Jyotisha, Jyotiṣa: 14 definitions

Introduction

Jyotisha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Jyotiṣa can be transliterated into English as Jyotisa or Jyotisha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, “astrologer”) is an official title designating one of the seventy-two officers (niyoga) of the Bāhattaraniyogādhipati circle, according to the Inscriptional glossary of Andhra Pradesh (Śāsana-śabdakośāmu). The bāhattaraniyoga-adhipati is the highest executive officer of this circle (including a Jyotiṣa). For example: During the reign of Gaṇapatideva, the area extending between Pānagal to Mārjavāḍi was entrusted to Gaṇḍapeṇḍāru Gangayasāhiṇi as Bāhattaraniyogādhipati. Later on, this office was entrusted to Kāyastha Jannigadeva.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (J) next»] — Jyotisha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—(Astronomy and astrology). Jyotiṣa is the science about the stars and heavenly bodies. The heavenly bodies are the sun, the moon, the other planets and the stars etc. From the very ancient days men believed that these planets and stars in the sky played an important part in controlling the growth and activities of all the living and non-living things in the world.

Astrology has been a recognized science in Egypt, China and India from very ancient days. History tells us that 3000 years before Christ there were astronomers in Babylon. But even before that time astronomy had fully expanded and grown in Bhārata. (See full article at Story of Jyotiṣa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—The science of Astronomy begins in Dvāpara;1 a part of Viṣṇu;2 attributed to Garga who learnt it from Śeṣa.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 144. 22; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 52.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 37.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 8. 5; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 36; 22. 3; III. 5. 80; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 5. 26.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—Astronomy and astrology. One of the six Vedāṅgas. Note: Jyotiṣa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, “astronomy”) refers to one of the six divisions of the Vedāṅga texts, a type of Śāstra categorised as Apaurūṣeya; all part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa (वेदाङ्ग ज्योतिष) is an Indian text on Jyotisha, redacted by Lagadha. The text describes rules for tracking the motions of the sun and the moon

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष) refers to “knowledge of astronomy”, having its roots in the four Vedas, according Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). Accordingly, at the time of the Buddha, the knowledge of astronomy (jyotiṣa) was commonly exchanged between Brahmins and cow-herders.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jyōtiṣa (ज्योतिष).—n (S) Astronomy or astrology. 2 The profession, situation, or office of astronomer.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—a. (-ṣī f.) [ज्योतिः सूर्यादिगत्यादिकं प्रतिपाद्यतयाऽ स्त्यस्य अच् (jyotiḥ sūryādigatyādikaṃ pratipādyatayā' styasya ac)]

1) Astronomical or astrological.

-ṣaḥ An astronomer or astrologer.

-ṣam 1 Astronomy, astrology, the science of the course of the heavenly bodies and divisions of time resting thereon; कलामात्रा- विशेषज्ञाञ् ज्योतिषे च परं गतान् (kalāmātrā- viśeṣajñāñ jyotiṣe ca paraṃ gatān) Rām.7.94.7.

2) One of the six Vedāṅgas (being a short tract on astronomy).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣī-ṣaṃ) Astrological, astronomical, relating to the heavenly bodies. mf. (-ṣaḥ-ṣī) An astrologer. n.

(-paṃ) Mathemetical, astronomical and astrological science, astronomy. f. (-ṣī) A star, a planet, a asterism. E. jyotis light, especially of the heavenly bodies, affix ac, fem. ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—i. e. jyotis + a, I. m. A kind of spell, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 30, 6. Ii. n. Astronomical science, Mahābhārata 12, 13136.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष).—[neuter] astronomy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—one of the Vedāṅgas, by Lagadha. Io. 1347. 1378. 1743 B. 2521. W. p. 96. 97. Oxf. 386^a. 396^a. Cambr. 31. L. 1455. Khn. 8. B. 1, 202. Ben. 2. Haug. 30. Oudh. Iii, 8. Xiii, 24. Brl. 8. Burnell. 36^b. Bh. 6. Bhk. 8. 9. Oppert. 8251. Rice. 30. 32. Peters. 2, 171. Bühler 553.
—[commentary] Haug. 45. Peters. 3, 386.
—[commentary] Upadeśisūtravyākhyāna (?). Rice. 32.
—[commentary] by Śeṣagovinda Paṇḍita. Np. Vi, 62. Vii, 8.
—[commentary] by Śeṣanāga. Khn. 90. K. 8. B. 1, 102. 4, 140. Oudh. Xiii, 32. Bühler 553.
—[commentary] by Somākara. Io. 1510. W. 1505. Peters. 2, 168.

2) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—Av. Kh. 61. Haug. 42. W. 1506.

3) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—by Nāracandra. Vienna. 17.
—by Rāmanātha. Mentioned in his Trikāṇḍaviveka.

4) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—add W. 1505. Peters. 3, 386 is text, not
—[commentary].
—[commentary] by Śeṣanāga. read B. 1, 202.
—[commentary] by Somākara. add Cambr. 31. 32.

5) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—one of the Vedāṅgas, by Lagadha. Cs. 201. Gb. 19. Io. 3265. Peters. 4, 4. Stein 38. 39.
—[commentary] by Somākara. Io. 3265.

6) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—Av. Gb. 38.

7) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—one of the Vedāṅgāḥ, by Lagadha. Ulwar 156. 158. 1786.
—[commentary] by Somākara and Śeṣanāga. Ulwar 1786.

8) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—vedāṅga by Lagadha. Ak 59. 67. As p. 69 (2 Mss.). Bc 320. 514. Tb. 37. 213.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष):—[from jyut] m. an astronomer, [Buddhist literature; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] the sun, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

3) [v.s. ...] a particular magical formula for exorcising the evil spirits supposed to possess weapons, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 30, 6]

4) [v.s. ...] n. ([gana] ukthādi) the science of the movements of the heavenly bodies and divisions of time dependant thereon, short tract for fixing the days and hours of the Vedic sacrifices (one of the 6 kinds of Vedāṅga texts), [Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra; Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad i, 1, 5; Mahābhārata] xiif. etc.

5) Jyotiṣā (ज्योतिषा):—[from jyotiṣa > jyut] f. Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra lxxxv, 33.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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