Katyayana, aka: Kātyāyana; 12 Definition(s)
Katyayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Katha (narrative stories)
Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) is another name of Vararuci, an incarnation of Puṣpadanta who is a subordinate of Śiva. Puṣpadanta was cursed by Pārvatī after overhearing Śiva narrating the adventures of the seven Vidyādharas, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara. Pārvatī cursed Puṣpadanta together with Mālyavān (a gaṇa, who intervened and recommended for mercy) to become mortals.
When asked by Pārvatī what happened to these cursed gaṇas (servants), Śiva answered: “My beloved, Puṣpadanta has been born under the name of Vararuci in that great city which is called Kauśāmbī. Moreover Mālyavān also has been born in the splendid city called Supratiṣṭhita under the name of Guṇāḍhya. This, O goddess, is what has befallen them.”
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kātyāyana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
1) Kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—A grammarian who wrote a commentary on Pāṇini’s grammatical work entitled Aṣṭādhyāyī. He has also written Śrauta Sūtras and a book on "Dharma Śāstra".
2) Kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—Kathāsaritsāgara says that "Kātyāyana" was another name of Vararuci.
3) Kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—A great sage who flourished in Indra’s assembly. We see a reference to him in Mahā. bhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—A ṛtvik at Brahmā's yajña.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 37.
1b) A Pravara.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 192. 10; 196. 33.
1c) Kaśyapa gotrakaras.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 199. 4.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—The well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः (priyataddhitā dākṣiṇātyāḥ) made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु (yathā laukikavaidikeṣu)' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribed. For details see Mahābhāṣya Vol. VII. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ (vārtikapāṭha) below.(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) or Kātyāyanasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (eg., Kātyāyana-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.
Kātyāyana is also the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a tāmasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas.(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Kātyāyana (c. 3rd century BC) was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.
He is known for two works:
- The Varttika, an elaboration on Pāṇini grammar. Along with the Mahābhāsya of Patañjali, this text became a core part of the Vyākarana (grammar) canon.
He also composed one of the later Sulba Sutras, a series of nine texts on the geometry of altar constructions, dealing with rectangles, right-sided triangles, rhombuses, etc.
Kātyāyana's views on the word-meaning connection tended towards naturalism. Kātyāyana believed, like Plato, that the word-meaning relationship was not a result of human convention. For Kātyāyana, word-meaning relations were siddha, given to us, eternal. Though the object a word is referring to is non-eternal, the substance of its meaning, like a lump of gold used to make different ornaments, remains undistorted, and is therefore permanent.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) or Mahākātyāyana was one of the great disciples of the Buddha, the foremost of those who explain at length the brief aphorisms of the Buddha. He was originally from Ujjayinī and was the disciple of Avanti. According to concordant information, he may have been the author of the Peṭakopadesa: the Gandhavaṃsa, p. 59, attributes this work to him.
The Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra says: “Mahākātyāyana, during the lifetime of the Buddha, explained the words of the Buddha and made a Pi le (Peṭaka), ‘box-collection’ in the Ts’in language (Chinee), which, until today, is used in southern India.” Paramārtha says: “In the time when the Buddha was in the world, Mahākātyāyana expounded a śāstra to explain the Āgama sūtras of the Buddha.” (This again concerns the Peṭakopadesa and the Abhidharmajñānaprasthāna).
2) Kātyāyāyana (कात्यायायन), author of the Jñānaprasthāna.—The Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra tells us that after the Council of Aśoka (therefore, according to its accounting, in the 200th year after the nirvāṇa. Kātyāyana composed the Jñānaprasthāna. This date was confirmed by Paramārtha who informs us “that in the 200 years, Katyāyāna left Lake Anavatapta, came to the country of Magadha into the Mahāsāṃghika school, where he established distinctions related to the holy teaching of the Tripiṭaka…; those who accepted his teachings formed a separate school called ‘the school that enunciates distinctions’; these were the disciples of Mahākātyana.” Actually, Kātyāyana was not a Mahāsāṃghika, but a pure Sarvāstivādin. Paramārtha later corrects himself in associating Kātyāyana with the beginnings of the Sarvāstivādin school which was formed at the beginning of the 3rd century after the nirvāṇa.(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Kātyāyana was a disciple of Gautama Buddha. He was born in a Brahmin family at Ujjayini (Ujjain) and received a classical Brahminical education studying the Vedas. Tradition attributes to Katyāyana the authorship of two late Pāli canonical texts Nettipakarana, a commentary on Buddhist doctrine; and peṭakopadesa, a treatise on exegetical methodology.
In Sanskrit his name is Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) or Mahākātyāyana (महाकात्यायन); in Pāli Kaccāna (or Kaccāyana), or Mahākaccāna; and in Japanese 迦旃延 Kasennen.(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism
Katyayana or Vararuchi I (1690-1600 BCE).—Vararuchi or Katyayana was the minister of Mahapadma Nanda. Katyayana wrote vartikas on Panini sutras. He also wrote “Prakrita - Prakasha”, the first grammar book of Prakrit language. Katyayana probably knew the Paishachi language and salvaged “Brihatkatha” the lost work of Gunadhya I. He rewrote Brihatkatha of Gunadhya I in Prakrit language. It appears that Katyayana became Buddhist and founded the school of Mulasarvastivada. Buddhist sources clearly record that Katyayana was the first Sarvastivadin.(Source): academia.edu: The Chronological History of Buddhism
Languages of India and abroad
kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—n Killing or beating; ruining, destroying, or damaging gen. v kara or kāḍha g.of o.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kātyāyana (कात्यायन).—n Killing or beating. Ruining, destroying.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) Name of a celebrated writer on grammar who wrote Vārtikas to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini; न स्म पुराद्यतन इति ब्रुवता कात्यायनेनेह (na sma purādyatana iti bruvatā kātyāyaneneha) Mbh. on P. III.2.118; Rām.2.67.3.
2) Name of a sage who is a writer on civil and religious law; Y.1.4.
Derivable forms: kātyāyanaḥ (कात्यायनः).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 44 books and stories containing Katyayana or Kātyāyana. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra (by Pāraskara)
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XIII - The sixth Bhūmi < [Volume I]
Chapter VIII - The first Bhūmi < [Volume I]
Chapter XI - The fourth Bhūmi < [Volume I]
Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra (by Āśvalāyana)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra (by Vimalakirti)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 3 - The traditions regarding Kātyāyana < [Chapter III - General Explanation of Evam Maya Śruta]
The Śivā-Jātaka < [I. Puṇyakriyāvastu consisting of generosity]
Twelfth aṅga (member): Upadeśa (exegesis) < [Part 2 - Hearing the twelve-membered speech of the Buddha]