Pitta; 14 Definition(s)
Pitta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Pitta (पित्त) refers to one of the three Doṣas (tridoṣa), representing the “fire element” of the human body. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The three doṣas are three bodily humors, which when in balance, sustain perfect human health. According to Dṛḍhabala, Pitta-doṣa is situated in the hṛdaya (cardiac region). The quantum of Pitta-doṣa fluctuates during youthful age, midday and midnight and food under digestion. It also fluctuates according to the different seasons: during during monsoon (varṣā) it accumulates, during autumn (śarada) it aggrevates and during pre-winter (hemanta) it pacifies. It is important to keep track of these fluctuations in order to prevent seasonal disorders.(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Pitta – Fire or Bile, composed of Fire and Water (see Tridosha).(Source): Google Books: Exploring Mantric Ayurveda
Pitta (पित्त):—The word ‘pitta’ is derived from the verb-root ‘tapa’ meaning ‘to heat’, thus pitta is concerned with various physiological functions relating to agni (heat). Digestion of food, body-heat, thirst and hunger, vision, lustre, cheerfulness and intellect—these are normal functions of Pitta. Pitta represents fire-principle and as such is concerned with processes of conversion, consumption and other chemical changes taking place in the living body.
Causes of aggravation:—Pitta is aggravated by excessive intake of pungent, sour, hot and irritant substances, anger, sun-heat, during digestion, midday, midnight, in youtful age and autumn season.
Symptoms:—Aggravated Pitta causes excessive perspiration, burning sensation, pyrexia, loss of consciousness, thirst, yellowishness in skin, eye, urine etc.
Treatment:—Vāta, Pitta and Kapha should be treated with eliminative therapy (known as ‘pañcakarma’). Thereafter they should be pacified with prescribed measures relating to diet, drug and activity. Pitta gets pacified with sweets, bitters and astringents, friendly consolation, intake and sprinkling cold water.(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Pitta (पित्त).—One of the three biological humors (tridoṣa).—Pitta is responsible for all aspects of heat, light and color in the body. The one that generates heat in the body is called pitta. Pitta is a source of thermal energy in the body. Sometimes pitta is translated as bile, which is one important aspect of its functions.
Pitta-doṣa regulates the enzymes and hormones in the body. It is responsible for digestion and metabolism. Whatever is ingested as food and the oxygen we breathe in are converted to body constituents (doṣas, dhātus and malas) by the action of pitta.
There are five types of pitta on the basis of location and function:
- pācaka (located in the lower part of the stomach and central part of the small intestine),
- rañjaka (located in the red blood cells, liver, spleen and stomach),
- sādhaka (located in the heart),
- ālocaka (located in the eyes),
- bhrājaka (located in the skin).
The Pittam owes its origin to the bodily heat (Āgneya)(Source): archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Pitta can be checked by not consuming foods which are hot, spicy, rich in salt and sour tastes, avoiding excess exposure to heat and fire, keeping away from anger and extremes of emotion and stress, managing spring season and summer etc – This will prevent the further inflammatory process taking place in the joints, bones, soft tissues, tendons and nerves and help in recovery process(Source): Easy Ayurveda: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms
Pitta performs the activities like digestion, metabolism, production of heat and that is why it is called ‘Agni’ meaning ‘Fire’. For all practical purposes, ‘Agni’ and ‘Pitta’ are to be considered as identical entities (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 21/9, Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 12/11). ‘Agni’ itself is present in the body in the form of Pitta. When it is normal, it performs the functions like maintenance of normal digestion, normal vision, normal body temperature, normal complexion, valor, happiness and nutrition. When it is abnormal, all these functions also will be abnormal (Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 12/11). Other functions of endocrine system are described under the functions of ‘Pitta’.
Formation of Bilirubin: Byproduct of metabolism of ‘Rakta’ is ‘Pitta’. (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/18). This ‘Pitta’ is Bilirubin, the product of hemoglobin metabolism. This is formed in the monocyte- macrophage system, mainly in the spleen.
Hyperbilirubinemia: When the ‘Pitta’ exceeds its normal levels, there is manifestation of symptoms like yellowish discoloration of feces, urine, eyes and skin (Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 11/7). When the total serum bilirubin level exceeds 2mg/dl, usually there is manifestation of clinical jaundice.(Source): Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda
The word Pitta is derived from the root ‘Tapa’ which means heat (Santāpa). This Doṣa is responsible for digestion and metabolism of the body. It is of 5 types viz.
- Pācaka Pitta,
- Rañjaka Pitta,
- Bhrājaka Pitta,
- Ālocaka Pitta
- and Sādhaka Pitta.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Pitta is the bilious humour, or that secreted between the stomach and bowels and flowing through the liver and permeating spleen, heart, eyes, and skin; its chief quality is heat. It is the energy principle which uses bile to direct digestion and hence metabolism.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Languages of India and abroad
pitta : (nt.) the bile.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pitta, (nt.) (cp. Vedic pitta) 1. the bile, gall; the bile also as seat of the bilious temperament, excitement or anger. Two kinds are distinguished at KhA 60= Vism. 260, viz. baddha° & abaddha°, bile as organ & bile as fluid. See also in detail Vism. 359; VbhA. 65, 243.—In enumerations of the parts or affections of the body pitta is as a rule combd with semha (cp. Vin. II, 137; Kh 111; Vism. 260, 344; Miln. 298).—Vin. II, 137; M. III, 90; S. IV, 230, 231 (+semha); A. II, 87; III, 101, 131; Sn. 198 (+semha), 434 (id. , expld as the two kinds at SnA 388); Nd1 370; J. I, 146 (+semha); II, 114 (pittan te kupitaṃ your bile is upset or out of order, i.e. you are in a bad mood); Miln. 112 (vāta-pittasemha ... ), 304 (roga, +semha), 382 (+semha); DhsA. 190 (as blue-green); DhA. III, 15 (cittaṃ n’atthi pittaṃ n’atthi has no heart and no bile, i.e. does not feel & get excited; vv. ll. vitta & nimitta).—2. (according to Morris, J. P. T. S. 1893, 4 for *phitta=phīta, Sk. sphīta) swelling, a gathering Vin. II, 188 (Vin. Texts III, 237 “a burst gall, i.e. bladder”); S. II, 242. The passage is not clear, in C. on Ud. I, 7 we read cittaṃ, see Morris Loc. cit. May the meaning be “muzzle”? —kosaka gall-bladder KhA 61; Vism. 263; VbhA. 246. (Page 459)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
pitta (पित्त).—n (S) Bile, the bilious humor. 2 fig. Choler, fieriness, irascibility. pitta usaḷaṇēṃ-khavaḷaṇēṃ-caḍhaṇēṃ. To work hot; to have one's choler stirred, lit. fig. pittācī jōta bharaṇēṃ (urānta) To have the heartburn: (ghaśānta) To have bilious burning in the throat. Also pittānēṃ jaḷa- jaḷatēṃ or ucamaḷatēṃ impersonally in both the above senses. pitta tāpaviṇēṃ g. of o. To incense, irritate, anger.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pitta (पित्त).—n Bile, the bilious humor. Choler, irascibility. pitta usaḷaṇēṃ-khavaḷaṇēṃ-caḍhaṇēṃ To work hot; to have one's choler stirred, lit. fig. pittācī jōta bharaṇēṃ (urānta) To have the heartburn: (ghaśānta) To have bilious burning in the throat. pitta tāpaviṇēṃ To incense, irritate,(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Pitta (पित्त).—Bile, one of the three humours of the body (the other two being vāta and kapha and its chief quality (heat); पित्तं यदि शर्करया शाम्यति कोऽर्थः पटोलेन (pittaṃ yadi śarkarayā śāmyati ko'rthaḥ paṭolena) Pt.1.378; पित्तमुष्णं द्रवं पीतं नीलं सत्त्वगुणोत्तरम् । सरं कटु (pittamuṣṇaṃ dravaṃ pītaṃ nīlaṃ sattvaguṇottaram | saraṃ kaṭu) >घु स्निग्धं तीक्ष्ण- मम्ले तु पाकतः (ghu snigdhaṃ tīkṣṇa- mamle tu pākataḥ) ||; मध्याह्ने च यथार्धरात्रसमये पित्तप्रकोपो भवेत् (madhyāhne ca yathārdharātrasamaye pittaprakopo bhavet) Bhāva. P.
Derivable forms: pittam (पित्तम्).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Pittaprakopa (पित्तप्रकोप).—excess and vitiation of the bilious humour. Derivable forms: pittap...
Pācaka Pitta is equivalent to ‘Jaṭharāgni’. As its functions suggest, all enzymes responsibl...
Bhrājaka Pitta:—As is known, pigmentation of skin is under the control of some hormone...
Alocaka Pitta:—This is said to be responsible for normal vision. Photosensitive chemic...
Sādhaka Pitta:—All functions ascribed to this ‘Pitta’are of cerebrum, limbic system, h...
Release of Bile Juice: In the small intestine, ‘Accha Pitta’ (Bile) is released (Carakasaṃhi...
Rañjaka Pitta is responsible for synthesis of ‘Rakta’. It is situated in stomach (‘Amāśaya’)...
Pittajvara (पित्तज्वर).—a bilious fever. Derivable forms: pittajvaraḥ (पित्तज्वरः).Pittajvara i...
Pittakṣobha (पित्तक्षोभ).—excess or derangement of the bilious humour. Derivable forms: pittakṣ...
Pittavāyu (पित्तवायु).—flatulence caused by the excess and vitiation of the bilious humour. Der...
Matsyapittā (मत्स्यपित्ता).—Helleborus Niger (Mar. kedārakuṭakī). Matsyapittā is a Sanskrit com...
Pittagulma (पित्तगुल्म) If pitta-gulma is caused by unctuous and hot things, then sraṃsana (mil...
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Search found 31 books and stories containing Pitta. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 8 - Vāyu, Pitta and Kapha < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 10 - The Circulatory and the Nervous System < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 11 - The Theory of Rasas and their Chemistry < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Shilajatu or Shilajit (bitumen) < [Chapter IV - Uparasa (4): Shilajatu or Shilajit (bitumen)]
Part 4 - Uses of gairika < [Chapter IX - Uparasa (10): Gairika (red ochre)]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter XLV - Symptoms and Treatment of Hemorrhage (Rakta-pitta) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter XXII - Causes and symptoms of diseases of the nose < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter II - Pathology of the diseases of the eye-joints < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 5: Treatment of various afflictions (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Sushruta Samhita, volume 2: Nidanasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Sushruta Samhita, volume 1: Sutrasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)