Mekhala, Mekhalā: 30 definitions
Mekhala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Mikhla.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
Mekhalā (मेखला)—One of the Heavenly ornaments according to the Vāyu Purāṇa. A brahmacārin in the Tretā age was expected to use mekhalā. Śiva is called muñja-mekhalin (i.e., havin a girdle made of muñja grass).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Mekhala (मेखल).—(mekala) Mekhala was a country which had attained Purāṇic fame in ancient India. The inhabitants of this place were called Mekhalas. They were the bodyguards of Bhīṣma. (Chapter 51, Bhīṣma Parva). They formed a separate division in the army of Bṛhannala, King of Kosala. (Chapter 87, Bhīṣma Parva). Once Karṇa conquered this country. (Śloka 8, Chapter 4, Droṇa Parva). Mekhalas were Kṣatriyas formerly. But they became persons of low caste when they showed jealousy towards the brahmins. (Śloka 17, Chapter 35, Anuśāsana Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Mekhalā (मेखला).—A Śakti.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 36. 76.
1b) The shrine of Śārṅgadhara in Meghakara.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 41.
Mekhalā (मेखला) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.10). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mekhalā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Mekhala (मेखल) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Triviṣṭapa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Triviṣṭapa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Mekhala) that are to be octangular in shape. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Mekhalā (मेखला) refers to “- 1. lifting (surrounding a kuṇḍa ) §§ 4.28, 29, 32. - 2. degree (of a substitute altar) § 5.13.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Mekhalā (मेखला) refers to a “girdle of eight strings” and is a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the hips (śroṇī) to be worn by females, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).
Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., mekhalā) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra
Mekhalā (मेखला) is the name of one of the thirty-six Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Uḍḍāmareśvaratantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (e.g., Mekhalā) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Mekhalā (मेखला) is the wife of Yaśaskara, a Brāhman from Śobhāvatī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 104. Accordingly, as a young Brāhman said to Naravāhanadatta: “... in it [Śobhāvatī] there was a wise and rich Brāhman, of the name of Yaśaskara, who had offered many sacrifices, and he had an excellent wife named Mekhalā. I was born to them as an only son, when they were already in middle life, and I was in due course reared up by them, and invested with the sacrificial thread”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Mekhalā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Mekhalā (मेखला) refers to the “middle part” of a mountain (giri) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Mekhalā], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Mekhalā (मेखला) is another name for Pṛśniparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Uraria picta Desv. from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.37-39 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Mekhalā and Pṛśniparṇī, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images
Mekhalā (मेखला) refers to a “waist belt” and represents a type of “ornaments for the loins” (śroṇī), as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—Bharata (cf. Nāṭyaśāstra 23.35-37) mentions the ornaments for the loins (śroṇī) [viz. mekhalā (waist belt) with eight strings of pearls].
Mekhalā is a very elaborate waist girdle or belt. Often it is seen decorated with additional strings made of chains or pearl beads, which fall over the thighs and are (therefore) called ūrudāman. If the latter are furnished with bells at their edges then they are known by the term kāñcīdāman sometimes with the bells.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
The city of birth of Sumana Buddha and the scene of his first sermon to Sarana and Bhavitatta (Bu.v.21; BuA.125f). It was there that Mangala Buddha converted his chief disciples, Sudeva and Dhammasena (BuA.120). Revata Buddha once preached there to an assembly of one thousand crores of people (BuA.134), while later, King Uggata built, for Sobhita Buddha, the Dhammaganarama in the same city (BuA.139).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
1) Mekhalā (मेखला) is the name of Dūtī (i.e., messengers of Lord Vajrapāṇi) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Mekhalā).
2) Mekhalā (मेखला) is also the name of a Yakṣiṇī mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Mekhalā (मेखला) refers to “girdle” and represents one of the five auspicious symbols of Nairātmā.—The Indian Museum image is the only image of this goddess [Nairātmā] which conforms to the description given in the sādhana. Here the goddess, in accordance with the Dhyāna, has a terrible appearance with canine teeth, garland of heads and three eyes rolling in anger. She stands on the corpse lying on its back, and dances in the ardhaparyaṅka attitude. Burning flames radiate from her person, and her hair rise upwards in the shape of a flame. She is decked in the five auspicious symbols, the kaṇṭhikā (torque), rucaka (bracelets), ratna (jewels), mekhalā (girdle), and bhasma (ashes) or the sūtra (sacred thread) in the form of a garland of heads. She bears the image of her sire Akṣobhya on her crown and carries the menacing kartri in the right hand. The left hand holding the kapāla is broken. The khaṭvāṅga, as usual, hangs from her left shoulder.Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayana
Mekhalā is the name of a mahāsiddha, of which eighty-four in total are recognized in Vajrayāna (tantric buddhism). His title is “the elder severed-headed sister”. He lived somewhere between the 8th and the 12th century AD.
These mahāsiddhas (e.g., Mekhalā) are defined according to the Abhayadatta Sri (possibly Abhayākaragupta) tradition. Its textual origin traces to the 11th century caturāsiti-siddha-pravṛtti, or “the lives of the eighty-four siddhas”, of which only Tibetan translations remains. Mekhalā (and other Mahāsiddhas) are the ancient propounders of the textual tradition of tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
mekhalā : (f.) a girdle for women.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Mekhalā, (f.) (cp. Vedic mekhalā) a girdle J. V, 202, 294 (su°, adj.); VI, 456; ThA. 35; KhA 109; DhA. I, 39; PvA. 46. (Page 540)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
mēkhalā (मेखला).—f (S) pop. mēkhaḷā f A triple zone or string worn round the loins by the three first classes of Hindus. 2 A woman's gridle or zone. 3 A string or chain fastened to the hilt of a sword. 4 A sort of cloak or body-garment without sleeves. See kaphanī.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
mēkhalā (मेखला) [-ḷā, -ळा].—f A woman's girdle. A sort of cloak.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mekhalā (मेखला).—1 A belt, girdle, waist-band, zone in general (fig. also); anything which girds or surrounds; मही सागरमेखला (mahī sāgaramekhalā) 'the sea-girt earth'; रत्नानुविद्धार्णवमेखलाया दिशः सपत्नी भव दक्षिणस्याः (ratnānuviddhārṇavamekhalāyā diśaḥ sapatnī bhava dakṣiṇasyāḥ) R.6.63; Ṛs.6.3.
2) Particularly, the girdle or zone of a woman; नितम्बबिम्बैः सदुकूलमेखलैः (nitambabimbaiḥ sadukūlamekhalaiḥ) Ṛs. 1.4,6; R.8.64; मेखलागुणैरुत गोत्रस्खलितेषु बन्धनम् (mekhalāguṇairuta gotraskhaliteṣu bandhanam) Ku.4.8.
3) The triple girdle worn by the first three castes; मौञ्जी त्रिवृत् समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला । क्षत्रियस्य तु मौर्वी ज्या वैश्यस्य शणतान्तवी (mauñjī trivṛt samā ślakṣṇā kāryā viprasya mekhalā | kṣatriyasya tu maurvī jyā vaiśyasya śaṇatāntavī) || Ms.2.42.
4) The slope of a mountain (nitamba); आमेखलं संचरतां घनानाम् (āmekhalaṃ saṃcaratāṃ ghanānām) Ku.1.5; Me.12.
5) The hips.
6) A sword-belt.
7) A sword-knot or string fastened to the hilt.
8) The girth of a horse.
9) Name of the river Narmadā.
1) The cords or lines drawn round an alter; विधिना विहिते कुण्डे मेखलागर्तवेदिभिः (vidhinā vihite kuṇḍe mekhalāgartavedibhiḥ) Bhāg.11.27.36.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Mekhala (मेखल).—name of a pupil of 1 Dharma (4): Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 365.3 f.
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Mekhalā (मेखला).—name of a yakṣiṇī: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 564.26; 566.9.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-lā) 1. A woman’s girdle or zone. 2. A sword-knot, a string or chain fastened to the hilt, and in fighting bound round the wrist to secure the weapon. 3. A sword-belt. 4. The slope of a mountain. 5. The Narmada river. 6. The sacrificial string of a Brahmana when made of deer-skin. 7. A sort of figure, made on the four sides of the hole in which sacrificial fire is offered. 8. A triple zone or string worn round the loins by the three first classes; the girdle of the Brahmana should be of the fibres of the Munja or of Kuśa grass, that of the Kshetriya of a Murva, and that of the Vaiśya of a thread of the Sana, &c. 9. The girth of a horse. 10. The hips. E. mi to scatter, khalac aff., deriv. irr.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mekhalā (मेखला).—f. 1. A girdle, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 8, 63; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 106, 1. 2. The sacrificial string, see kṛ with mekhalā. 3. A sword-belt. 4. A swordknot. 5. The slope of a mountain, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 12. 6. The Narmadā river.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Mekhalā (मेखला) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—the ceremony of investing the religous student with a girdle. Oudh. Xx, 158.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mekhala (मेखल):—mn. a girdle, belt, [Rāmāyaṇa]
2) m. [plural] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ([probably] [wrong reading] for mekala)
3) Mekhalā (मेखला):—[from mekhala] a f. See below.
4) [from mekhala] b f. a girdle, belt, zone (as worn by men or women, but [especially] that worn by the men of the first three classes; [according to] to [Manu-smṛti ii, 42] that of a Brāhman ought to be of muñja [accord. to, [ii, 169] = yajñopavīta q.v.]; that of a Kṣatriya, of mūrvā; that of a Vaiśya, of śaṇa or hemp, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams p. 240]), [Atharva-veda] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] etc.
6) [v.s. ...] the girth of a horse, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
7) [v.s. ...] a band or fillet, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] (ifc. f(ā). ) anything girding or surrounding (cf. sāgara-m)
9) [v.s. ...] investiture with the girdle and the ceremony connected with it, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
10) [v.s. ...] a sword-belt, baldric, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] a sword-knot or string fastened to the hilt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] the cords or lines drawn round an altar (on the four sides of the hole or receptacle in which the sacrificial fire is deposited), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
13) [v.s. ...] the hips (as the place of the girdle), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] the slope of a mountain (cf. nitamba), [Kālidāsa]
15) [v.s. ...] a [particular] part of the fire-receptacle, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
16) [v.s. ...] Hemionitis Cordifolia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] Name of the river Narma-dā ([probably] [wrong reading] for mekalā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] of a place (?), [Vāsavadattā, [Introduction]]
19) [v.s. ...] of various women, [Viddhaśālabhañjikā; Kathāsaritsāgara]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mekhalā (मेखला):—(lā) 1. f. A woman’s girdle or zone; a sword knot or belt.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
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2) i) Nomen proprium eines Frauenzimmers [Kathāsaritsāgara 104, 19.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) m. oder n. Gurt , Gürtel. —
2) m. Pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes ; richtig mekala. —
3) f. mekhalā — a) Gurt , Gürtel ; bei Männern , Frauen und Pferden ; auch übertragen auf Alles , was Etwas gürtelartig umschliesst. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) das Ablegen des Gürtels , die dabei stattfindende Ceremonie. — c) *Schwertriemen , Wehrgehenk. — d) Bez. der um den Altar gezogenen Stricke. — e) *Gürtelgegend , Hüfte. — f) ein best. Theil an einer Feuergrube [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 1,130,9.14,133,22.23.134,22.214.171.124,3.fgg.136,7.12.fgg.] — g) Abhang , Thalwand eines Berges. — h) *Hemionitis cordifolia [Rājan 4,37.] — i) *Beiname des Flusses Narmadā ; richtig mekalā. — k) Nomen proprium — α) einer Oertlichkeit (?). — β) verschiedener Frauen [Viddhaśālabhañjikākhyanāṭikā 37,1.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Mekhalā (मेखला) [Also spelled mikhla]:—(nf) a girdle; zone, range.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Mekhalabandha, Mekhalabandhana, Mekhaladaman, Mekhaladayika, Mekhalajinadandanashaprayashcitta, Mekhalakanyaka, Mekhalala, Mekhalamani, Mekhalamukha, Mekhalanem, Mekhalapada, Mekhalapaddhati, Mekhalarvin, Mekhalavant, Mekhalavat, Mekhalavin.
Ends with (+12): Ahimekhala, Aholukhalamekhala, Anangamekhala, Brahmamekhala, Chitramekhala, Citramekhala, Galamekhala, Girimekhala, Haramekhala, Himavamekhala, Khandankamekhala, Kroshtukamekhala, Lambamekhala, Lohamekhala, Mahamekhala, Maholukhalamekhala, Manimekhala, Ratnakaramekhala, Sagaramekhala, Samudramekhala.
Full-text (+77): Citramekhala, Sagaramekhala, Mekhalapada, Galamekhala, Samudramekhala, Mekhalabandha, Udadhimekhala, Brahmamekhala, Mekhalin, Mekhalapaddhati, Mekhalamani, Mekhaladaman, Mekhalavin, Mekhalavat, Mekhalottha, Mekhalika, Manimekhala, Mekshana, Kroshtukamekhala, Lohamekhala.
Search found 29 books and stories containing Mekhala, Mekhalā, Mēkhalā; (plurals include: Mekhalas, Mekhalās, Mēkhalās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Buddha Chronicle 4: Sumana Buddhavaṃsa < [Chapter 9 - The chronicle of twenty-four Buddhas]
Buddha Chronicle 6: Sobhita Buddhavaṃsa < [Chapter 9 - The chronicle of twenty-four Buddhas]
Buddha Chronicle 5: Revata Buddhavaṃsa < [Chapter 9 - The chronicle of twenty-four Buddhas]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (by Fa-Hien)