Rasayana, Rasa-ayana, Rasāyana, Rāsāyana: 32 definitions

Introduction:

Rasayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Rasayan.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Rasāyana (रसायन) or Rasāyanavarga is another name for Suvarṇādi: the thirteenth chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Rasāyana-varga].

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “rejuvenative drugs”, and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs. It describes only those formulations (viz., Rasāyana) which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Simple Rasāyana (rejuvenative drugs) such as Āmalaka Rasāyana (prepared from powder of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.), Rasāyana powder which is a mixture of powders of Guḍūcī, Gokṣura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) and Āmalaka etc., are described for rejuvenation.

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “rejuvenation”, and mentioned in the Rasaratnasamuccaya: a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin.—The 26th and 27th chapters are devoted to jararoga (geriatric diseases), rasāyana (rejuvenation) and vājīkaraṇacikitsā (aphrodisiac therapy) respectively, through the use of both herbal and herbo-mineral formulations.

Source: History of Science in South Asia: Making Gems in Indian Alchemical Literature

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “(alchemical) elixirs and tonics” of the Rasaratnākara (lit. “jewel mine of mercury”): a 13th century alchemical work in Sanskrit written by Nityanātha.—The Rasaratnākara consists of five parts (khaṇḍas). The fourth section [i.e., rasāyana-khaṇḍa] describes the final formulation of mercurial elixirs and their application in elixir regimen. This section parallels the final chapters of the Heart of Mercury and the Ocean of Mercury, though it also includes a section on a kind of alchemical pilgrimage in Srisailam, which is not featured in the latter works—but is referenced in the 13th-century Ānandakanda (lit. “root of bliss”).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “elixirs”, as mentioned in verse 4.28 and 5.21-23 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] he who knows the right time (for administering remedies) shall thereafter apply perfect elixirs [viz., rasāyana] and aphrodisiac preparations according to the (prescribed) order (and the attendant) circumstances”.

Note (verse 4.28): Rasāyana (“elixir”) has been represented by bcud-kyis len, which in this or similar forms is its usual Tibetan correspondent. While rasāyana must be etymologized as that which comes forth (ayana) as juice (rasa) from pressed fruits, infused herbs etc., bcud-kyis len may be interpreted as an essence (beud) by which (kyis) are obtained (len-pa) health, longevity etc.—The position of the plural suffix rnams after bcud-kyis len instead of ro-tsai sbyor-ba is striking; perhaps rnam should be read.

Note (verse 5.21-23): The Tibetans have translated [ jīvanīyaṃ rasāyanam] by ’thso byed-ciṅ bcud-kyis len—“vitalizer and elixir”, thus adopting Aruṇadatta’s view that jīvanīya entails the generation of vitality (ojasyam), while rasāyana serves as a means of gaining the best in chyle, strength, and digestion. [...] Indu, and thus also Candranandana on the other hand, thinks that rasāyana should be adduced only by way of comparison (iva), and that “on account of its being a support of life and means of gaining the desired elements chyle etc.” (prāṇasaṃdhārakatvāc chastarasādidhātulābhopāyatvāc ca); cf. VI.39.1 sq.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “rejuvenation”. Medicinal formulations in the management of this condition include 21 references of Vatsanābha usages. Guṭikā is maximum (11) dosage form in the management of Rasāyana. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Rasāyana (रसायन):—The term Rasayana comprises of two words, I, e Rasa and Ayana, Rasa signifies either Rasa Rakthadi Dhatus(tissues) of the body, Ayana convey the sense of Apyayana, which suggest a measure or methodology to saturate or enrich or conduct a special benefit to the body . Based on these principle, it has been said that one which capacity to enrich the Sapthadhatu of the body or the drugs possessing the qualities to saturate or replenish the Dhatu(tissues). Precisely stated as drug or food which has capacity to prevent ageing, improves longevity, provide immunity against the diseases, promote mental competence, increase vitality and luster of the body.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “rejuvenation” mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.76. Accordingly, “one visualizes the prāṇa-śakti, which has the appearance of a pure crystal, located in a bindu, rising up from a knot, for the śāntika, pauṣṭika, śubha, sārasvata, rasa, mokṣa, khecaratva (going to the sky), and rasāyana (rejuvenation)”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “alchemy”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] This is the secret of alchemy (rasāyana). He should not reveal it to others. This secret of the Siddha tradition, which is difficult to obtain, has now been taught. It is to be revealed through the compassion of the Guru. What else do you wish to hear?”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “mercury”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “He who has the vidyā within (his) body by recollecting (it) attracts (towards himself) with the vidyā the supreme goal (of life), the best of women (parastrī) endowed with divine ornaments, the supreme nature, good fortune, the supreme scripture, the supreme Command, the supreme knowledge, and the alchemical mercury [i.e., rasasiddhi-rasāyana]”.

2) Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to an “alchemical potion”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “one whose mind is free of thoughts is successful—this is the alchemical potion (rasāyana). Thought is only delusion and thought is in the mind. Once thought has been destroyed then there is success (siddhi) without any doubt”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “chemists”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Mercury also presides over painters, grammarians, mathematicians, physicians, sculptors, spies, jugglers, infants, poets, rogues, tale-bearers, black-magicians, messengers, eunuchs, buffoons, sorcerers and conjurers; over sentinels, dancers and dancing masters; over ghee, gingelly and other oils; over seeds, over bitter flavour, over observers of religious ceremonies, over chemists (rasāyana-kuśala) and mules”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Rasayana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to the “mercury”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, [while describing a haṭha-sādhana (foreceful practice)]: “[...] On the eighth day, the Sādhaka sees the shadow of Aghorī. Thus content, she gives [a boon, saying to the Sādhaka], ‘Good, my dear! Choose a boon: either lord of the earth, immortality, levitation, [entry into the] nether-worlds, coming and going through the sky, invisibility, the elixir of mercury (rasa-rasāyana), the wish-fulfilling gem, the [magical] sword, the [seven-league] sandals or the [occult] eye collyrium’ [...]”

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Oxford Bibliographies: Hinduism

Rasāyana (the way of the rasas) is the overarching Sanskrit term employed in South Asian texts for “alchemy.” Several centuries earlier, the term rasāyana was used in Āyurveda, classical Indian medicine, to denote “rejuvenation therapy,” with the plural, rasāyanas, being the elixirs employed in said therapy.

A term for mercury, the prime alchemical reagent, was rasa, and so the term rasāyana now became specifically applied to the alchemical use of mercurials. The classic Indian alchemical texts were written in the period from the 10th to the 13th century. These were, for the most part, tantric works inasmuch as their stated goal of achieving an immortal, invulnerable body possessed of supernatural powers aligned with many of the goals of tantric practice.

Source: Indian National Science Academy: Hinduism

Rasāyana (रसायन) means that which are capable of removing/destroying/preventing jarā (senile changes) and vyādhi (the onset of diseases). And if the body is made strong by the continuous use of rasāyanas containing mercurial compounds (makaradhvaja, candrodaya etc. and the metalic/mineral bhasmas) then the jarā (ageing pocess) and the vyādhis (diseases) are cured or prevented and the man may certainly become capable of achieving ‘Mukti’ by doing continuous sādhanā.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to the “elixir (of wisdom)”, according to  the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 40.—Accordingly: [...] The Buddha – Śākyamuni, Dīpaṃkara, Ratnapuṣpa, etc. – takes birth in the pure family of the Buddhas. He actualizes the bodily positions of the previous Buddhas. He possesses all of the thirty-two physical marks that serve him as adornments. His attitudes as Holy Teacher being perfect, he turns the true Wheel of Dharma. He receives the crucial anointment with the elixir of wisdom (prajñā-rasāyana): he is the elder in the triple world. [...]

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Rasāyana (रसायन) refers to “alchemy”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while explaining the knowledge circle (jñānacakra)]: “[...] [There are accomplishments of] the sword, eye-ointment, and pill; [accomplishments of] the foot-ointment and alchemy (rasāyana); and accomplishments of the shoes, quicksilver, and the underworld: the wise can attain [them] The third, the Knowledge Circle, is thus [taught]. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Rasāyaṇa (रसायण) refers to one of the seventy-two arts and sixty-four sciences, being part of the Ancient Indian Education, as depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—Page 150.17 f. & 151.1-5: There is described an educational institution. [...] At another place (151.6-11) the prince came across persons who cultivated the seventy-two arts and sixty-four sciences, such as, [e.g., Rasāyaṇa], [...].

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Rasayana in India is the name of a plant defined with Embelia ribes in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Samara ribes Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Mantissa Plantarum (1771)
· FBI (1882)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Flora Indica (1768)
· Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
· Nomenclator Botanicus (1797)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Rasayana, for example health benefits, side effects, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, chemical composition, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rasāyana (रसायन).—n (S) pop. rasāyaṇa n A medicinal preparation in general; but esp. from metals and minerals. 2 The elixir vitæ of the alchemists. 3 Alchemy or chemistry. 4 fig. (From the necessity in chemical or medical preparations of being sharp and smart, and prompt to meet the precise moment.) Exceeding urgency or pressure. v lāva, lāga.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rasāyana (रसायन) [-ṇa, -ण].—n A medicinal preparation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rāsāyana (रासायन).—Relating to रसायन (rasāyana).

See also (synonyms): rāsāyanika.

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Rasāyana (रसायन).—

1) an elixir of life (elixir vitæ), any medicine supposed to prolong life and prevent old age; निखिलरसायनमहितो गन्धेनोग्रेण लशुन इव (nikhilarasāyanamahito gandhenogreṇa laśuna iva) R. G.

2) (fig.) serving as an elixir vitæ, i. e. that which gratifies or regales; आनन्दनानि हृदयैकरसायनानि (ānandanāni hṛdayaikarasāyanāni) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 6.8; मनसश्च रसायनानि (manasaśca rasāyanāni) Uttararāmacarita 1.37; श्रोत्र°, कर्ण° (śrotra°, karṇa°) &c.

3) alchemy or chemistry.

4) any medicinal compound.

5) butter-milk.

6) poison.

7) long pepper. (-naḥ) 1 an alchemist.

2) Name of Garuḍa. °श्रेष्ठः (śreṣṭhaḥ) mercury.

- f.)

Derivable forms: rasāyanam (रसायनम्).

Rasāyana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms rasa and ayana (अयन).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rasāyana (रसायन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Alchemy, chemistry. 2. The employment of mercury in medicine. 3. A medicine preventing old age, and prolonging life, the Elixir Vitæ of the alchemists. 4. Poison. 5. Butter-milk. m.

(-naḥ) 1. Garuda. 2. An anthelmintic drug commonly Biranga, (Embelia ribes.) 2. An alchemist. f. (-nī) A vessel conveying nutrition, a lacteal, an absorbent. E. rasa juice, quicksilver, &c., ayana a road, a going, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rasāyana (रसायन).—perhaps rasa-ayana, I. n. 1. Buttermilk. 2. Poison. 3. A medicine preventing old age and prolonging life, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 80; elixir, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 209, M.M. (prīti-, Elixir-like joy). 4. Medicine, a remedy, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 24, 2. 5. Alchymy, chemistry. Ii. m. 1. An alchymist. 2. Garuḍa. Iii. f. , A vessel conveying nutrition.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rasāyana (रसायन).—[neuter] medicine for prolonging life, an elixir.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rasāyana (रसायन):—[from rasa > ras] m. a [particular] drug used as a vermifuge (Embelia Ribes), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] an alchemist, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] Name of Garuḍa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [from rasa > ras] n. (sometimes following the gender of the word to which it refers) a medicine supposed to prevent old age and prolong life, an elixir, elixir vitae (also applied to the first fructifying rains), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] buttermilk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] poison, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] long pepper (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] the employment of mercury as a remedy or for magical purposes, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) Rāsāyana (रासायन):—mfn. ([from] rasāyana) relating to an elixir etc., [Suśruta]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rasāyana (रसायन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Chemistry, alchymy; poison; Elixir vitæ; buttermilk. m. Garuda; an alchymist; a drug. f. () A lacteal.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rasāyana (रसायन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Rasāyaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rasayana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Rasayana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rasāyana (रसायन) [Also spelled rasayan]:—(nm) Chemistry; (a) chemical; ~[jña] well-versed in Chemistry; -[vijñāna/śāstra] Chemistry; ~[vettā] a chemist, a scholar of Chemistry.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Rasāyaṇa (रसायण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Rasāyana.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rasāyana (ರಸಾಯನ):—

1) [noun] that which is enjoyable, delightful.

2) [noun] any drink that is delicious and wholesome.

3) [noun] any of or all of the six principal tastes.

4) [noun] an eatable prepared by mixing sliced banana, jaggery, cardamom seeds (or its powder), etc.

5) [noun] a branch of chemistry in the Middle Ages, concerned with changing base metals into gold; alchemy.

6) [noun] the more or less acidulous liquid remaining after butter has been separated from curds; butter-milk.

7) [noun] a substance consumption of which (even in small quantity) results in death or serious damage to living organisms; a poison.

8) [noun] the vine Piper cubeba ( = Cubeba officinalis) of Piperaceae family.

9) [noun] its berry; Chinese pepper.

10) [noun] a kind of medicinal preparation.

11) [noun] Garuḍa, the mythological bird and the vehicle of Viṣṇu.

12) [noun] the plant Embelia ribes of Myrsinaceae family, used as a worm killer.

13) [noun] the science that deals with the composition and properties of substances and various elementary forms of matter; chemistry.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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