shayana; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Sayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śayana and Śayāna can be transliterated into English as Sayana or Shayana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

Sāyana (सायन).—A lake on the slopes of the Hemakūṭa hill.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 63.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Śayana (शयन) is a Sanskrit word referring to “resting”, “sleeping”. It is used in Yoga.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Yoga
Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Śayana (शयन) refers to “lying-down” (postures in the bed); it is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 12.

There are six kinds of postures for lying down (śayana) defined:

  1. ākuñcita,
  2. sama,
  3. prasārita,
  4. vivartita,
  5. udvāhita,
  6. nata.
(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Sāyaṇa (सायण).—(or सायणाचार्य (sāyaṇācārya)) the celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति (mādhavīyā dhātuvṛtti). As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya; cf. इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसु-तेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ (iti mahāmantriṇā māyaṇasu-tena mādhavasahodareṇa sāyaṇācāryeṇa viracitāyāṃ mādhavīyāyāṃ dhātuvṛttau)...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । (tena māyaṇaputreṇa sāyaṇena manīṣiṇā | vyākhyeyā mādhavī ceyaṃ dhātuvṛttirviracyate |) Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

General definition (in Hinduism)

The author of the most celebrated commentary on the Vedas, the Vedārtha Prakāśa (‘Light on the Meaning of the Veda’). He is said to have been a general and a minister under the Vijayanagara kings of the 14th century, and the younger brother of the Advaitin chief minister, Mādhava. In addition to his extensive Veda commentaries, some of which appear to have been collaborations with his brother and his pupils, or the work of later scholars, Sāyaṇa is also credited with numerous works on other aspects of Indian culture, including ritual, grammar (vyakāraṇa), Āyurveda, and literature.

(Source): Oxford Index: Hinduism

Sāyaṇa (सायण) was an important commentator on the Vedas. He was also known as Sāyaṇācārya. More than a hundred works are attributed to him, among which are commentaries on nearly all parts of the Veda; some were carried out by his pupils, and some were written in conjunction with his brother Mādhava or Vidyāraṇya-svāmin.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Tasting;

(Source): Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

sayana : (nt.) a bed; sleeping. || sayāna (adj.) sleeping; lying down. sāyana (nt.), tasting.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Sayana, (nt.) (fr. śī) 1. lying down, sleeping Vism. 26; PvA. 80 (mañca°).—2. bed, couch Vin. I, 57, 72; II, 123; D. I, 5, 7; A. I, 132; J. II, 88; V, 110 (°ṃ attharāpeti to spread out a bed); Miln. 243, 348; Nd1 372 (°sannidhi); Pv. I, 117 (kis°=kiṃ°); PvA. 78.—sayanakalaha a quarrel in the bedroom, a curtain-lecture J. III, 20; sayanāsana bed & seat It. 112; Dh. 185, etc. : see senāsana. (Page 697)

— or —

Sayāna, is ppr. of sayati lying down (e.g. A. II, 13 sq.): see seti. (Page 697)

— or —

1) Sāyana, 2 the Nāga tree (cp. nāga 3) J. VI, 535 (vāraṇā sā yanā=nāgarukkhā, C. , ibid. 535, var. read. vāyana). Kern, Toev. II. 77 conjectures sāsanā “with Asana’s Terminalia’s. ” (Page 705)

2) Sāyana, 1 (nt.) (fr. sāyati) tasting, taste Dhtp 229. (Page 705)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

śayana (शयन).—n S Sleeping, reposing: also reclining or lying. 2 A bedstead, couch, mat, anything on which to lie and repose.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śayana (शयन).—n Sleeping. A bedstead.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śayana (शयन).—[śī-lyuṭ]

1) Sleeping, sleep, lying down.

2) A bed, couch; शयनस्थो न भुञ्जीत (śayanastho na bhuñjīta) Ms.4.74; R.1.95; V.3.1.

3) Copulation, sexual union.

Derivable forms: śayanam (शयनम्).

--- OR ---

Śayāna (शयान).—

1) A chameleon.

2) A kind of snake, the boa.

Derivable forms: śayānaḥ (शयानः).

See also (synonyms): śayānaka.

--- OR ---

Sāyaṇa (सायण).—Name of a very learned Brāhmaṇa and a Vedic commentator, supposed to have flourished about 137 A. D.

Derivable forms: sāyaṇaḥ (सायणः).

--- OR ---

Sāyana (सायन).—The longitude of a planet reckoned from the vernal equinoctial point.

Derivable forms: sāyanam (सायनम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

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Śayanastha (शयनस्थ).—a. being on a couch; शयनस्थो न भुञ्जीत (śayanastho na bhuñjīta) Ms.4.74. Ś...
Shayanasakhi
Śayanasakhī (शयनसखी).—a bed-fellow. Śayanasakhī is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ...
Pravatashayana
Pravātaśayana (प्रवातशयन).—a bed placed in the airy place. Derivable forms: pravātaśayanam (प्र...
Paryayashayana
Paryāyaśayana (पर्यायशयन).—alternate sleeping and watching. Derivable forms: paryāyaśayanam (पर...
Shayanasthana
Śayanasthāna (शयनस्थान).—a sleeping apartment, bed-chamber.Derivable forms: śayanasthānam (शयनस...
Shayanatalagata
Śayanatalagata (शयनतलगत).—a. gone to bed, lying in bed. Śayanatalagata is a Sanskrit compound c...
Shayanavasas
Śayanavāsas (शयनवासस्).—n. sleeping garment. Śayanavāsas is a Sanskrit compound consisting of t...
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Aśūnyaśayana (अशून्यशयन).—The day on which the Viśvakarman rests. Derivable forms: aśūnyaśayana...
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Shayanaracana
Śayanaracana (शयनरचन).—the preparation of a bed (one of the 64 arts). Derivable forms: śayanara...
Jalashayana
Jalaśayana (जलशयन).—m. an epithet of Viṣṇu; Derivable forms: jalaśayanaḥ (जलशयनः).Jalaśayana is...

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