Atharvaveda and Charaka Samhita

by Laxmi Maji | 2021 | 143,541 words

This page relates ‘Medical Science in the Vedas’ found in the study on diseases and remedies found in the Atharvaveda and Charaka-samhita. These texts deal with Ayurveda—the ancient Indian Science of life—which lays down the principles for keeping a sound health involving the use of herbs, roots and leaves. The Atharvaveda refers to one of the four Vedas (ancient Sanskrit texts encompassing all kinds of knowledge and science) containing many details on Ayurveda, which is here taken up for study.

The nature of treatment for diseases in the Ancient era Among India’s many claims to fame is the ancient medical science known as Āyurveda. This is a healing method that relies on herbs as medicines for maintaining good health. The five thousand years-old system of natural healing originated in India's ancient Vedic culture. The oldest documentary records of Indian Literature are the Vedas. There are four Vedas -Ṛgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveda. The Vedas are interspersed with Āyurvedic citations.

The compendium of Vedic hymns is called Saṃhitā. The exegesis of Vedic mantras is termed Brāhmaṇas. The Brāhmaṇas are divided into three sub-specialties -Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads. These theological discourses in prose, discuss sacrificial rituals. Every Veda has its own Brāhmaṇa. Each Veda has its own Āraṇyaka. The 108 Upaniṣads which form the final portions of Vedas are concerned with spiritual knowledge.

The Vedic era is categorized into two distinct periods, i.e., the early and post-Vedic age. Vedic Saṃhitās contain a cornucopia of materials about diseases and medicines. Such plenitude of materials which boasts of such diversity cannot be viewed in isolation from the unbroken tradition of the science of Indian medicine. It is from these Vedic materials that Āyurveda evolved.

Vedic sources trace a consistent and continuous stream of medical tradition. These sources inform us that there were hundreds of medical practitioners and thousands of medicines i.e., herbs and plants. This section offers a brief but comprehensive history of Vedic medical tradition.

The Ṛgveda has defined the functions of physicians–

“The medicinal plants have assembled, as do the kings in an assembly; that Brāhmaṇa is called the physician who kills Rākṣasa and Amīvā”.

The physician is a scholar who has a thorough knowledge of the herbs and cures the germs of diseases.

The duties of the physician are to protect the universe and protect our bodies. The Aśvin-gods are invoked to cure diseases.

yatrauṣadhīḥ samagmata rājānaḥ samitāviva |
vipraḥ sa ucyate bhiṣag rakṣohāmīvacātanaḥ ||

Vedic literature, in general, refers to numerous things which directly or indirectly constitute ancient medical tradition. Thus, the Ṛgveda mentions toxic germs and the method of their liquidation, the removal of varied and different Yakṣmās, the curing of cardiac maladies by the rays of the Sun; water and herbs are propounded as medicines. Diseases such as Yakṣma, Ajñātayakṣma, Rājayakṣma, Grāhi, Hārimā, Pṛṣṭyāmaya, Hṛdroga etc are mentioned. Again, to cure disease some Vedic Gods are invoked, like restoring Jāhuṣa and restoring youth to ageing Cyavana. The hymn 161 refers to the diseases like phthisis, tuberculosis etc, as curable diseases. It is further said that the life span suffer could be extended to any limit in a normal way[2]. It is called Rejuvenating or Punaryauvana. Hymn 162 refers to the cure of embryonic and uterine diseases in the case of uterine and vaginal[3] illness. The hymn 163 talks about the enumeration of different diseases of different organs and parts of the body. The anatomical division of the body is discussed in the hymn which tends to be affected by pathological surgical or bacteriological derangements[4]. The 164 hymns refer to the cure of the psychological diseases by affecting the rational functioning of the mind. The following chant is for the removal of the effect of poison. The hymn is for the killing of visible and invisible germs with Sun-rays. The God Indra will kill the infectious germs[5].

Ṛgveda has ample reference to surgical treatment. The Aśvin Gods are celestial physicians. Their accomplishments in the field of surgery and medicine are multifarious and wide-ranging. They restored life to Vandana and Chyavāna with a prescription–Rasāyana; they prolonged the life of Dīrghatamas even though he was geriatric and had been beheaded by the Dāsas; they affixed an iron leg to Viśpalā, the mare, which had become lame in a race; they attached the severed limbs of Atri and others; they revived Śyāvāśva who was dismembered by his enemies; they joined the head of a horse to a decapitated Dadhīci; they restored eyesight to Ṛjrāśva, and Kaṇva and auditory abilities to Nārṣada. It is because of them that Parāvṛja and Śroṇa could walk again; they bestowed robust virility to the impotent husband of Vadhrimatī and healed Ghoṣā and

Śyāva of leprosy. The surgery of eye-sight to cure blindness is referred in 1/117/17 hymns.

These are all the surgical achievements of the Aśvin Gods. These divine physicians possess great knowledge of plants and herbs. They have the power to give strength to limbs, remove old age and grant longevity. They could even make the cow of Śaṃyu Ārcatka yield milk. Hence, prayers are offered to them for obtaining medicine.

As both surgical and medical virtuosity are ascribed to the Aśvins. It may be conjectured that one of them was a surgeon and the other was a physician. To them are accredited by tradition such texts as ‘Cikitsā Tantra’, ‘Āśvina Saṃhitā’ etc. The Bower Manuscript contains a ‘Harītakī Kalpa’ which was a special preparation by the Aśvin Gods. Not less than forty medical formulae are attributed to them. Caraka and Suśruta- Saṃhitās record the medical miracles accomplished by these ethereal physicians.

Similarly, the Ṛgveda attributes medical abilities to Indra. He, too, aided Parāvṛja and Śroṇa in restoring their eyesight and the ability to walk, respectively[6]. He cured the dermatological ailment of Apālā and the alopecia of her father[7]. He knew medicines[8]. Caraka mentions ‘Indroktam rasāyanam’. Medical powers are attributed to Marut Gods and Rudra[9]. Rudra is the first and most accomplished celestial physician[10]. Rudra’s medicines are presented–‘prathamo daivyo bhiṣak’ Sixty-two medical decoctions are attributed to Rudra[11].

The history of Tridhātu has a long tradition and we find its existence in the Ṛgveda. The Tridhātu and its equal distribution in the human body create a sense of balance in our body. Sāyaṇācārya, the famous commentator of Vedas interpreted the tridhātus as Vāta, Pitta and Śleṣma. The Ṛgveda is the primary germ of a long tradition of Āyurveda. Āyurveda is comprised of Pañca-mahābhūta and three doṣas. The five primary principles are Prāṇa or Vāta (air), Agni or Pitta (fire) and Soma or Kapha (water and earth). But, in Sāṅkhya philosophy, it is described that the whole world is made up of twenty-four elements: ether, earth, water, fire, and air. But there are some doṣas in our body according to our philosophy: Pitta doṣa (fire), Kapha doṣa (earth and water) and

Vāta doṣa (air and ether). These make Āyurveda a primary factor behind the therapeutic medical procedure. The Ṛgveda also talks about a rare discussion on organ transplantation and curing remedies through the use of ‘soma’, a kind of heavenly elixir. The whole science of Āyurveda, the Ṛgveda as its primary source, was first revealed to a sage called Bharadvāja from heaven. The knowledge of these Āyurveda is comprised of three factors which are called trisūtras and these are etiology (deals with causes of disease), symptomatology (deals with the interpretation of symptoms and its remedies).

The Ṛgveda also talks about the usage of natural remedies to cure diseases and these things are sun rays, fire, air, water, etc. These natural remedies have been briefly mentioned as symbolic representatives of Tridoṣas.

Sunrays ward of disease like worms, cardiac problems, jaundice, etc. Water keeps the whole body active and it has many medicinal properties. Fire kills bacteria and viruses. Air also has been described as Bhiṣak. The Ṛgveda also discusses veterinary problems. The Ṛgveda has a long description of difficult topics like surgery. It describes countless diseases and their remedies. The Yajurveda’s primary focus is karma. It has a chapter called karmakāṇḍa which describes rituals relating to surgeries of animals and human beings. The most striking feature in this Yajurveda is medicinal plants and its usage has been discussed. The most prominent trees which have been described are Arśas, Śvayathu, Galagaṇḍu, Slīpada, Yakṣma, Mukhapāka, Kṣata etc[12].

Earlier, people used to sacrifice in the functions. Rare diseases like Arumaśikhā, Viśucika, Hṛdroga, Arma (eye diseases), karma roga, Kuṣṭha etc. have been discussed in Āyurveda.

The Sāmaveda rarely talks about medical science. It deals with some natural remedies and its properties like water and fire etc.

Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentioned three-sixty bones in a human body. This Samhita also describes the complete anatomy of human and horse bodies[13]. Vedas mentioned that our body is a blend of five basic elements ‘Pañca-mahābhūta’. Some chapters of some Veda talk about digestion metabolism and physical development in between the conversation between Śvetaketu and his father. Vedas have many passages about the harmful effect of kṛmis or worms and some microbes. Among these things, there are some visible (dṛṣṭa) and invisible (adṛṣṭa). It also mentions that sun rays have the power to destroy these microbes.

There are many classifications of herbs based on their medicinal properties. It doesn't only talk about herbs but also some usage of minerals like iron, gold, etc. Here are some examples of those herbs and its usages: Rājīva (jaundice), Kuṣṭha (leprosy), Tuberculosis (malarial fever), Haritalā (skin diseases), Pṛśniparṇi (abortions and aliments of blood), Haring śṛṅga (leprosy, tuberculosis, Apasmāra), Satāvarī (rasāyana), Rohiṇī (fractures), Sahadevī (relieving thirst), Apāmārga (toothbrush) and Aśvattha (Saṅkramikā rogas) etc.

Blood circulation and its process are also discussed in the Vedas. It also tells about very unheard poisons like Sthāvara viṣa (plant origin), Jaṅgama viṣa (animal origin) etc. Topics like rasāyana and Vājīkaraṇa are also discussed.

Later comes topics like obstetrics and gynaecology and prominent doctors of these branches are Viskalā, Sarasvatī, and Sāvitrī etc. The Atharva Veda talks about the mechanism of labour and its management. It also discusses the labour position and howto bring babies into the real world. The Vedas also talks about medicines prayers and staying out from germs during labour days and the postnatal period.

The mechanism of labour and the management was also available in Vedas, especially in Atharvaveda. During labour dorsal position was suggested. To relieve the abnormalities of labour of puerperal disorders certain oblations and other practices were prevalent. For asphyxia neonatorum, artificial respiration was too. Similarly, attention was also paid regarding the infections about the female reproductive system as well as infertility. Vedas prescribe medicines, prayers and the wearing of gems and precious stones for relief from ailments.

Replacement of artificial head is referred to in 1/117/22 verse where it is said that the Aśvin-gods to replace an artificial head of a horse to Dadhyaṅ. The replacement of artificial legs also referred to in the 1/116/25 verse. It says that the Aśvin-gods replaced an iron leg to Viśpalā. In the verse of 1/117/19 invoke the Aśvin-gods who cure lame person successfully. Again verse 1/117/24 refers to the treatment of Śyāva whose limbs were broken in three parts and gave him a new life.

Ṛgveda has ample reference to surgical treatment. The surgery of eye-sight to cure blindness is referred in 1/117/17 hymns—

ākṣī ṛjrāsve aśvināvadhattaṃ jyotirandhāya cakrathurvicakṣe ||”.

Replacement of artificial head is referred to in 1/117/22 verse where it is said that the Aśvin-gods to replace an artificial head of a horse to Dadhyaṅ—

ātharvaṇāyāśvinā dadhīce'śvyaṃ śiraḥ pratyairayatam |”.

The replacement of artificial legs also referred to in the 1/116/15 verse–

sadyo jaṃghāmāyasīṃ viśpalāyai dhane hite sartave pratyadhattam ||”.

It says that the Aśvin-gods replaced an iron leg to Viśpalā–

mahī vāmutiraśvinā mayobhūruta strāmaṃ śatamekaṃ ca meṣān ||”.

In the verse of 1/117/19 invoke the Aśvin-gods who cure lame person successfully.

Again verse 1/117/24 refers to the treatment of Śyāva whose limbs were broken in three parts and gave him a new life–

tridhā ha śyāvamaśvinā vikastamujjīvasa erayataṃ sudānu ||[14].

In the Taittirīya Saṃhitā of the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda also we find curing of eyesight and the diseases like Yakṣma, Unmāda, and Jāyenya etc[15].

The Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda mentions the Cākṣuṣopaniṣad. The Upaniṣad mentions some hymns and its effect to cure diseases related to human eyes. The practical benefit of the Upaniṣad has been mentioned in the very first line when it talks about inviting sun rays from the god to weed out darkness.

Later comes the Cakṣuṣī Vidyā which banks on topics related to human blindness. The whole study of this Cakṣuṣī Vidyā is to destroy the human blindness. The primary sage in this Cakṣuṣī Vidyā is “Ahirbudhnya”. The whole hymn is devoted to goddess Gāyatrī and the lord sun. The whole hymn discusses men’s entire devotion to Gāyatrī and the sun god to remove blindness and protect mankind from eye-related diseases. The sun god is the symbol of purity and no one can stand in front of him. The person who recites the mantras of this Upanishad doesn't suffer any kind of eye-related diseases. His whole clan is free of eye-related diseases. But the learning should be made to understand the whole ślokas and it must be duty-bound.

The lord sun is the primary trio who manifests truth medication and pleasure. The god has made the whole world upon the basis of lord sun. He is the keeper of the time which

is revolving and every ‘kāla’ is being watched by him and ultimately, it leads to the creation of ‘Hiraṇyamaya Puruṣa’. The lord sun is within every living being[16].

A very great saint like Priyamedhā comes in front of the lord sun like a bird and he starts his praying to remove the darkness and ignorance from mankind. Salutations have been also given to the lord Puṇḍarīkākṣa, Puṣkarekṣaṇa, Amalekṣaṇa, Kamalekṣaṇa etc[17].

Among the Gṛhya Sūtras, the Āśvalāyana contains warning against sleeping at sun-rise and sun-set which is a cause of diseases, against the diseases to be avoided by the sacrifice, and the diseases of the beasts[18]. The Śāṅkhāyana instructs against singing Vedic hymns at the time of physical pain; curing of all diseases. Similarly, Gobhila contains references to charms for curing diseases; and against snake-bite[19]. The Āpastamba gives a charm for suffering women; ascribes the cause of a headache to germs and the cause of hydrophobia of a child to dog-bite[20]. It also deals with the disease Kṣetriya in a child. In the same way, the Pāraskara contains prescription against headache.

The Hiraṇyakeśin emphasizes the use of fire or heat against diseases (V.2.28), especially Kṣetriya (II.3.10) and the Kāthaka has a description of germs (IV.4.5.), the diseases of cows (IV.3.13) and the treatment of snake-bite.

“Further transitional stages”, says Jolly in connection with the continuity of the Āyurveda, “are found by the Buddhist medicine e.g., the serpent-spell in the bower MS, as by the Gṛhya Sūtras and the Dharma Sūtras which show literal agreement with the medical works in the descriptions of the Saṃskāras, hygiene, embryology, anatomy and the doctrine of rebirth and by both Epics and the Purāṇas”.

The Brāhmaṇa, the Upaniṣad and the Sūtra work variously refer to the medical material and point out the unbroken continuity of the ancient medical tradition. Thus, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Aśvins as Physicians; Prāṇa and senses[21]; curing of

diseases like Unmāda, Kuṣṭha etc. by herbs and refers to the infliction of Varuṇa in the form of dropsy in the story of Śunaḥśepa[22]; recommends an ointment for eye-disease[23].

The Chāndogya Upaniṣad describes the arteries of the heart[24], the effects of sleeping in the day time on health[25], the process of the digestion of food[26]; curing of the disease Pāmā[27] and a method to live up to a hundred years[28].

The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad describes the body of a horse[29], a human body[30], the arteries of the heart[31]; the mechanism of the eye and the idea that the diseases are caused by curses[32]. The Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa has suggested means to protect against serpents; against ghosts and diseases[33]. The Taittirīya Āraṇyaka describes germs. Similarly, the Āśvalāyana Śrauta Sūtra describes diseases to be avoided; so, does the Āpastamba Śrauta Sūtra mention germs to be avoided etc[34].

Medicine is Amṛta in human life. It benefits human life in many ways. For shelter and survival nature gives us wood, fruits, flowers and to eradicate sorrow and distress if it gives healing herbs. In Ṛgveda, a complete sūkta is medicinal sūkta[35]. In the twentythree mantra, the greatness of medicines has been described. It is said that the creation of medicine is before humans' birth in the world. In the first mantra, it is said that medicine has come three yugas before the devas[36]. In the second mantra, it is said that medicines came in hundreds of different places[37]. In the third mantra, it is said that medicines remove distress and sorrow of human beings. In the fourth mantra, medicine

is compared with mother medicines remove sorrow and distress and gives happiness. In the sixth mantra, it is said that medicine removes all doṣas and helps remove diseases. He prescribed medicines called Bhiṣak or Vaidya. In the tenth mantra, it is said that medicines remove all emptiness. In the twelfth mantra, it is said that medicines influence every organ of the body and removes all diseases. In the seventeenth mantra, it is said that medicine cures the person's body when it enters the body. In the twentieth mantra, it is said that medicine cures sixtieth humans and animals. In the fifteenth mantra, it is said that medicines are of four types with fruit, without fruit, with flower, without flower. In the seventh mantra, it is said that medicines increase human energy and enthusiasm for which the human body and mind become vigorous. In the ninth mantras, it is said that medicines remove diseases from inside the human body and prevent the diseases from entering into the human body and maintaining the balance of the body.

The same has been described in twenty-seventh mantras of Yajurveda[38]. The principal book of medicine is Atharvaveda. Hundreds of sūktas are linked with medicines and Ayurveda are related to this book. There are numberless medicines described in this book. Vanaspati and related words are found in the Veda and Brāhmaṇa books. In the Ṛgveda sixty-three, Yajurveda eighty-two, Atharvaveda two hundred eighty-eight, Brāhmaṇa one hundred twenty-nine, Upaniṣad thirty-one, Kalpa Sūkta five hundred nineteen, Pāṇini Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vārtika one hundred fifty-two, Yoga thirty-one, Patañjali Mahābhāṣya one hundred nine, Yāskakṛta Nirukta twenty-six. In Aitareya Brāhmaṇa it is said that Vanaspati is Prāṇa. Vanaspati gives oxygen to humans. Therefore, Vanaspati is life. Therefore, to save humankind, the explanation of Vanaspati is necessary[39].

Rain is the essential element is the creation and growth of medicine. Therefore, medicine is called father in Dyuloka and earth is called mother. There are many synonyms of medicine.

According to Sāyaṇācārya the etymology of medicine is–

oṣaḥ pākaḥ āsu dhīyate iti oṣadhayaḥ|”[40]

That means those who will get the fruits. In the Nirukta of the word ‘Auṣudhi’—

oṣadhayaḥ oṣaddhayantīti vauṣatyenā dhayantīti vā doṣaṃ dhayantīti vā |[41]

That means it creates energy in the body, prescribes it and cures all doṣas. In Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Auṣudhi is called Doṣanāśaka[42]. There in Tridoṣa-nāśaka is medicine and it removes the pollutants in the environment. Therefore, medicine is a special role in human life and Ayurveda. Medicines are mainly of two types–Vanaspati and Auṣudhi. Vanaspati is used for trees and Auṣudhi is used for saplings. In Ṛgveda the word ‘Vanin’ is used for trees and vanaspati[43]. Vanaspati is two types–Vanaspati and Vānaspatya. Vanaspati is used for big trees and Vānaspatya is used for saplings. Medicines again are of two types -Auṣudhi and Vīrudh. For small saplings, herbs and creepers are used. These four varieties are found in Atharvaveda[44]. The word Bhaiṣajī is used for medicine in Atharvaveda[45].

The medicines in Atharvaveda are clarified according to nature, quality and appearance. For example—Vabhru, Śukra, Rohiṇī, Pṛśni, Asiknī, Kṛṣṇā. According to natural medicines use of different types like -Prastṛṇatī, Stamvinī, Ekaśuṃga, Pratanvatī, Aṃśumatī, Kāṇḍinī, Viśākhā. According to quality medicine classified as—Jīvalā, Naghāriṣā, Arundhatī, Unnayantī, Madhumatī, Pracetasa, Medinī, Ugra, Viṣadūṣanī, Balāsanāśanī. According to effect medicines are of different types—Puṣpavatī, Prasūmatī, Phalinī, Aphalā[46].

Footnotes and references:


ṚV. –10/97/6; Nimay Chandra Pal (ed.), Ṛgveda Saṃhitā, trans. Ramesh Chandra Dutta, Swadesh Publication, 2007, p.1280.


ṚV–10/161/1-6; Nimay Chandra Pal (ed.), Ṛgveda Saṃhitā, trans. Ramesh Chandra Dutta, Swadesh Publication, 2007; pp.1352–1353.


ṚV. –10/162/1-4; Ibid., p.1353.


ṚV. –10/163/1-6; Ibid., p.1354.


ṚV. –10/164/3-4; Ibid., p.1355.


ṚV. –II.15.7


ṚV. –VIII.91.7


ṚV. –II.23.7


ṚV. –II.33.13; VII.4.4


ṚV. –XVI.5; II.33.4


ṚV. –I.43.2, 4; I.114.1; II.33.2, 4, 12, 13; V.22.11; VII.46.3; TS. IV.5.10.1 etc.


Śukla Yajurveda–XII.75-89, 90-101.


Śukla Yajurveda–XIX.81-93; XX.5-9; XXV.1-9; XXXI.10.13, 30 etc.


K. D. Dvivedi, The Essence of The Vedas, Gyanpur, Vishva Bharati Research Institute, 2016, pp. 234- 255.


Taittirīya Saṃhitā–II.1,1.1.; II.4,15.9 etc.


K. L. Joshi, et al. (ed.), 112 Upaniṣad (Vol. 2), Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2016, pp.508-509.


oṃ namo bhagavate ādityaya ahovāhinyahovāhinī svāhā | oṃ vayaḥ suparṇā upasedurindraṃ priyamedhā ṛṣayo nādhamānāḥ | apadhvāntamūrṇūhi pūrddhi cakṣurmumugdhyasmānnidhayeva baddhān | puṇḍarīkākṣāya namaḥ | puṣkarekṣaṇāya namaḥ | amalekṣaṇāya namaḥ | kamalekṣaṇāyaḥ namaḥ | viśvarūpāya namaḥ | mahāviṣṇave namaḥ |(Cākṣuṣopaniṣad–3) K. L. Joshi, et al. (ed.), 112 Upaniṣad (Vol. 2), Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2016, p.509.


Āśvalāyana Gṛhya Sūtra–III.7.1,2; I.23,10; IV.8.40


Gobhila Gṛhya Sūtra–IV.6.2; IV.9.16


Āpastamba Gṛhya Sūtra–III.9.10; VII.18.1


Aitareya Brāhmaṇa–V.22


Aitareya Brāhmaṇa–III.40


Aitareya Brāhmaṇa–VII.3


Chāndogya Upaniṣad–VIII.1.6


Chāndogya Upaniṣad–IV.3.3


Chāndogya Upaniṣad–VI.5


Chāndogya Upaniṣad–IV.1.8


Chāndogya Upaniṣad–III.16.


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad–I.1.1


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad–II.4.11


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad–II.1.19; IV.2.3; IV.3.20


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad–III.7.1; III.9.26


Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa–II.2.3; II.2.2; II.2.3


Āpastamba Śrauta Sūtra–XV.19.5


ṚV. -X/97/1-23; Ṛgveda-Saṃhitā, trans. Ramesh Chandra Dutta, Kolkata, Sribalaram Prakashani, 2007, pp. 1280-1282.


oṣadhīḥ purvā jātā devebhyastriyugaṃ purā |
manai nu babhrūṇāmahaṃ śataṃ dhāmāni sapta ca ||
(ṚV. -X/97/1); Acharya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Ṛgveda–Vol. 4, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 434.


śataṃ vo amba dhāmāni sahasramuta vo ruhaḥ |
adhā śatakratvo yūyamimaṃ me agadaṃ kṛta ||
(ṚV. -X/97/2); Acharya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Ṛgveda–Vol. 4, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 434.


yā oṣadhīḥ pūrvā jātā devebhyastriyuga purā | manai nu............. (YV. -XII/75-100); Acharya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Yajurveda, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, pp. 172-177.


P. V. Sharma, Dravyaguṇa Vijñāna Vol. 4, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2018, pp. 200-217.


garbho asyoṣadhīnāṃ garbho himavatāmuta |


Nirukta–9/27; Nirukta by Ācārya Yāska, Digital Library of India, 1914, p. 430.


oṣaṃdhayeti | tata oṣadhayaḥ samabhavan | (ŚB. 2/2/4/5) The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa: According to the Mādhyandina Recension with the Commentaries of Sāyaṇācārya and Harisvāmin, Delhi, Nag Publishers, 1990, p. 400.


tamoṣadhīśca vaninaśca garbhaṃ bhūmiśca viśvadhāyasaṃ vibharti | (ṚV. -VII/4/5); Acharya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Ṛgveda–Vol. 3, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 30.


vanaspatīn vānaspatyan oṣadhīruta vīrudhaḥ | (AV. -VIII/8/14); K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā–Vol. II, Delhi. Parimal Publication, 2015, p. 192.


agnerghāso apāṃ garbho yā rohanti punarṇavāḥ |
dhruvāḥ sahasranāmnīrbheṣajīḥ santvābhṛtāḥ ||
(AV. -VIII/7/8); K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā -Vol. II, Delhi. Parimal Publication, 2015, p. 182.


K. D. Dvivedi & B. Dvivedi, Vedoṇ Meṇ Āyurveda (Medical Science in the Vedas), Jyanapur, Visvabharati Anusandhan Parishad, 2018, pp. 237-238.

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