Drishta, Dṛṣṭa: 23 definitions


Drishta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Dṛṣṭa can be transliterated into English as Drsta or Drishta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—Seen in use in Vedic Literature, or Classical Literature, or in the talk of cultured people; said in connection with words which a grammarian tries to explain; cf. दृष्टानुविधिश्छन्दसि भवति (dṛṣṭānuvidhiśchandasi bhavati)' Vyadi Pari. Patha 68.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) refers to a “hero who is shameless and unfaithful to his beloved and secretly harms her” and represents one of the four kinds of “heroes” (nāyaka) in a dramatic representation, according to the Abhinaya-sara-samputa, as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—In the depiction of any mood or sentiment, a dance performance or a dramatic representation takes the medium of the hero (nāyaka) and the heroine (nāyikas). The heroes are again classified on the basis of their erotic sentiments into four types [viz., Dṛṣṭa].

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) refers to the “visible world”.—In Indian sculpture, painting, and iconography, the majority of the figures are based on the human body. This belongs to the dṛṣṭa (the visible world). All natural shapes are said to be with life. Human body is the place where the outer world is transformed. It is also the scene of the transformation of the self. In this transformed shape, the self is represented in art. The transformation results from an inner process of realization. It is not visible to the physical eye; it belongs to the adṛṣṭa (the unseen). The world of the inner reality differs from the outer world but cannot exist without it. Therefore, art serves as the meeting ground of the two worlds and relates to the transformation of the inner world to that of the outer.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) refers to the “visibility” (of planets), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the disc of Jupiter should appear of the colour of fire, there will be fear from fire; if yellow, there will be disease in the land; if dark-blue, there will be wars; if green, suffering from thieves, and if of blood color, suffering from weapons. If the disc of Jupiter should appear of the colour of smoke, there will be drought; if it should be visible during day [i.e., dṛṣṭadivā dṛṣṭe], rulers will perish and if it should appear large and clear at night, mankind will be happy”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) refers to “(that which is perceived)” (as opposed to Adṛṣṭa—‘unperceived’), according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.131:—“‘adhikatara’ [means the following]: the [various] phenomena are [something more (adhika)] than consciousness, just as reflections are something more than a mirror [reflecting them]; and that which is something more than something more, [i.e., that which is something more] than these very [phenomena,] can never be perceived (dṛṣṭa) in any [circumstance] for the very [reason that it is distinct from phenomena]; and how could that be a [real] entity (vastu)?”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Drishta in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) refers to “having perceived (the truth)” (as opposed to Adṛṣṭa—‘not having perceived’), according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 9.78.—Accordingly: “Therefore, although the sun may fall to earth, or Himālaya lose its fixity, I’ll not return home like a common man, whose senses yearn for sensual things, and who has not perceived the truth (adṛṣṭa-sattva)”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) or Dṛṣṭārtha refers to “seen (aims)”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “For only the Court Officiant accomplishes for Kings all seen and unseen aims (dṛṣṭa-arthadṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthasādhakaḥ), especially when this Deity is installed, worshipped and so on. Any defectiveness of his (i.e. of the King) is due to the faults of the Court Officiant, and similarly [every] excellence of the same King in [the performance of] rituals [depends on the Officiant], oh Master of the Earth!”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) refers to “visible things”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.29 (“Śivā-Śiva dialogue”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Pārvatī: “O great Goddess, listen to my important statement. See that our marriage rites are performed in the proper manner without deficiency. O sweet-faced one, all the living beings Brahmā and others are non-eternal. O beautiful lady, know all these visible things (dṛṣṭa) to be perishable. Know that the single beings assumed manifold forms. The attributeless took over the attributes. That which is self-luminous had other lights imposed on it. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट, “visible”) refers to one of the ten flaws (or transmigressions) requiring prāyaścitta (‘expiation’). Prāyaścitta means ‘purification’ of from the flaws or transmigressions.

Dṛṣṭa is a Sanskrit technical term defined according to the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—What is meant by visible (dṛṣṭa) flaw? To conceal the flaws committed which have not been seen by anybody while being committed is visible flaw.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dṛṣṭa.—(EI 3, 23; CII 3; etc.), Prakrit diṭṭham, ‘has been seen’, i. e. ‘found correct and approved’, found on some copper- plate grants indicating the approval of the proper authorities endorsed on the original document later engraved on the plates. Cf. ni (an abbreviation of nibaddha or nirīkṣiṭa) in certain medieval copper-plate grants of Eastern India. In dṛṣṭa- pañcāśat-padāti (LP), dṛṣṭa-ghoṭaka (LP), etc., the word dṛṣṭa indicates that money should be paid after actually seeing the foot-soldiers and horses in question. Note: dṛṣṭa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—f (dṛṣṭi S) Sight or seeing.

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dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—p S Seen, perceived, visible, apparent.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—f Sight or seeing. dṛṣṭa kāḍhaṇēṃ To avert the effects of an evil eye.

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dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—p Seen, perceived, visible, apparent.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—p. p. [dṛś-karmaṇi-kta]

1) Seen, looked, perceived, observed, beheld; उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तः (ubhayorapi dṛṣṭo'ntaḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.16.

2) Visible, observable.

3) Regarded, considered; दृष्टो विवृत्य बहुशोऽप्यनया सतृष्णम् (dṛṣṭo vivṛtya bahuśo'pyanayā satṛṣṇam) Ś.3.1.

4) Occurring, found.

5) Appearing, manifested.

6) Known, learned, understood.

7) Determined, decided, fixed; तदहं यष्टुमिच्छामि शास्त्रदृष्टेन कर्मणा (tadahaṃ yaṣṭumicchāmi śāstradṛṣṭena karmaṇā) Rām.1.8.9.

8) Valid.

9) Allotted.

1) Experienced, suffered, endured, felt.

11) Treated of; see दृश् (dṛś).

-ṣṭam 1 Perception, observation.

2) Danger from dacoits.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—(°-) (1) short for dṛṣṭadharma or °dhārmika, in a [compound]: (sarvadharmāṇāṃ)…dṛṣṭasukhasaṃsthānām abhilāpya-(read with Tibetan an-abhi°) -gati-viśeṣāḥ Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 18.7 (prose), innumerable different courses of all states-of- existence which are based on (saṃstha) the pleasures of the visible (world). Suzuki fails utterly to understand the passage. For the phrase dṛṣṭa dharma, see next; (2) perhaps = dṛṣṭi, false view: āya-vyaya-dṛṣṭābhiniveśena Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 174.12 (see s.vv. āya and abhiniveśa); the alternative would be to emend to °dṛṣṭy-abhi°.

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Dṛṣṭā (दृष्टा).—n. sg., for draṣṭā, to stem draṣṭr, seer: in same line dṛṣṭavya, for dra°, gdve.: na dṛṣṭā na ca dṛṣṭavyaṃ [Page269-b+ 71] Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 9.6 (verse), there is no seer nor object of sight. Possibly both are errors or misprints.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—mfn.

(-ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) Seen, visible, apparent. n.

(-ṣṭaṃ) Obvious danger or calamity. E. dṛś to see, affix kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट).—[adjective] seen, visible, apparent, known, foreseen, destined; decided, knowledged, valid; [neuter] perception, observation, sight, view, glance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट):—[from dṛś] a mfn. seen, looked at, beheld, perceived, noticed, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] visible, apparent, [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]

3) [v.s. ...] considered, regarded, treated, used, [Śakuntalā iii, 7; Pañcatantra i, 401/402]

4) [v.s. ...] appeared, manifested, occurring, existing, found, real, [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra; Hitopadeśa]

5) [v.s. ...] experienced, learnt, known, understood, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] seen in the mind, devised, imagined, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] allotted, destined, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] settled, decided, fixed, acknowledged, valid, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] n. perception, observation, [Sāṃkhyakārikā; Tattvasamāsa]

10) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] bhaya) a real or obvious danger.

11) b See above.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट):—[(ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) a.] Seen. n. Obvious danger or calamity.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dṛṣṭa (दृष्ट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Cajjiya, Joia, Jeviya, Ṇiacchia, Dakkhu, Daṭṭha, Diṭṭha, Diṭṭhellaya, Pulaia, Puloia, Saccavia.

[Sanskrit to German]

Drishta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dṛṣṭa (ದೃಷ್ಟ):—

1) [adjective] perceived by the eyes; seen; looked at.

2) [adjective] attentively observed.

3) [adjective] mentally grasped; perceived; understood.

4) [adjective] decided; fixed; determined.

5) [adjective] had experience of; experienced.

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Dṛṣṭa (ದೃಷ್ಟ):—

1) [noun] the act of seeing or being seen.

2) [noun] a perceiving of something by the supposed supernatural power; a vision.

3) [noun] that which can be seen.

4) [noun] an appearing to the senses; a manifesting or being manifested.

5) [noun] a mark; a symbol.

6) [noun] an example; an illustration.

7) [noun] a person who saw or can give a firsthand account of something; a witness.

8) [noun] the supernatural or metaphysical experience.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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