Apasmara, Apasmāra: 30 definitions


Apasmara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Apasmar.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to “epilepsy”. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā. Eighteen types of epilepsy are listed in the Ārogyakalpadruma. Treatment of epilepsy involves normalizing and stabilizing the movements of vāta, by applying ghṛta (‘medicated ghee’) to the joints.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to “epilepsy”, as mentioned in verse 5.40 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “Frenzy, epilepsy [viz., apasmāra], stupor, (and) diseases affecting the head, ears, eyes, and womb destroys old ghee [viz., purāṇaghṛta]; it is purificatory and curative of wounds”.

Source: archive.org: Science And Technology In Medievel India (Ayurveda)

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to “epilepsy” and is one of the various diseases dealt with in the Dhanvantarīyapathyāpathya, as is mentioned in A. Rahman’s Science and Technology in Medievel India: A bibliography of source materials in Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian.—Ancient and medieval India produced a wide range of scientific manuscripts and major contributions lie in the field of medicine, astronomy and mathematics, besides covering encyclopedic glossaries and technical dictionaries.—The Dhanvantarīyapathyāpathya deals with the treatment of various diseases [e.g., Apasmāra]. The word pathyāpathya classifies those elements as either beneficial or hurtful in disease.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to “epilepsy” (seizure disorder). Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to “epilepsy” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning apasmāra] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Apasmāra (अपस्मार, “epilepsy”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Apasmāra (अपस्मार, “epilepsy”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as being possessed by a god, a Nāga, a Yakṣa, a Rākṣa, a Piśāca and the like, and a memory of such beings, eating food left after somebody’s partaking of it, staying in a deserted house, non-observation of proper interval of time [in taking food, in sleeping etc.], derangement of humours (dhātu) and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as throbbing, trembling, running, falling down, perspiration, foaming in the mouth, hiccup, licking [the lips] with the tongue, and the like.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Apasmara in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Apasmāra (अपस्मार).—A group of evil spirits.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 6. 28.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) is part of the Naṭarāja sculpture found at the temple of Lokeśvara.—Apasmāra is clad with a dhotī with kacce clearly traceable. His face is to the left of Śiva, lifted up, and he has a small horn. He has one necklace. He holds something in his hand, which may be a broom (?). As per the description of Apasmāra in Kālikākhaṇḍa of Skandapurāṇa, he should be black in color, have three heads and three eyes, six protruding canine teeth, three legs and six hands. Except the protruding canine teeth no other feature can be traced in any of the images of Apasmārapuruṣa either in sculptures or in paintings. But almost all modern scholars opine that the person trodden by Śiva is Apasmārapuruṣa. While waiting for new information we follow the interpretation of the galaxy of scholars.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to “epilepsy” according to the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 24). Accordingly, “owing to an excess of worry, grief, etc, the three doshas get vitiated and attack the heart, and thus destroy memory, resulting in what is called apasmara (epilepsy). This disease is to be diagnosed by the following symptoms;—(1) gradual loss of consciousness, (2) violent and automatic movements of the arms, feet, etc, and (3) loss of memory due to an excess of the three doshas. This disease is of four different kinds, (according as it is due to (a) vayu, (b) pitta, (c) kapha, and (d) a combination of the three.) An epileptic fit is generally preceded by palpitation of the heart, feeling of emptiness on all sides, perspiration, exceeding thoughtfulness, swoon, distraction, and insomnia”.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to a “group of supernatural beings” that cause illness, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—The Netratantra’s Second Chapter begins with the goddess Pārvatī’s request that Śiva reveal to her the remedy for the ailments that afflict divine and worldly beings. [...]. Śiva adds to the list of maladies a group of supernatural beings that cause illness: [e.g., Apasmāras], [...]. That Śiva discusses supernatural beings that cause such disease demonstrates how invisible forces affect the world in observable ways. In order to counter these forces, Śiva reveals another invisible but observable element, mantra.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Apasmāra).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Academia: Ritual Period: A Comparative Study of Three Newar Buddhist Menarche Manuals

Apasmara (अपस्मर) refers to “demons inducing epilepsy”, according to the “Vādhā byaṃ ke vidhi”: the name of two manuscripts written by (1) Kathmandu-based priest, Badriratna Bajracharya and (2) Buddharatna Bajracharya from Lalitpur.—Badriratna’s text pays the most attention to the invocations of celestial bodies and other cosmologically grouped agents. The list consists of [e.g., demons inducing epilepsy (apasmaras)]. In this list, we particularly find the dark forces that are especially adept at causing problems for women, children and, more specifically, girl children, addressed and harnessed.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Apasmara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

apasmāra : (m.) epilepsy.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Apasmāra, (Sk. apasmāra, lit. want of memory, apa + smṛ) epilepsy, convulsion, fit J.IV, 84. Cp. apamāra. (Page 53)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

apasmāra (अपस्मार).—m (S) Epilepsy. 2 fig. Applied to any refractory and troublesome person; a plague, pest &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

apasmāra (अपस्मार).—m Epilepsy. Fig. Any refractory and troublesome person, a plague.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार).—f. [apasmārayati smaraṇaṃ vilopayati, smṛ-ṇic, kartari ac, or apagataḥ smāraḥ smaraṇaṃ yataḥ]

1) Forgetfulness, loss of memory; स्मर ° (smara °) Bhartṛhari 1.89.

2) Epilepsy, falling sickness; Suśr. thus derives it; स्मृतिर्भूतार्थविज्ञान- मपश्च परिवर्जने । अपस्मार इति प्रोक्तस्ततोऽयं व्याधिरन्तकृत् (smṛtirbhūtārthavijñāna- mapaśca parivarjane | apasmāra iti proktastato'yaṃ vyādhirantakṛt) ||

Derivable forms: apasmāraḥ (अपस्मारः).

See also (synonyms): apasmṛti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार).—m., also °rī, f. (Sanskrit and Pali °ra, also Pali apamāra, epilepsy, see below), a sort of demon or supernatural evil being: Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 261.10 °raḥ and °rī; Mahāvyutpatti 4762 °raḥ = Tibetan brjed byed, epilepsy; Mahā-Māyūrī 219.10 etc., °rā(ḥ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार).—m.

(-raḥ) Epilepsy, falling sickness. E. apa privation, smṛ to remember, and ghañ affix; loss of memory or sense.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार).—i. e. apa-smṛ + a, m. 1. Epilepsy. 2. Madness, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 88.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार).—[masculine] epilepsy (lit. want of memory).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Apasmāra (अपस्मार):—[=apa-smāra] m. epilepsy, falling sickness, [Suśruta etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] want of memory, confusion of mind (in [rhetoric] one of the Vyabhicāribhāvas, q.v.), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार):—[tatpurusha compound] m.

(-raḥ) (In Medicine.) Epilepsy, falling sickness; according to Suśruta, of four kinds, the three first produced by the derangement of air, bile and phlegm, the fourth by the combination of the three. (A definition of Ātreya is: pittaṃ raktaṃ maruccheṣmā udānaḥ kupito bhṛśam . prāṇaḥ śirasi saṃkupya kurute naṣṭaceṣṭatām.) In Rhetoric it is mentioned as a vyabhicāribhāva or an accessory condition of the Erotic (śṛṅgāra), Pathetic (karuṇa), the Fearful (bhayānaka) and the Disgustful (bībhatma), and is defined—but happily this definition has not guided the Hindu poets in the representation of their characters—as ‘dementation caused by the planets or similar evil influences and causing falls, trembling, perspiration, foaming at the mouth, slavering &c.’. E. smṛ with apa, kṛt aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार):—[apa-smāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Epilepsy.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Avamāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Apasmara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Apasmara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Apasmāra (अपस्मार) [Also spelled apasmar]:—(nm) epilepsy, eclampsia.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Apasmāra (ಅಪಸ್ಮಾರ):—

1) [noun] loss of memory; the condition or fact of being forgotten.

2) [noun] a forgetting or having forgotten; forgetfulness.

3) [noun] a minor sentiment, in dancing, showing the forgetfulness on the stage.

4) [noun] loss of energy.

5) [noun] a recurrent disorder of the nervous system, characterised by seizures of excessive brain activity which cause mental and physical dysfunction, as convulsions, unconsciousness, etc. epilepsy.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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