Shringa, Śṛṅga, Shrimga: 28 definitions


Shringa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śṛṅga can be transliterated into English as Srnga or Shringa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “an animal horn” used for various purposes. In a different context, it can refer to a kind of medicinal or poisonous plant . The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. Also see Śārṅga, which means “made of horn”, or, in a different context it means derived or taken from the plant Śṛṅga (as poison).

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to “peak” or “summit” of a mountain (giri) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Śṛṅga], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “horn” (of a cow), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—In the Añjana or Collyrium segment of the eighth Adhyāya, Kāśyapa prescribes eight types of permutation and combination of herbs that effectively arrest poison. According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse VIII.37)—“A combination of Śiriṣa, Elā, Niśā, Lac, Māṃsī, Yaṣṭhi, Mustard, salt, Trivṛt, Yaṣṭhi, Viśālā, Trikaṭu, two varieties of Niśā, with Madhu and Māñjiṣṭhā placed in the cow’s horn (go-śṛṅga-stha) form a formidable drug to eliminate venom”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to “Śiva’s horn”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.27 (“Description of the fraudulent words of the Brahmacārin”).—Accordingly, as Śiva (in guise of a Brahmacārin) said to Pārvatī: “[...] Sandal paste is applied on your body, while the ashes of the funeral pyre on that of Śiva. Where your silken garment and where the elephant-hide of Śiva. Where the divine ornaments and where the serpents of Śiva? Where the deities that move about and where Śiva, fond of goblins and their oblations? Where the pleasing sound of his tabor? Where His peculiar drum called Damaru? Where the set of fine drums and the inauspicious sound of his horn [i.e., śṛṅga-ravaśṛṃgaravaḥ śubhaḥ]? [...]”.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग).—Śiva’s special musical instrument. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 8).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग).—A mountain three hillocks of jewels, gems and gold.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 113. 68-9.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śṛṇga (शृण्ग) refers to a “peak” (of a mountain), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] That city of the Supreme Lord is on top of the lord of the principles. It is adorned with snow (white) moonstones and varied enclosing walls, archways, and palaces. It possesses many qualities and wonders. There the god is the lord of the (Water) principle and his form is sustained by the goddess. He is dark blue and, possessing great power, he holds a noose and has beautiful eyes. It is the foundation of all creation and is on top of the great sacred seat. Full of many (divine) qualities, one should mark the sacred seat of Jālandhara there on Kailāśa’s southern peak [i.e., śṛṅgakailāsadakṣiṇe śṛṅge]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) (Cf. Viṣāṇa) refers to the “two horns of the moon”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the two horns of the moon should appear but slightly raised [i.e., īṣat-śṛṅga] and far from each other presenting the appearance of a boat, she brings trouble on the sailors but prosperity on mankind at large. If the northern horn of the moon should be higher than the other by one-half, the moon appearing like a plough, ploughmen will then suffer. They and their prince will be friendly and there will be prosperity in the land. If the southern horn should be higher than the other by one half, the appearance of the moon is also said to be plough like but of evil consequences. The ruler of Southern India will die and his army will engage in war”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Shringa in Yoga glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “peak (of a mountain)”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “The moon is on the peak of Meru (meruśṛṅga) and has sixteen digits. Facing downwards, it rains dewy nectar day and night”.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “peak of a mountain”, according to the Yogatārāvalī: a short Yoga text of twenty-nine verses presenting Haṭhayoga as the means to Rājayoga (i.e., Samādhi).—Accordingly, while describing the no-mind state: “'[Practising] in caves on the peak (śṛṅga) of Śrī Śaila [mountain], when will I succeed in dissolving my mind as prescribed [earlier and attain success] in Samādhi? When vines cover my body and when birds build nests in my ear”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “horn” (of a sheep), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.1-9, while describing the appearance and worship of Viṣṇu]—“Or, [the Mantrin] worships a very handsome, eight-armed, yellow Deva. He is naked, sits on a ram, and is unadorned. He rests on one horn (śṛṅgaśṛṅgaṃ vaṣṭabhya caikena) [of a sheep and] offer up a pile of wheel spokes, the hand... having the shape of a boy. [He is] constantly at play with a flock of beautiful, naked women. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “peak” of the temple (in ancient Indian architecture), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—It is important to note that the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa states that the top of a temple should not be skull shaped or pointed. Instead, the top of a temple should be made evenly and is to be decorated with some auspicious figures. The śṛṅga i.e., the peak of the temple should be white washed with lime and the kaṭi i.e lower part of the temple should be painted by different colours.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग):—Sanskrit word for a weapon in connection with Indra, as mentioned in the Vāyu-purāṇa.

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) in the Rigveda and later denotes the ‘horn’ of any sort of animal. Hence the ‘barb’ of the arrow is called its horn in the Atharvaveda.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “horns” (of recollection), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “The great vehicle (mahāyāna) is made with four wheels (cakra), namely with the means of attraction, the spokes (ara) are well fitted as the roots of good have been transformed with intention, [...] it is powered by the power of understanding four holy truths, it has the power of a thousand well-bred horses (ājanya), it goes to all buddha-fields by four magical feet (ṛddhipāda), the horns (śṛṅga) of recollection are bound with the string of a jewel necklace (ratnamālā), it roams widely and broadly since it contains all living beings, it fulfills its function as it subdues enemies and the Māras, [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to the “horn” and represents one of the five Dundubhis (musical instruments) or Pañcamahāśabda (five musical instruments).—(Cf. Prof. Bhandarkar’s “Jaina Iconography” Ind. Ant., 1911, June.)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग) refers to “peak (of a mountain)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This most powerful [and] cruel death devours against their will the life of those who possess a body that has settled in the middle world, in hell, in the world of Brahmā, in Indra’s abode, in the middle of the ocean, inside the forest, at all quarters of the globe, on a mountain-peak (śaila-śṛṅga), in a place difficult of access on account of fire, forest, cold, darkness, thunderbolts [and] swords, or in [a place] crowded with a troop of ruttish elephants”.

Synonyms: Mastaka.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śṛṅga.—(EI 14), mentioned in relation to a tank. Note: śṛṅga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śṛṅga (शृंग).—n (S) A horn. 2 The peak of a mountain: also a crag or projection. 3 A cusp or horn of the moon. 4 fig. An irritating or galling point (as insisted on or adduced to provoke a quarrel &c.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śṛṅga (शृंग).—n A horn. The peak of a mountain, a crag. Fig. A calling point.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग).—[śṝ-gan pṛṣo° mum hrasvaśca Uṇādi-sūtra 1.123]

1) A horn; वन्यैरिदानीं महिषैस्तदम्भः शृङ्गाहतं क्रोशति दीर्घिकाणाम् (vanyairidānīṃ mahiṣaistadambhaḥ śṛṅgāhataṃ krośati dīrghikāṇām) R.16.13; गाहन्तां महिषां निपानसलिलं शृङ्गैर्मुहुस्ताडितम् (gāhantāṃ mahiṣāṃ nipānasalilaṃ śṛṅgairmuhustāḍitam) Ś.2.6.

2) The top or summit of a mountain; अद्रेः शृङ्गं हरति पवनः किंस्विदित्युन्मुखीभिः (adreḥ śṛṅgaṃ harati pavanaḥ kiṃsvidityunmukhībhiḥ) Meghadūta 14,54.; Kirātārjunīya 5.42; R.13.26.

3) The top of a building, turret.

4) Elevation, height; रक्षो- लोकस्य सर्वस्य कः शृङ्गं छेत्तुमिच्छति (rakṣo- lokasya sarvasya kaḥ śṛṅgaṃ chettumicchati) Rām.3.31.43.

5) Lordship, sovereignty, supremacy, eminence; शृङ्गं स दृप्तविनयाधिकृतः परेषामत्युच्छ्रितं न ममृषे न तु दीर्धमायुः (śṛṅgaṃ sa dṛptavinayādhikṛtaḥ pareṣāmatyucchritaṃ na mamṛṣe na tu dīrdhamāyuḥ) R.9.62 (where the word means a 'horn' also).

6) A cusp or horn of the moon.

7) Any peak, point or projection in general.

8) A horn (of a buffalo &c.) used for blowing.

9) A syringe; वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तैः (varṇodakaiḥ kāñcanaśṛṅgamuktaiḥ) R.16.7.

1) Excess of love, rising of desire.

11) A mark, sign.

12) A lotus.

13) A fountain of water.

14) Pride, selfrespect; अवाप्य पृथिवीं कृत्स्नां न ते शृङ्गमवर्धत (avāpya pṛthivīṃ kṛtsnāṃ na te śṛṅgamavardhata) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.3.1 (com. śṛṅgaṃ prabhutvābhimānaḥ).

15) The stick (kāṇḍa) of an arrow with a horn-like knob; शृङ्गमग्निर्बभूवास्य भल्लः सोमो विशांपते (śṛṅgamagnirbabhūvāsya bhallaḥ somo viśāṃpate) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 8.34.18.

16) A particular military array; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.

17) The female breast.

Derivable forms: śṛṅgam (शृङ्गम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग).—n.

(-ṅgaṃ) 1. A horn. 2. A mark, a sign. 3. The top of a mountain. 4. The summit of a building. 5. Any point or projection. 6. A horn of the moon. 7. A horn used as a wind-instrument. 8. Sovereignty, mastership. 9. Dignity, elevation. 10. A fountain, an artificial one or jet d'eau. 11. A lotus. 12. Very sharp. 13. Minutely fine. 14. Excess of love. m.

(-ṅgaḥ) 1. A medicinal root, commonly Jivaka. 2. A Muni so named. f. (-ṅgī) 1. Gold. 2. A fish, (Silurus Singio, Ham.) 3. A plant (Betula.) 4. Rishabha, a medicinal root, sharped like a bull’s horn. 5. Another plant, a kind of Rhus, with an excrescence or gall in the bark, compared to a crab’s horn. E. śṝ to injure, Unadi aff. gan, and the vowel made short.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग).—probably śara + m-ga (cf. śṛ10), I. n. 1. A horn, [Pañcatantra] 9, 7; a horn-like vessel, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 16, 70. 2. The top of a mountain, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 77; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 188, 21 (udaya -acala-indra-padmarāga-śṛṅga-kalpā, As if it [viz. the sun] was the ruby top of the mountain Udaya); summit of a building, [Pañcatantra] 10, 8. 3. Height, dignity. 4. Sovereignty. 5. A mark. 6. A lotus. 7. An artificial fountain. Ii. f. . 1. A fish, a sort of silurus. 2. A sort of drug. 3. A sort of gold used for making trinkets.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग).—[neuter] (adj. —° [feminine] ā & ī) horn (of every kind), tusk of an elephant, syringe, peak of a mountain, turret of a temple or palace; top, point i.[grammar], also [figuratively] the best of its kind.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग):—n. (perhaps connected with śiras, śīrṣan; ifc. f(ā or ī). ) the horn of an animal, a horn used for various purposes (as in drinking, for blowing, drawing blood from the skin etc.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the tusk of an elephant, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

3) the top or summit of a mountain, a peak, crag, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) the summit of a building, pinnacle, turret, [ib.]

5) any peak or projection or lofty object, elevation, point, end, extremity, [Atharva-veda; Kumāra-sambhava; Gīta-govinda]

6) a cusp or horn of the moon, [Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) highest point, acme, height or perfection of anything, [Harivaṃśa 6424]

8) the horn as a symbol of self reliance or strength or haughtiness, [Raghuvaṃśa]

9) the rising of desire, excess of love or passion (cf. śṛṅgāra), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

10) a [particular] military array in the form of a horn or crescent, [Mahābhārata vi, 2413]

11) a syringe, water-engine, [Raghuvaṃśa; Śiśupāla-vadha]

12) the female breast, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

13) a lotus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Agallochum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) a mark, token, sign, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) = śaśaśṛṅga, ‘hare’s horn’, anything impossible or extra ordinary, [Kusumāñjali]

17) m. a kind of medicinal or poisonous plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) Name of a Muni (of whom, in some parts of India, on occasions of drought, earthen images are said to be made and worshipped for rain), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

19) cf. [Latin] cornu; [Gothic] háurn; [German], [English] horn.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śṛṅga (शृङ्ग):—(ṅgaṃ) 1. n. A horn; a mark; a peak; elevation, dignity; artificial fountain; lotus; very sharp or fine. m. Name of a sage. f. (ī) A fish and a plant; gold.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shringa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śṛṃga (ಶೃಂಗ):—

1) [noun] a hard, hollow, bony or keratinous, permanent projection that grows on the head of various hoofed animals, esp. bovid ruminants; a horn.

2) [noun] the highest point of a mountain; the peak.

3) [noun] a serpentine horn or the one in the shape of the horn of a bull, played by blowing air through it.

4) [noun] height or elevation.

5) [noun] reign; kingship.

6) [noun] the quality or fact of being important; importance.

7) [noun] a king; a monarch.

8) [noun] the tusk of an elephant.

9) [noun] the top portion of a tree.

10) [noun] a device consisting of a narrow tube that has a narrow opening at one end, and a moveable piston, used for ejecting a liquid in a stream.

11) [noun] the flexible strip of a bow (to which a string is tied tightly).

12) [noun] a lotus flower.

13) [noun] either of the breasts of a woman.

14) [noun] Řṣyaśřnga, a celebrated sage.

15) [noun] the plant Adathoda vasica ( = Justicia adhatoda) of Acanthaceae family.

16) [noun] a corner point of a triangle, square, cube, parallelepiped or other geometric figure bounded by lines, planes or lines and planes; a vertex.

17) [noun] (astron.) name of a constellation.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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