Purva, Pūrvā, Pūrva: 12 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Purva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pūrva (पूर्व).—(l) ancient, old: (2) belonging to the Eastern districts. The word is frequently used as qualifying the word आचार्य (ācārya) where it means ancient.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pūrvā (पूर्वा, “east”) represents one of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Pūrvā is a Sanskrit word which is known in Pali as purimā or puratthimā, in Tibetan as śar and in Chinese as tong.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Pūrva (पूर्व) refers to a time-unit equaling 8,400,0002 years.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Pūrva (पूर्व).—The scriptures prior to Mahāvīra are called pūrvas.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pūrva.—(IE 7-1-2), sometimes used to indicate ‘fourteen’. Note: pūrva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pūrvā.—(IE 8-8; CII 4; ML), ‘the above’; ‘the aforesaid (tithi or praśasti)’; used with reference to a tithi and a praśasti; sometimes wrongly used as a synonym of a tithi or praśasti. Cf. anupūrvī used with reference to a tithi. Note: pūrvā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pūrva (पूर्व).—f or pūrvadiśā f (pūrvā S) The east. Pr. rājā karīla tī pūrvadiśāorsāṅgāla tī pūrvadiśā Whichsoever quarter the king (or you) may please to say is the east, that is the east. A form of expression implying Obsequiousness or abject admitting and consenting.

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pūrva (पूर्व).—a (S) Eastern or easterly. 2 First, former, prior, preceding, initial. It is in comp. affixed as well as prefixed; as dṛṣṭapūrva, śrutapūrva, uktapūrva, pūrvadṛṣṭa &c. Seen, heard, spoken &c. before. See further compounds in order. This word, with ka attached, enters into many combinations valuable to the translator from English. Its sense if explicated is still First, preceding, antecedent; but its service or force is that of With, together with. Ex. āgrahapūrvaka With importunity; i. e. importunity preceding or being first. See other examples under क.

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pūrvā (पूर्वा).—f pl (S) The eleventh of the lunar asterisms.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pūrva (पूर्व).—f pūrvadiśā f The east. Pr. rājā karīla tī pūrvadiśāṃ Whichsoever quarter the king may please to name the east, that is the east. A form of expression implying. Obsequiousness or abject admitting and consenting.

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pūrva (पूर्व).—a Eastern. First, former.

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pūrvā (पूर्वा).—f pl The eleventh of the lunar as- terisms.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pūrva (पूर्व).—a. (Declined like a pronoun when it implies relative position in time or space, but optionally so in nom. pl.; and abl. and loc. sing.)

1) Being in front of, first, foremost.

2) Eastern, easterly, to the east of; ग्रामात् पर्वतः पूर्वः (grāmāt parvataḥ pūrvaḥ) Sk.; पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य (pūrvāparau toyanidhī vagāhya) Ku.1.1.

3) Previous to, earlier than; ब्राह्मणे साहसः पूर्वः (brāhmaṇe sāhasaḥ pūrvaḥ) Ms.8.276.

4) Old, ancient; पूर्वसूरिभिः (pūrvasūribhiḥ) R.1.4; इदं कविभ्यः पूर्वेभ्यो नमोवाकं प्रशास्महे (idaṃ kavibhyaḥ pūrvebhyo namovākaṃ praśāsmahe) U.1.1.

5) Former, previous, anterior, prior, antecedent (opp. uttara); in this sense often at the end of comp. and translated by 'formerly.' or 'before'; श्रुतपूर्व (śrutapūrva) &c.; व्यतीता या निशा पूर्वा पौराणां हर्षवर्धिनी (vyatītā yā niśā pūrvā paurāṇāṃ harṣavardhinī) Rām.7.37.1.

6) Aforesaid, before-mentioned.

7) Initial.

8) Established, customary, of long standing

9) Early, prime, पूर्वे वयसि (pūrve vayasi) Pt.1.165 'in early age or prime of life.

1) Elder (jyeṣṭha); रामः पूर्वो हि नो भ्राता भविष्यति महीपतिः (rāmaḥ pūrvo hi no bhrātā bhaviṣyati mahīpatiḥ) Rām.2.79.8.

11) (At the end of comp.) Preceded by, accompanied by, attended with; संबन्धमा भाषणपूर्वमाहुः (saṃbandhamā bhāṣaṇapūrvamāhuḥ) R.2.58; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः (puṇyaḥ śabdo muniriti muhuḥ kevalaṃ rājapūrvaḥ) Ś2.17; तान् स्मितपूर्वमाह (tān smitapūrvamāha) Ku.7.47; बहुमानपूर्वया (bahumānapūrvayā) 5.31; दशपूर्वरथं यमाख्यया दशकण्ठारिगुरुं विदुर्बुधाः (daśapūrvarathaṃ yamākhyayā daśakaṇṭhāriguruṃ vidurbudhāḥ) R.8.29; so मतिपूर्वम् (matipūrvam) Ms.11.147 'intentionally', 'knowingly'; 12.89; अबोधपूर्वम् (abodhapūrvam) 'unconsciously', Ś.5.2. &c.

-rvaḥ An ancestor, a forefather; पूर्वैः किलायं परिवर्धितो नः (pūrvaiḥ kilāyaṃ parivardhito naḥ) R.13.3; पयः पूर्वैः सनिश्वासैः कवोष्णमुपभुज्यते (payaḥ pūrvaiḥ saniśvāsaiḥ kavoṣṇamupabhujyate) 1.67;5.14; अनुकारिणि पूर्वेषां युक्तरूपमिदं त्वयि (anukāriṇi pūrveṣāṃ yuktarūpamidaṃ tvayi) Ś.2.17.

-rvam The forepart; अनवरतधनुर्ज्यास्फालनक्रूरपूर्वम् (anavaratadhanurjyāsphālanakrūrapūrvam) (gātram) Ś.2.4.

-rvā 1 The east

2) Name of a country to the east of Madhyadeśa.

-rvam ind.

1) Before (with abl.); मासात् पूर्वम् (māsāt pūrvam).

2) Formerly, previously, at first, antecedently, beforehand; तं पूर्वमभिवादयेत् (taṃ pūrvamabhivādayet) Ms.2.117;3.94;8.25;; R. 12.35; प्रणिपातपूर्वम् (praṇipātapūrvam) K; भूतपूर्वखरालयम् (bhūtapūrvakharālayam) U.2.17 'which formerly was the abode', &c.; समयपूर्वम् (samayapūrvam) Ś.5. 'after a formal agreement.'

3) Immemorially. (pūrveṇa 'in front', 'before', 'to the east of', with gen. or acc.; adya pūrvam 'till-now', 'hitherto'; [pūrvaḥ -tataḥ -paścāt -upari] 'firstthen, first-afterwards', 'previously, subsequently', [pūrvam -adhunā] or -adya 'formerly-now.'

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūrva (पूर्व) or Pūrvva.—mfn.

(-rvaḥ-rvī-rvaṃ) 1. First, former, prior, preceding, initial. 2. East, eastern. 3. All, entire. 4. Before, in front of. m. plu.

(-rvāḥ) Ancestors, forefathers. f.

(-rbbā) The east. n.

(-rvaṃ) An ancient tradition. E. pūrbba or pūrva to fill, to dwell, &c. aff. ac; hence to derivative and its compounds may be written either with va or va; the second of the duplicate consonants may also be rejected, making it pūrba or pūrva .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūrva (पूर्व).—i. e. pura + va (see purā), also pārba, adj., f. vā (bā). 1. Fore, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 37. 2. Former, prior, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 905. 3. First, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 10. 4. Lowest, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 120. 5. Eastern, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 22. Ii. adv. vam. 1. Before, Chr. 3, 2; first, [Pañcatantra] 51, 18. 2. Formerly, Chr. 16, 20. 3. Immemorially, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 87. Iii. pūrveṇa, instr. adv. To the east, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 70, 11. Iv. An ancestor, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 216; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 220. V. f. , The cast.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūrva (पूर्व).—[adjective] being before ([space and time]), fore, first, eastern, to the east of ([ablative]); prior, preceding, ancient, previous to, earlier than ([ablative] or —°, often °— or —° [with] [participle] in the sense of an [adverb], e.[grammar] pūrvokta or uktapūrva spoken before or already); accompanied by, following; with, under, according to (—°); [with] vayas [neuter] youth; [with] āyus [neuter] old age. —[masculine] elder brother, [plural] the ancestors or ancients. [feminine] pūrvādiś) the east. [neuter] forepart, as [adverb] in front, before (as [preposition] [with] [ablative]), first, previously, already, long since; —° accompanied by etc. (cf. adj. —°). pūrva uttara former-latter, [neuter] [adverb] first-last; adya pūrvam until now, hitherto.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pūrva (पूर्व):—mf(ā)n. (connected with purā, puras, pra, and declined like a [pronoun] when implying relative position whether in place or time, but not necessarily in [ablative] [locative case] sg. m. n. and [nominative case] [plural] m.; See, [Pāṇini 1-1, 27; 34; vii, 1, 16]) being before or in front, fore, first, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) eastern, to the east of ([ablative]), [ib.]

3) former, prior, preceding, previous to, earlier than ([ablative] or [compound]), [ib.] (gaja-pūrva, preceding the number ‘eight’ id est. seven, the seventh, [Śrutabodha]; māsena p or māsa-p, earlier by a month, [Pāṇini 2-1, 31]; ifc. often = formerly or before e.g. strī-p, f° a wife; āḍhya-p, f° wealthy; [especially] after a pp. e.g. kṛta-p, done before, dṛṣṭa-p, seen b°; ifc. also preceded or accompanied by, attended with e.g. smita-pūrvā-vāk, speech accompanied by smiles; sometimes not translatable e.g. mṛdu-pūrvā vāk, kind speech)

4) ancient, old, customary, traditional, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

5) first (in a series), initial, lowest (opp. to uttara; with dama or sāhasa ‘the lowest fine’), [Manu-smṛti viii, 120 etc.]

6) (with vayas) ‘first age’, youth, [Mahābhārata]

7) foregoing, aforesaid, mentioned before ([ablative]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Pāṇini]

8) m. an ancestor, forefather ([plural] the ancients, ancestors), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

9) an elder brother, [Rāmāyaṇa]

10) Name of a prince, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

11) Pūrvā (पूर्वा):—[from pūrva] f. (with or sc. diś) the east, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of a country to the east of Madhya-deśa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] of the Nakṣatras Pūrva-phalgunī, Pūrvāṣāḍhā and Pūrvabhadrapadā collectively, [Varāha-mihira]

14) Pūrva (पूर्व):—n. the fore part, [Śakuntalā ii, 4] (cf. [Pāṇini 2-2, 1])

15) a [particular] high number (applied to a period of years), [Buddhist literature]

16) Name of the most ancient of Jaina writings (of which 14 are enumerated), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) Name of a Tantra, [Catalogue(s)]

18) an ancient tradition, [Horace H. Wilson]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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