Rohini, aka: Rohiṇi, Rohiṇī, Rohinī; 27 Definition(s)


Rohini means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी):—The consort of Mahādeva (aspect of Śiva, as in, one of the eight names of Rudra) according to the Pādma-purāṇa. (according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa she is called Vikesī)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी, “ascending”).—Illustration of Rohiṇī-śruti according to 15th century art:—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a vīṇā with her right hand and a flower in her left hand. The colour of her bodice is green and the scarf is sky-blue with a crimson-coloured design with red coloured borders. The lower garment is yellow with a black-coloured design and borders of red colour. Another garment of red colour with a white design is on the waist.

The illustrations (of, for example Rohiṇī) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Rohinī is the name of deity as found depicted in the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai (or Madura), which represents a sacred place for the worship of The Goddess (Devī).—Rohinī is found with the left hand in dolā and the right hand in kaṭaka.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी):—One of the sixty-four Divyauṣadhi, which are powerful drugs for solidifying mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Rohiṇīnakṣatra Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Rohiṇī means “the red one” and is associated with the deity known as Prajāpati (the Creator, Brahmā). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Chandra (Moon). Also known as the Brāhmīnakṣatra.

Indian zodiac: |10°| – |23°20' Vṛṣabha|
Vṛṣabha (वृषभ, ‘bull’) corresponds Taurus

Western zodiac: |6°| – |19°20' Gemini|
Gemini corresponds with Mithuna (मिथुन, ‘twins’).

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

1) Rohiṇi (रोहिणि):—One of the seven varieties of Harītakī (‘yellow myrobalan tree’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The fruit is circular in shape and useful for healing wounds. It is found in the place called Pratishtanaka.

2) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी):—Another name for Kaṭuka (Picrorhiza kurroa), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda. This synonym is also identified by Bhāvamiśra in his 16th century Bhāvaprakāśa. Certain plant parts are eaten as vegetables.

3) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “tropic bird”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Rohiṇī is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) is a Sanskrit word referring to the asterism Aldeberan. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.43-46, the ceremony of “raising the pillars” within the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) should be performed during an auspicious tithi and karaṇa under either the asterism Rohiṇī or Śravaṇā. Accordingly, “the master [of dramatic art], after he has fasted for three [days and] nights, is to raise the pillars in an auspicious moment at dawn”. These two asterisms are considered auspicious for this purpose.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) refers to one of the twenty-two quarters tones (śruti) existing within an octave, according to the Saṅgīta-ratnākara (“ocean of music and dance”). This work is an important Sanskrit treatise dealing with ancient Indian musicology (gāndharva-śāstra), composed by Śārṅgadeva in the 13th century and deals with both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Rohiṇī has a frequency of 418.6009Hz.

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Rohini in Purana glossary... « previous · [R] · next »

1) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—The mother of all the cows. The following is a story about the origin of Rohiṇī, given in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Sarga 14.

Prajāpati Kaśyapa married Surabhi the seventh daughter of Dakṣa. Two daughters Rohiṇī and Gandharvī, were born to Surabhi. In later years cows and oxen were born in the world from Rohiṇī and horses from Gandharvī. In the Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 66, it is mentioned that two daughters Vimalā and Analā were born to Rohiṇī and that from these two, in later years cattle were born. (See full article at Story of Rohiṇī from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—General information. One of the wives of Candra (Moon). The twentyseven stars are the wives of Candra. Of these twentyseven wives, Rohiṇī was loved most by Candra. (See under Candra). Rohiṇī and Daśaratha. (See under Daśaratha, Para 10).

3) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—The mother of Balabhadrarāma. General information. Vasudeva had two wives Devakī and Rohiṇī. Śrī Kṛṣṇa was born from Devakī and Balabhadrarāma from Rohiṇī. Previous Birth of Rohiṇī. Vasudeva was the rebirth of Prajāpati Kaśyapa. When Kaśyapa took birth as Vasudeva, his two wives Aditi and Surasā took birth as Devakī and Rohiṇī respectively. (They took birth thus, because of the curse of Varuṇa. For details of the curse see under Kaśyapa, para 6). The birth of Balabhadra. The seventh child of Devakī was placed in the womb of Rohiṇī and Balabhadrarāma was born. (For this story see under Kṛṣṇa, para 6, Kaṃsa, para 6 and Ṣaḍarbhaka). Death. As soon as a messenger named Dāruka brought the news that the entire race of the Yādavas had perished in Dvārakā,

"because of grief, Vasudeva, Devakī and Rohiṇī forsook their bodies." (Bhāgavata, Skandha 11).

4) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—Niśā the third wife of the Agni (fire) called Manu or Bhānu gave birth to a daughter named Rohiṇī. Because she had done some misdeeds, she became the wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 221).

5) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—The mother of Utatthya, a famous hermit. (For details see under Satyatapas).

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) is the name of a Nakṣatra mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 710. As regards the heavenly bodies, the Nīlamata refers to the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars. The divisions of the time are also mentioned as objects of worship.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—A daughter of Vālmīki; one of Vasudeva's wives, and mother of Gada, Balarāma and five other sons besides a daughter, Citrā.1 Had her residence at Nandagokula. Hari ordered Yogamāyā to transfer his dhāma in the womb of Devakī to that of Rohiṇī. This was the future Balarāma Sankarṣana. Nārada spoke about this to Kaṃsa.2 Her joy at the birth of Kṛṣṇa, and helped Yaśodā in her rakṣa ritual to Kṛṣṇa; joy at his escape from Kālīya; intensely attached to Rāma; surprised at Kṛṣṇa holding the Govardhana; came to see him taking Pārijāta from Indra's abode. Kṛṣṇa's respects to;3 went to Syamantapañcaka for the solar eclipse, met Yaśodā there and embraced her. Lamented the decease of Kṛṣṇa and Rāma.4 Entered fire after their deceuse;5 also known as Pauravī.6

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 45-6; X. 1. 8; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 161-5; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 160-3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 74-6; 2. 2; 5. 5; 6. 11; IV. 15. 18-9.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 7-8, 15.
  • 3) Ib. X 5. 17; 6. 19; 11. 12; 15. 44; 17. 15; 25. 30; 36. 17; [67 (v) 47-8].
  • 4) Ib. X. 82. 37; XI. 31. 18.
  • 5) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 38. 4.
  • 6) Matsya-purāṇa 46. 11.

1b) One of Kṛṣṇa's wives; a Devī; mother of Dīptimat, Tāmrapakṣa and other sons.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X, 61. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 242; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 233. Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 28. 4; 32. 2.

1c) A wife of Mahādeva-Candramatanu of Śiva; mother of Budha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 2. 9; II. 10. 84; Matsya-purāṇa 55. 12; 139. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 27. 56; 66. 22. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 8.

1d) A daughter of Surabhī and Kaśyapa; a sister of the Rudras; mother of four daughters—Surūpā, Haṃsakālī (kīlā), Bhadrā and Kāmadu(a)ghā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 73-5; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 71-72.

1e) A constellation important for śrāddha performance;1 the worship of, in go sahasra dāna.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 18. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 17. 3; 54. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 82. 3.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 163. 41; 171. 32; 278. 14.

1f) Had Saumya as her son.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 2. 9.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.64) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Rohiṇī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी, ‘ruddy’) is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, α Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, α θ γ δ ε Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Iṣu Trikāṇḍā, ‘the belt of Orion’) by the ‘huntsman’ (Mṛgavyādha, ‘Sirius’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mṛgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head).

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Rohini is a daughter of Daksha. She was married to Chandra, the moon, alongwith twenty-six of her sisters. The twenty-seven sisters are the twenty-seven constellations in Indian Astrology. Her father had secured the promise that all of them would be treated equally from Chandra. However, Chandra favored Rohini above all and broke his promise to his father-in-law. For this broken promise, he was cursed by Daksha.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Rohiṇi (रोहिणि): The wife of Vasudeva and mother of Balarama

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—The wife of Vasudeva, and the mother of Lord Balarāma.

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Rohini Theri. She was the daughter of a prosperous brahmin of Vesali. When the Buddha visited Vesali, she heard him preach and became a sotapanna, taught the Doctrine to her parents, and, with their permission, entered the Order, where she became an arahant.

Ninety one kappas ago she saw Vipassi Buddha begging in Bandhumati, and, filling his bowl with meal cakes, paid him homage (ThagA.214f).

The Therigitha (vss.271-90) contains a set of verses spoken by her in exaltation, when, after becoming an arahant, she recalled to mind the discussion she had had with her father while she was yet a sotapanna.

It is said (ThigA.219f) that the last stanza of the series was spoken by her father, who later himself joined the Order and became an arahant.

2. Rohini. Sister of Anuruddha Thera. When he visited his family at Kapilavatthu, she refused to see him because she was suffering from a skin eruption. But Anuruddha sent for her, and when she came, her face covered with a cloth, he advised her to erect an assembly hall for the monks. She consented to do this, sold her jewels, and erected a hall of two stories, the building of which was supervised by Anuruddha. At the dedication ceremony she entertained the Buddha and the monks. At the conclusion of the meal the Buddha sent for her. She was reluctant to go to him owing to her disease, but was persuaded, and he told her the story of her past.

Long ago she had been the chief consort of the king of Benares, and being jealous of a dancing girl whom the king loved, she contrived to get powdered scabs on the girls body, clothes and bed. The girl developed boils and her skin was ruined.

At the conclusion of the Buddhas sermon, Rohinis disease vanished and her body took on a golden color, while she herself was established in the First Fruit of the Path. After death, Rohini was born in Tavatimsa, at the meeting point of the boundaries of four deities. Because of her beauty, each deity claimed her as his, and they referred their quarrel to Sakka. Sakka, too, became enamored of her, and when he confessed his desire, they agreed to let hint take her, and she became his special favourite. DhA.iii.295ff.

3. Rohini. A small river dividing the Sakyan and Koliyan countries. A dam was constructed across the river, and the people on the two sides used the water to cultivate their fields. Once, in the month of Jetthamula, there was a drought, and a violent quarrel arose between the two peoples for the use of the water. A battle was imminent, when the Buddha, seeing what was about to happen, appeared in the air between the opposing forces in the middle of the river and convinced them of the folly of killing each other for the sake of a little water. It is said that he preached on this occasion the Attadanda Sutta and the Phandana, the Latukika and the Vattaka Jatakas.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Rohiṇī is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Pi, Tibetan Sanr-ma and modern Tauri.

Rohiṇī is classified in the fourth group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the nine following constellations (eg., Rohiṇī), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse and this trembling extends as far as Devendra. Then peace (yogakṣema) is plentiful, rain favors the growth of the five grains, the emperor is kind (śiva), the great ministers are virtuous and everyone is peaceful”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) is the mother of Rāma: the ninth Baladeva according to Śvetāmbara sources, while Digambara lists him as the eighth. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The stories of Rohiṇī and Rāma are narrated in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) or Ajitā or Ajitabalā is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Ajitanātha: the second of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—[...] Further, two other iconographic points by which Ajitanātha’s statues may be differentiated from those of others are the figures of his particular Yakṣa called Mahāyakṣa and his Yakṣiṇī named Ajitabalā. Mention of these is made in the Jaina canonical Literature.

Source: The Jaina Iconography
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Rohini is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Rohini is mentioned on the Himalayan slopes and known for its red flowers.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Rohini), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Rohini, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी) is the name of a river situated in Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Rohiṇī has been referred to in the Jātakas (cf. Rukkhadhamma Jātaka; Phandana Jātaka) as a river. Once a quarrel broke out among the Sākiyas and the Koliyas regarding the possession of the river Rohiṇī. But the Buddha succeeded in restoring peace among his kinsfolk. Rohiṇī formed the boundary between the Śākya and the Koliya countries.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Rohini in Pali glossary... « previous · [R] · next »

Rohiṇī, (f.) (cp. Vedic rohiṇī red cow or mare) 1. a red cow A. I, 162=III, 214.—2. N. of a nakkhatta or constellation (“red cow”) SnA 456; Mhvs 19, 47.—3. N. of a river SnA 357. (Page 577)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

rōhiṇī (रोहिणी).—f (S) The fourth lunar mansion. Used pl. 2 An unmarried girl of nine years. 3 S Lightning; a doe &c.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rōhiṇī (रोहिणी).—f The 4th lunar mansion. An unmarried girl of 9 years.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rohiṇi (रोहिणि).—= रोहिणी (rohiṇī) q. v.

Derivable forms: rohiṇiḥ (रोहिणिः).

--- OR ---

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—

1) A red cow.

2) A cow in general; वर्धिष्णुधाराध्वनि रोहिणीः पयः (vardhiṣṇudhārādhvani rohiṇīḥ payaḥ) Śi.12.4.

3) Name of the fourth lunar mansion (containing five stars) figured by a cart; she was one of the several daughters of Dakṣa and is regarded as the most favourite consort of the moon; उपरागान्ते शशिनः समुपगता रोहिणी योगम् (uparāgānte śaśinaḥ samupagatā rohiṇī yogam) Ś.7.22.

4) Name of a wife of Vasudeva and mother of Balarāma

5) A young girl in whom menstruation has just commenced; नववर्षा च रोहिणी (navavarṣā ca rohiṇī).

6) Lightning.

7) Inflammation of the throat.

8) A kind of steel.

9) A particular श्रुति (śruti) or मूर्च्छना (mūrcchanā) (in music).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rohiṇī (रोहिणी).—n. of a rākṣasī: Māy 243.12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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