Samstha, Saṃsthā, Samsthā, Shamstha: 18 definitions


Samstha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sanstha.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Saṃstha (संस्थ) refers to “situated” (i.e., “lying”), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Now, if [Rāhu] has a body or be simply a head with a regular motion in the ecliptic, how comes it that he eclipses the sun and moon when they are 180° from him? If his motion be not subject to fixed laws, how comes it that his exact place is ascertained; how comes it that he never eclipses by the part of his body between his head and tail? If being of the shape of a serpent he eclipses with his head or with his tail, how comes it that he does not hide one half of the heavens lying between his head and tail? [i.e., mukha-puccha-antara-saṃstha]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Saṃstha (संस्थ) refers to “upholding” (e.g.,  one’s point of view of a particular system of philosophy), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.13 (“Śiva-Pārvatī dialogue”).—Accordingly, after Pārvatī spoke to Śiva: “On hearing these words of Pārvatī based on the Sāṃkhya system, Śiva replied to her, upholding the Vedāntin’s point of view [i.e., vedānta-mata-saṃstha].—[...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Saṃstha (संस्थ) refers to “(that which is) situated (in the middle)”, according to the according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya.—Accordingly, “The energy called the yoni who is endowed with the dynamism of the three paths, consists of three letters and three aspects (possesses) the venerable Oḍḍiyāṇa which, endowed with the supreme energy and is well energized, is located in the middle (madhya-saṃstha). The venerable (sacred seat) called Jālandhara is located within the manifested abode in the right corner. The venerable sacred seat Pūrṇa is in the left (corner) formed through the fear of the fettered. Kāmarūpa is in the front of that (yoni)”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Samstha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Saṃstha (संस्थ) refers to “having placed” (the feet and hands between the thighs, according to the Dattātreyayogaśāstra verse 35-38ab.—Accordingly, while describing the lotus pose (padmāsana): “Having carefully placed the upturned feet on the thighs and the upturned hands in between the thighs (ūru-saṃstha), [the Yogin] should fix the eyes on the tip of the nose. Having lifted the uvula with the tongue; having fixed the chin on the chest and having drawn in the breath slowly according to his capacity, he should fill [the region of] the stomach. After that, he should exhale the breath slowly according to his capacity. This is said to be padmāsana, which destroys all diseases”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Bhagavadgita

saṃsthā – shape, property, nature, death (Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 6.15)

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Saṃstha (संस्थ) refers to “resting” (on Meru), according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “In praise (of) Śrī Vajrasattva, highest universal guru, origin of all Buddhas, By various forms, removing darkness and fear, fixed resting on Meru (saṃsthanirmitaṃ meru-saṃstham). Dharma sustainer, chief sage, most fortunate victor, Vajradhātu mandala, In one form with all bliss, innate bliss, embodied, the cause for liberation”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Saṃsthā.—(HRS), king's dues derived from the market- place, as suggested by the Arthaśāstra. Note: saṃsthā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃstha (संस्थ).—a S That stays, stops, abides, resides, inheres, in, at, or with. In comp. as jalasaṃstha An inhabitant of water; vṛkṣasaṃstha A dweller in trees; svargasaṃstha, narakasaṃstha, pātālasaṃstha. 2 That stops, ends, or terminates at or in. In comp. as dakṣiṇa- saṃstha, prāksaṃstha, udaksaṃstha.

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saṃsthā (संस्था).—f S Comfortableness of condition and circumstances; happy or easy state of life. 2 Stop, termination, cessation, conclusion, end. 3 Stopping, stay, tarrying. 4 Continuance in the right way; perseverance in rectitude.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃstha (संस्थ).—a That stays, inheres in, at, or with. That terminates at. In comp.

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saṃsthā (संस्था).—f Happy state of life. Stop. Con- tinuance in the right way. An institution.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃsthā (संस्था).—1 Ā.

1) To dwell or live in, stand close together; तीक्ष्णादुद्विजते मृदौ परिभवत्रासान्न संतिष्ठते (tīkṣṇādudvijate mṛdau paribhavatrāsānna saṃtiṣṭhate) Mu.3.5.

2) To stand on.

3) To be, exist, live.

4) To abide by, obey, act up to; दारिद्र्यात् पुरुषस्य बान्धवजनो वाक्ये न संतिष्ठते (dāridryāt puruṣasya bāndhavajano vākye na saṃtiṣṭhate) Mk. 1.36.

5) To be completed; सद्यः संतिष्ठते यज्ञस्तथाशौचमिति स्थितिः (sadyaḥ saṃtiṣṭhate yajñastathāśaucamiti sthitiḥ) Manusmṛti 5.98 (= yajñapuṣyena yujyate Kull.).

6) To come to an end, be interrupted; न तत् संस्थास्यते कार्यं दक्षेणोरीकृतं त्वया (na tat saṃsthāsyate kāryaṃ dakṣeṇorīkṛtaṃ tvayā) Bhaṭṭikāvya 8.11.

7) To stand still, come to a stand (Paras.); क्षणं न संतिष्ठति जीवलोकः क्षयोदयाभ्यां परिवर्तमानः (kṣaṇaṃ na saṃtiṣṭhati jīvalokaḥ kṣayodayābhyāṃ parivartamānaḥ) Hariv.

7) To die, perish.

8) To agree, conform to.

9) To stand firmly.

1) To prosper, succeed. -Caus.

1) To establish, settle.

2) To place.

3) To compose, collect (oneself).

4) To subject, keep under control; विषयेषु च सज्जन्त्यः संस्थाप्या आत्मनो वशे (viṣayeṣu ca sajjantyaḥ saṃsthāpyā ātmano vaśe) (striyaḥ) Manusmṛti 9.2.

5) To stop, restrain.

5) To kill.

7) To build (a town).

8) To restore.

9) To heap, store up.

1) To cremate.

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Saṃstha (संस्थ).—a.

1) Staying, abiding, lasting.

2) Dwelling, being, existing, situated (at the end of comp.); जवेना- त्मनि संस्थेन सोऽसौ पूर्ण इवार्णवः (javenā- tmani saṃsthena so'sau pūrṇa ivārṇavaḥ) Rām.7.36.27; शिष्टा क्रिया कस्यचिदात्मसंस्था (śiṣṭā kriyā kasyacidātmasaṃsthā) M.1.16; Kumārasambhava 6.6; निसर्गभिन्नास्पदमेकसंस्थम् (nisargabhinnāspadamekasaṃstham) R.6.29; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 5.16.

3) Tame, domesticated.

4) Fixed, stationary.

5) Ended, perished, dead.

6) Come to an end, completed.

7) Manifested (vyakta).

-sthaḥ 1 A dweller, an inhabitant.

2) A neighbour, countryman.

3) A spy.

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Saṃsthā (संस्था).—1 An assemblage, assembly.

2) Situation, state or condition of being; सुखं पृष्ट्वा प्रतिवेद्यात्मसंस्थाम् (sukhaṃ pṛṣṭvā prativedyātmasaṃsthām) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.38.2; विशुद्धविज्ञानधनं स्वसंस्थया (viśuddhavijñānadhanaṃ svasaṃsthayā) Bhāgavata 1.37.22.

3) Form, nature; तेषां संस्थां प्रमाणं च भूलोकस्य च वर्णय (teṣāṃ saṃsthāṃ pramāṇaṃ ca bhūlokasya ca varṇaya) Bhāgavata 3.7.27; पीडितो दुहितृशुल्कसंस्थया (pīḍito duhitṛśulkasaṃsthayā) R.11.38.

4) Occupation, business, settled mode of life; लोकस्य संस्था न भवेत् सर्वं च व्याकुली- भवेत् (lokasya saṃsthā na bhavet sarvaṃ ca vyākulī- bhavet) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.56.6; Bhāgavata 1.44.48; प्रथक्संस्थाश्च निर्ममे (prathaksaṃsthāśca nirmame) Manusmṛti 1.21.

5) Correct or proper conduct.

6) End, completion; संस्था हि क्रियां प्रति औदासीन्यं, व्यापारान्तरकरणं वा पूर्वस्मात् कर्मणः (saṃsthā hi kriyāṃ prati audāsīnyaṃ, vyāpārāntarakaraṇaṃ vā pūrvasmāt karmaṇaḥ) ŚB. on MS.1.6.3.

7) Stop, stay.

8) Loss, destruction.

9) Destruction of the world.

1) Resemblance.

11) A royal decree or ordinance.

12) A form of Soma sacrifice; सोमस्तु रेतः सवनान्यवस्थितिः संस्था- विभेदास्तव देव धातवः (somastu retaḥ savanānyavasthitiḥ saṃsthā- vibhedāstava deva dhātavaḥ) Bhāgavata 3.13.38.

13) Death, dying; फलसंस्था भविष्यामि कृत्वा कर्म सुदुष्करम् (phalasaṃsthā bhaviṣyāmi kṛtvā karma suduṣkaram) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.159.13; संस्थां च पाण्डुपुत्राणां वक्ष्ये कृष्णकथोदयम् (saṃsthāṃ ca pāṇḍuputrāṇāṃ vakṣye kṛṣṇakathodayam) Bhāgavata 1.7.12.

14) Manifestation, appearance.

15) Obligation or agreement (samaya); कृतां संस्थामतिक्रान्ता भयात् प्रायमुपासिताः (kṛtāṃ saṃsthāmatikrāntā bhayāt prāyamupāsitāḥ) Rām.4.57.18.

16) Cremation.

17) A spy.

18) Resembling.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṃstha (शंस्थ).—mfn.

(-sthaḥ-sthā-sthaṃ) Happy, prosperous, well-faring. E. śaṃ happily, sthā to stay or be, aff. ka .

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Saṃstha (संस्थ).—mfn.

(-sthaḥ-sthā-sthaṃ) 1. Staying, stopping, fixed, stationary. 2. Staying with, associated, domesticated. m.

(-sthaḥ) 1. A spy, a secret emissary. 2. A countryman, a neighbour, a person of the same country, &c. 3. A dweller, an inhabitant. f.

(-sthā) 1. Continuance in the right way, correct conduct. 2. State or condition of being, time of life, &c. 3. Occupation, business, profession. 4. Stop, stay. 5. End, completion. 6. Manifestation, appearance. 7. Resemblance, likeness. 8. A sort of sacrifice. 9. Loss, destruction. 10. Death, dying. 11. Form. 12. An assembly. 13. A royal ordinance. E. sam implying completeness, association, &c., and ṣṭhā to stay, affs. ka or aṅ and ṭāp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃstha (संस्थ).—A. i. e. sam-stha, I. adj. 1. Standing, being, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 231 (maṇdala-, in the dise, viz. of the sun); ii. [distich] 157. 2. Staying with, associated. 3. Stationary, fixed. 4. Living, [Pañcatantra] 94, 2; iii. [distich] 226. 5. Lasting, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 42, 15. Ii. m. 1. An inhabitant. 2. A countryman. 3. A spy. B. i. e. sam -sthā, f. 1. An assembly. 2. Condition of being, situation, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 20, 38. 3. Appearance. 4. Form. 5. Occupation, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 21. 6. Continuance in the right way, correct conduct. 7. A sort of sacrifice. 8. Stay, step. 9. A royal ordinance. 10. End. 11. Death. 12. Destruction.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃstha (संस्थ).—[adjective] standing, abiding, being or contained in ([locative] or —°); belonging to, resting or dependent on, partaking or possessed of (—°); lasting, continuing.

— [masculine] saṃstha (only [locative]) amidst or in presence of ([genetive]). [feminine] saṃsthā staying, remaining with (—°); shape, form, [especially] the ground-form of a sacrifice; manifestation, appearance, likeness (often adj. —°); fixed order, rule, nature, character; conclusion, end, death.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṃstha (शंस्थ):—[=śaṃ-stha] [from śaṃ > śam] mfn. being in prosperity, happy, prosperous, [Pāṇini 3-2, 77 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

2) Śaṃsthā (शंस्था):—[=śaṃ-sthā] [from śaṃ > śam] mfn. being in prosperity, happy, prosperous, [Pāṇini 3-2, 77 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) Saṃsthā (संस्था):—[=saṃ-√sthā] a [Ātmanepada] -tiṣṭhate ([Pāṇini 1-3, 22]; [Epic] and mc. also [Parasmaipada] -tiṣṭhati; [Vedic or Veda] [infinitive mood] -sthātos, [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra]),

—to stand together, hold together ([perfect tense] p. [dual number] -tasthāne, said of heaven and earth), [Ṛg-veda];

—to come or stay near ([locative case]), [ib.; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa];

—to meet (as enemies), come into conflict, [Ṛg-veda];

—to stand still, remain, stay, abide ([literally] and [figuratively]; with vākye, ‘to obey’), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.;

—to be accomplished or completed ([especially] applied to rites), [Brāhmaṇa; ???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa];

—to prosper, succeed, get on well, [Mahābhārata];

—to come to an end, perish, be lost, die, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Bhāgavata-purāṇa];

—to become, be turned into or assume the form of ([accusative]), [Lalita-vistara] : [Causal] -sthāpayati ([subjunctive] [Aorist] tiṣṭipaḥ, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]),

—to cause to stand up or firm, raise on their legs again (fallen horses), [Mahābhārata];

—to raise up, restore (dethroned kings), [ib.];

—to confirm, encourage, comfort (ātmānam, or hṛdayam, ‘one’s self’ id est. ‘take heart again’), [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra];

—to fix or place upon or in ([locative case]), [Kauśika-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to put or add to (uparī), [Yājñavalkya];

—to build (a town), [Harivaṃśa];

—to heap, store up (goods), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā];

—to found, establish, fix, settle, introduce, set a foot, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī];

—to cause to stand still, stop, restrain, suppress (breath, semen etc.), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa];

—to accomplish, conclude, complete ([especially] a rite), [Brāhmaṇa; Kauśika-sūtra; Mahābhārata];

—to put to death, kill, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata];

—to perform the last office for id est. to burn, cremate (a dead body), [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa];

—to put to subjection, subject, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary] :

—[Desiderative] of [Causal] -sthāpayiṣati, to wish to finish or conclude, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa]

4) Saṃstha (संस्थ):—[=saṃ-stha] [from saṃ-sthā] mf(ā)n. standing together, standing or staying or resting or being in or on, contained in ([locative case] or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] being in or with, belonging to ([locative case] or [compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] based or resting or dependent on ([locative case]), [Mahābhārata]

7) [v.s. ...] partaking or possessed of ([compound]), [Mahābhārata; Pañcatantra]

8) [v.s. ...] existing, lasting for a time ([compound]), [Vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikā]

9) [v.s. ...] ended, perished, dead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] m. presence (only [locative case] ‘in the presence or midst of.’ with cid, ‘by one’s mere presence’), [Ṛg-veda]

11) [v.s. ...] a spy, secret emissary (cf. saṃsthā below), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a dweller, resident, inhabitant, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) [v.s. ...] a fellow-countryman, neighbour, [ib.]

14) Saṃsthā (संस्था):—[=saṃ-sthā] [from saṃ-stha] b f. See next.

15) [v.s. ...] c f. (ifc. f(ā). ) staying or abiding with ([compound]), [Mahābhārata]

16) [v.s. ...] shape, form, manifestation, appearance (ifc. ‘appearing as’), [Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

17) [v.s. ...] established order, standard, rule, direction ([accusative] with √kṛ or [Causal] of √sthā, ‘to establish or fix a rule or obligation for one’s self’; with vyati-√kram or pari√bhid, ‘to transgress or break an established rule or obligation’), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

18) [v.s. ...] quality, property, nature, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] conclusion, termination, completion, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

20) [v.s. ...] end, death, [Purāṇa]

21) [v.s. ...] destruction of the world (= pralaya, said to be of four kinds, viz. naimittika, prākṛtika, nitya, ātyantika), [ib.]

22) [v.s. ...] a complete liturgical course, the basis or essential form of a sacrifice (the Jyotiḥ-ṣṭoma, Havir-yajña, and Pāka-yajña consist of seven such forms), [???]

23) [v.s. ...] killing (paśu-s, ‘killing of the sacrificial animal’), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

24) [v.s. ...] cremation (of a body; also preta-s), [ib.]

25) [v.s. ...] ([probably]) = śrāddha, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

26) [v.s. ...] a spy or secret emissary in a king’s own country (= cara m. [probably] a group of five spies consisting of a vaṇij ‘, merchant’, bhikṣu, ‘mendicant’, chāttra, ‘pupil’, lingin, ‘one who falsely wears the mark of a twice-born’, and kṛṣīvala, ‘husbandman’ cf. pañca-varga, and, [Manu-smṛti vii, 154; Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti]), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

27) [v.s. ...] continuation in the right way, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

28) [v.s. ...] occupation, business, profession, [Horace H. Wilson]

29) [v.s. ...] an assembly, [ib.]

30) [v.s. ...] a royal ordinance, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṃstha (शंस्थ):—[śaṃ-stha] (sthaḥ-sthā-sthaṃ) a. Happy, prosperous. 1. m. f. Happiness.

2) Saṃstha (संस्थ):—[saṃ-stha] (sthaḥ) 1. m. A neighbour; countryman, dweller; spy. 1. f. Stable form; appearance; likeness; state, stay; end, destruction, death; statute; royal edict, right conduct; a kind of sacrifice. a. Staying with; stationary.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃsthā (संस्था) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃcikkha, Saṃṭhā, Saṃtha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samstha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samstha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃsthā (संस्था) [Also spelled sanstha]:—(nf) an institution; organisation, concern; ~[gata] institutional; [baddha] formed into an institution; institutionalised.

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Discover the meaning of samstha in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

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