Gold, Golden: 4 definitions
Gold means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Gold is associated with Catura-hasta: one of the twenty-two Single-hand Gestures (in Indian Dramas) (known as asaṃyuktahastas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, some colours are pointed with the catura hand gesture. [...] Instead of showing colours, in the Abhinayadarpaṇa, the caturahasta posture denotes some metals like gold, copper and iron. This posture also shows the application of some greasy substances like oil, ghee etc on the face
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
1) Gold is denoted by the Sanskrit term Kanaka and represents one of the materials used to make Colours in the ancient Indian tradition of Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, various materials are seen to be used to make colours. e.g., Gold (kanaka). Also, five colours are regarded as the primary ones, (viz., white, yellow, colour of vilomata, black, dark blue.). A painter can create hundreds or thousands of colours by amalgamating the primary colours.
2) The Golden complexion is associated with Śakra (Indra) iconography.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the image of Śakra or Indra should be golden in complexion and should wear blue garments. The statue of Śakra should be placed on an elephant which have four tusks. Thus it is clear that the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa offers a great field of knowledge regarding the nuances of Indian art of Image making [e.g., the golden complexion of Indra] during 10th–11th century A.D.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Jainism)
Gold is easy to find (as opposed to Wisdom), as discussed in Bhūdhardās’s composition dealing with the twelve reflections (bhāvanā or anuprekṣā), also found in the Tattvārtha-sūtra.—Accordingly, “[...] [eliminating karma]—Follow the five great vows as well as the five mindfulnesses. Conquer the five powerful sense-organs and establish yourself firmly in elimination. (10) [the world]—The Cosmic Man stands fourteen rājus tall. Within him countless souls wander without knowledge. (11) [wisdom is difficult to obtain]—Wealth, prosperity, gold, the pleasures of power—all these are easy to find. What is difficult to get in saṃsāra is the single knowledge that is appropriate. (12) [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geography
Gold (of highest purity) is mentioned in 8th century poems of ancient India, according to “A Cultural note on the Kuvalayamala of Uddyotanasuri” by the late Dr. V. s. Agrawala.—There is a reference to gold of highest purity (jacca-suvaṇṇa=jātya-suvarṇa). Whatever impurity or dross was contained in the gold brought to the goldsmith was removed by the latter by subjecting it to different processes of testing it on the touch-stone, cutting, heating under regulated fire, beating out into flat sheets, filing the sheets and the same process of beating it into a different shape, giving it a shape of round bar and dividing into several parts for final testing.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+73): Garland of gold, Gold and silver flower, Gold cup silver plate, Gold flower, Gold kiwi, Gold mohur, Gold thread, Gold whisker, Gold-wire, Goldaar, Goldar, Goldaru, Golden alexander, Golden anise hyssop, Golden apple, Golden armour, Golden beard grass, Golden candelabra tree, Golden cassia, Golden chain tree.
Ends with (+24): African marigold, Artificial gold, Aztec marigold, Base gold, Bay marigold, Big marigold, Brihadgold, Bur marigold, Burr marigold, Cape gold, Cape marigold, Cloth-of-gold, Common marigold, Cup of gold, Drops of gold, Dwarf marigold, Dwarf mexican marigold, Fetid marigold, Field marigold, Fountain of gold.
Full-text (+4466): Suvarna, Hema, Hiranya, Jambunada, Kancana, Kanaka, Sauvarna, Svarna, Tapaniya, Hataka, Jatarupa, Nishka, Kaladhauta, Hiraṇmaya, Camikara, Rukma, Haima, Kanakamaya, Bhringara, Suvarnavat.
Search found 382 books and stories containing Gold, Golden; (plurals include: Golds, Goldens). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Matsya Purana (critical study) (by Kushal Kalita)
Part 5.1 - The sixteen Mahādānas < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 5.2 - The ten Merudānas < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 4.2c - Saṃkrānti-vrata < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
Triple Stream < [January – March, 2008]
The Sun Rise < [April – June, 1999]
Open Your Door < [June 1937]
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section XLII < [Goharana Parva]
Section 58 < [Karna Parva]
Section LVII < [Abhimanyu-badha Parva]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Pyrite (makshika) < [Chapter II - Uparasa (2): Makshika (pyrites)]
Part 1 - Characteristics of Bimala or Vimala (pyrites with red tints) < [Chapter III - Uparasa (3): Bimala or Vimala (pyrites with red tints)]
Part 7 - Transformation of base metals into gold by haritala < [Chapter XII - Uparasa (13): Haritala (orpiment)]
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 3.12 - The colours of the mountain chains < [Chapter 3 - The Lower World and the Middle World]
Verse 7.29 - The transgressions of the minor vow of limiting possessions < [Chapter 7 - The Five Vows]
Verse 8.6 - The five kinds of knowledge-obscuring karma (jñānāvaraṇa) < [Chapter 8 - Bondage of Karmas]
Egypt Through The Stereoscope (by James Henry Breasted)
Position 13 - The Magnificent Jewelry Of The Pharaohs (queen Ahhotep, Seventeenth Century B. C.), Cairo Museum < [Standpoints In Egypt]
Position 33 - Dahabiyehs On The River Ready For The Journey To The Upper Nile < [Standpoints In Egypt]
Position 60 - The Tallest Obelisk In Egypt, Erected By Queen Makere (hatshepsut) In The Karnak Temple At Thebes < [Standpoints In Egypt]
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