Purva, aka: Pūrvā, Pūrva; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Purva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Pūrva (पूर्व).—(l) ancient, old: (2) belonging to the Eastern districts. The word is frequently used as qualifying the word आचार्य (ācārya) where it means ancient.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Pūrvā (पूर्वा, “east”) represents one of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Pūrvā is a Sanskrit word which is known in Pali as purimā or puratthimā, in Tibetan as śar and in Chinese as tong.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Pūrva (पूर्व).—The scriptures prior to Mahāvīra are called pūrvas.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Pūrva.—(IE 7-1-2), sometimes used to indicate ‘fourteen’. Note: pūrva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pūrvā.—(IE 8-8; CII 4; ML), ‘the above’; ‘the aforesaid (tithi or praśasti)’; used with reference to a tithi and a praśasti; sometimes wrongly used as a synonym of a tithi or praśasti. Cf. anupūrvī used with reference to a tithi. Note: pūrvā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

pūrva (पूर्व).—f or pūrvadiśā f (pūrvā S) The east. Pr. rājā karīla tī pūrvadiśāorsāṅgāla tī pūrvadiśā Whichsoever quarter the king (or you) may please to say is the east, that is the east. A form of expression implying Obsequiousness or abject admitting and consenting.

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pūrva (पूर्व).—a (S) Eastern or easterly. 2 First, former, prior, preceding, initial. It is in comp. affixed as well as prefixed; as dṛṣṭapūrva, śrutapūrva, uktapūrva, pūrvadṛṣṭa &c. Seen, heard, spoken &c. before. See further compounds in order. This word, with ka attached, enters into many combinations valuable to the translator from English. Its sense if explicated is still First, preceding, antecedent; but its service or force is that of With, together with. Ex. āgrahapūrvaka With importunity; i. e. importunity preceding or being first. See other examples under क.

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pūrvā (पूर्वा).—f pl (S) The eleventh of the lunar asterisms.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pūrva (पूर्व).—f pūrvadiśā f The east. Pr. rājā karīla tī pūrvadiśāṃ Whichsoever quarter the king may please to name the east, that is the east. A form of expression implying. Obsequiousness or abject admitting and consenting.

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pūrva (पूर्व).—a Eastern. First, former.

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pūrvā (पूर्वा).—f pl The eleventh of the lunar as- terisms.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pūrva (पूर्व).—a. (Declined like a pronoun when it implies relative position in time or space, but optionally so in nom. pl.; and abl. and loc. sing.)

1) Being in front of, first, foremost.

2) Eastern, easterly, to the east of; ग्रामात् पर्वतः पूर्वः (grāmāt parvataḥ pūrvaḥ) Sk.; पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य (pūrvāparau toyanidhī vagāhya) Ku.1.1.

3) Previous to, earlier than; ब्राह्मणे साहसः पूर्वः (brāhmaṇe sāhasaḥ pūrvaḥ) Ms.8.276.

4) Old, ancient; पूर्वसूरिभिः (pūrvasūribhiḥ) R.1.4; इदं कविभ्यः पूर्वेभ्यो नमोवाकं प्रशास्महे (idaṃ kavibhyaḥ pūrvebhyo namovākaṃ praśāsmahe) U.1.1.

5) Former, previous, anterior, prior, antecedent (opp. uttara); in this sense often at the end of comp. and translated by 'formerly.' or 'before'; श्रुतपूर्व (śrutapūrva) &c.; व्यतीता या निशा पूर्वा पौराणां हर्षवर्धिनी (vyatītā yā niśā pūrvā paurāṇāṃ harṣavardhinī) Rām.7.37.1.

6) Aforesaid, before-mentioned.

7) Initial.

8) Established, customary, of long standing

9) Early, prime, पूर्वे वयसि (pūrve vayasi) Pt.1.165 'in early age or prime of life.

1) Elder (jyeṣṭha); रामः पूर्वो हि नो भ्राता भविष्यति महीपतिः (rāmaḥ pūrvo hi no bhrātā bhaviṣyati mahīpatiḥ) Rām.2.79.8.

11) (At the end of comp.) Preceded by, accompanied by, attended with; संबन्धमा भाषणपूर्वमाहुः (saṃbandhamā bhāṣaṇapūrvamāhuḥ) R.2.58; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः (puṇyaḥ śabdo muniriti muhuḥ kevalaṃ rājapūrvaḥ) Ś2.17; तान् स्मितपूर्वमाह (tān smitapūrvamāha) Ku.7.47; बहुमानपूर्वया (bahumānapūrvayā) 5.31; दशपूर्वरथं यमाख्यया दशकण्ठारिगुरुं विदुर्बुधाः (daśapūrvarathaṃ yamākhyayā daśakaṇṭhāriguruṃ vidurbudhāḥ) R.8.29; so मतिपूर्वम् (matipūrvam) Ms.11.147 'intentionally', 'knowingly'; 12.89; अबोधपूर्वम् (abodhapūrvam) 'unconsciously', Ś.5.2. &c.

-rvaḥ An ancestor, a forefather; पूर्वैः किलायं परिवर्धितो नः (pūrvaiḥ kilāyaṃ parivardhito naḥ) R.13.3; पयः पूर्वैः सनिश्वासैः कवोष्णमुपभुज्यते (payaḥ pūrvaiḥ saniśvāsaiḥ kavoṣṇamupabhujyate) 1.67;5.14; अनुकारिणि पूर्वेषां युक्तरूपमिदं त्वयि (anukāriṇi pūrveṣāṃ yuktarūpamidaṃ tvayi) Ś.2.17.

-rvam The forepart; अनवरतधनुर्ज्यास्फालनक्रूरपूर्वम् (anavaratadhanurjyāsphālanakrūrapūrvam) (gātram) Ś.2.4.

-rvā 1 The east

2) Name of a country to the east of Madhyadeśa.

-rvam ind.

1) Before (with abl.); मासात् पूर्वम् (māsāt pūrvam).

2) Formerly, previously, at first, antecedently, beforehand; तं पूर्वमभिवादयेत् (taṃ pūrvamabhivādayet) Ms.2.117;3.94;8.25;; R. 12.35; प्रणिपातपूर्वम् (praṇipātapūrvam) K; भूतपूर्वखरालयम् (bhūtapūrvakharālayam) U.2.17 'which formerly was the abode', &c.; समयपूर्वम् (samayapūrvam) Ś.5. 'after a formal agreement.'

3) Immemorially. (pūrveṇa 'in front', 'before', 'to the east of', with gen. or acc.; adya pūrvam 'till-now', 'hitherto'; [pūrvaḥ -tataḥ -paścāt -upari] 'firstthen, first-afterwards', 'previously, subsequently', [pūrvam -adhunā] or -adya 'formerly-now.'

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Purvottara
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Purvapara
Pūrvāpara (पूर्वापर).—a. 1) eastern and western; कतमोऽयं पूर्वापर- समुद्रावगाढः सानुमानालोक्यते...
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