Study, Studying: 2 definitions

Introduction:

Study means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Study (i.e., studying a particular doctrine) is denoted by the Sanskrit term Paṭhana, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Not by studying the doctrines (siddhānta-paṭhana) of scriptural exegesis, logic, planets and mathematics, nor by the Vedas, Upaniṣads, Dharmaśāstras [and the like]; not even by lexicons nor metre, grammar, poetry nor rhetoric; the sage's attainment of the highest reality is gained only from the oral teachings of his own Guru. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Study (of the tenets of religion and philosophy) was an important part of the spiritual life in the Hermitages of ancient India, as vividly depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—Page 87.20-28: Here is a vivid description of the intellectual and spiritual life in the Aśrama of a Jaina Muni, somewhat similar to that in the hermitage of Divākara Mitra described by Bāṇa in the Harṣacarita where scholars studied, devoted and held controversies, disputations and exchange of views on several points of religion and philosophy.[...].

Uddyotanasūri gives a list of twenty-one methods of study and discussions and approaches to the tenets of religion and philosophy, e.g.,

  1. self-study,
  2. teaching,
  3. reflecting,
  4. resolving doubts,
  5. exposition by those who had grasped the meaning,
  6. listening to the texts after reciting them,
  7. composing new poems or Stotras,
  8. practising meditations and
  9. attending to the service of teachers,
  10. learning of rules of Vinaya,
  11. observing of Triratna in the form of darśana
  12. observing of Triratna in the form of jñāna,
  13. observing of Triratna in the form of cāritra,
  14. extolling the knowledge of the Tīrthaṃkaras and their Gaṇadharas,
  15. interrogating about points of doubts about the scriptures,
  16. practising the art of disputation,
  17. developing points of controversies in matters relating to Dharma and Adharma,
  18. deliberating about Bondage and Salvation of souls,
  19. pursuing the stages of Śukladhyāna and Dharmadhyāna,
  20. condemning the evils of egoism, pride and anger and greed, and
  21. speaking against the suffering of the world.
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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