The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes the rules of ablution which is chapter 20 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the twentieth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Bhīṣma said:

1-3. Please narrate in detail and truthfully, to me who am asking you, another charming account (capable of) destroying sins, also of the Madhyama (Puṣkara) glorified by the sages and the fruit of (offering) food, and the importance of restraint (as told by them). And also, O great sage, tell me where Viṣṇu planted his foot, and how the Kaniṣṭha (Puṣkara) came about.

Pulastya said:

4-5. Formerly in the Rathantara Kalpa, there was a king by name Puṣpavāhana who was well-known among people and like the sun in lustre. Pleased with his penance, the four-faced one (i.e. Brahmā) gave him a golden lotus going at will, O king of the Bharata-family.

6. It always moved at will on the seven islands and the earth. At the beginning of the Kalpa, the people living in Puṣkara honoured it like an island; hence it is called Puṣkaradvipa.

7-8. Just that lotus-aeroplane was given to him by Brahmā. Therefore gods and demons called him Puṣpavāhana. There was no match to the king seated in that lotus (aeroplane) given by Brahmā in the three worlds.

9. Due to the prowess of his penance he had a queen named Lāvaṇyavatī, who was as it were saluted by thousands of ladies and was like Pārvatī, who was most liked by Bhava (i.e. Śiva).

10. He had ten thousand sons who were religious-minded and were foremost among archers. Seeing his sons, the king again and again became proud.

11-14a. He said these words to the best and revered sage Pracetas who had come to him: “How did I get this steady prosperity? How am I honoured by gods and mortals? How did I have this good queen resembling Lakṣmī as my wife? O best sage, the creator who was pleased with my penance, gave me this lotus-abode (i.e. this aeroplane) which is not noticed though a hundred crores of kings along with their ministers, elephants, flow of chariots and surrounded by people enter it, and also (it is not noticed by) those who move in the sky (and ask) ‘Where has it gone’? It is not accessible to the Moon and the Sun in the sky. Therefore, O Pracetas, tell me whether I have earned religious merit etc. surpassing all that of other people when I was born from the womb of other mother (than my present one, i.e. in the previous existence), or all my sons had done (such religious merit) or this my good wife had done (such religious merit as a result of which I have obtained such prosperity)”.

14b. He (i.e. Pracetas) viewing completely (what had happened) in the previous birth said: “O king, listen to that wonderful account.

15. Your awful birth took place in the family of a hunter (i.e. you were born in the awful family of a hunter); and day by day you became a sinner. Your body again became one with the male organ (i.e. of generation) and joints having bad smell all around and having the ornaments of bad nails like those of animals.

16. You did not have a friend nor a son, nor a brother, nor a sister, nor mother, nor someone to govern you; but O king, this beautiful lady was very much liked and loved by you and was friendly with you.

17. There was a fierce drought; on a certain occasion, you who were oppressed by hunger, did not get anything like wild fruits etc. for her to eat.

18-20. You saw a great lake full of lotuses and its bank filled with mud. Taking from it (i.e. the lake) many lotuses you went to a city named Vaidiśa. To get the price of the lotuses you wandered in the city for a whole day. (Then) there was a buyer for (i.e. who bought) the lotuses. You were very much fatigued and oppressed with hunger and sat, with your wife, in the courtyard of a house. Then at night you heard there an auspicious sound.

21-24a. With your wife you went there where (from) that auspicious sound was (i.e. came). There you saw the worship of Viṣṇu in a circle. A prostitute by name Anaṅgavatī was observing the vow of Dvādaśī Having adorned (the) golden (image of) Viṣṇu, and having, on the twelfth day of Māgha, prepared a heap of salt, she presented a prepared bed to her preceptor. They (i.e. the hunter and his wife) saw her (i.e. Anaṅgavatī) and thought thus:

24b-27a. ‘What is to be done with these lotuses? It is better to adorn Viṣṇu (with them).’ O king, thus devotion was produced in (the minds of) that couple. At that time, having worshipped Viṣṇu and the heap of salt, the bed was worshipped by them with heaps of flowers on all sides. Anaṅgavatī, who was pleased, ordered (her servants) to give them three hundred (measures) of corn and three palas of gold.

27b-29. Due to their very good nature they did not accept them. Then, O king, Anaṅgavatī again brought food of four kinds[1] and told them to eat it. The couple refused that also (and told her:) ‘O you of a beautiful face, we shall eat it tomorrow. Due to contact with you we are observing this fast. Let it lead (us) to good fortune.

30. O you good lady of a firm vow, we are the most sinful

(persons) from our birth. Let there be a portion of religious merit for us due to our association with you in this your house.’

31-33. Thus due to their association with her they kept awake (during the night). In the morning she presented with devotion the bed with the heap of salt and a hamlet to her preceptor and presented twelve cows endowed with gold and with garments and ornaments to brāhmaṇas and fed them with friends and allies and blind and helpless persons. She also dismissed the couple of hunters honouring them.

34-37. Along with his wife that hunter was born as you, the lord of kings. O king, due to your offering that heap of lotuses and worshipping Viṣṇu, and due to the greatness of the truth (you always spoke) and due to that greedless penance of you, the four-faced one (i.e. Brahmā)was pleased with you whose sins had perished and gave you that lotus-dwelling (i.e. the aeroplane) and (said to you): ‘Resort to (i.e. take) this Puṣkara (plane). O lord of kings, taking to proper disposition observe this mighty vow of Dvādaśī; you will certainly attain salvation.’

38-39. Saying this much, the sage vanished there (only); and king Puṣkaravāhana did as (he was) told. O king, he who practises this, has his vow uninterrupted, as after some time-twelve dvādaśīs (will be over).

40-43. O king, one should give presents to brāhmaṇas according to one’s capacity; a village should be given to the seniormost brāhmaṇa; anexcellent(piece of) land should be given to a brāhmaṇa of the middle order; gold should be given to the junior-most brāhmaṇa. This is laid down as to the presents (to be offered). The first one belongs to god Brahmā, the second one to Viṣṇu and the third one to Rudra. The three gods reside in the three (brāhmaṇas). Thus he who reads or hears, with devotion, this (account) destroying the sins of people, or he, who thinks about it, lives in the world of gods for as many years as there is hair (on the body). Now I shall tell (you) the best of the vows.

44-47. It is told by that Rudra and destroys great sins. Eating only at night for a year, one should give, along with a cow, a golden disc and trident and garments to a brāhmaṇa having a family. One who performs this religious vow, delights in the world of Śiva. This alone is the vow destroying great sins; one who, eating only once (a day) offers a cow with a bull (or) gives a cow made of sesamum goes to the place of Śiva. This is called the vow of Rudra; it destroys great sins.

48-49. He, who, eating every alternate night, offers at the end of a year a golden lotus along with a pot (full) of sugar and (a cow) with a bull attains the affluence of Viṣṇu; this is said to be Nīla-vrata. A man should avoid smearing the body with unctuous substances during the (period of) four months beginning with Āṣāḍha.

50. He should offer articles of food (to a brāhmaṇa). He goes to the abode of Viṣṇu. The vow is called Prīti-vrata as it delights the people.

51-52. Avoiding, in the month of Caitra, (eating) curds, milk, ghee and sugar, one, after having honoured a brāhmaṇa-couple. should offer them, saying ‘May Gaurī be pleased with me’, fine garments with a pot of juice. This is Gaurī-vrata (vow in honour of Gaurī), and gives (i.e. takes one to) the world of Bhavānī.

53-55a. He, who, eating only at night on the thirteenth day of Pauṣa etc., gives to a brāhmaṇa, a golden aśoka with a sugarcane ten fingers in length and with a garment saying, ‘May Pradyumna be pleased’, becomes, O king, free from grief having lived in the city of Viṣṇu for a Kalpa. This is called Kāma-vrata; it always destroys grief.

55b-57a. He, who, avoids eating fruits during the vow practised in Āṣāḍha etc., and after the four months are over, offers, on the full-moon day of Kārtika, a golden pitcher with ghee and jaggery, obtains (i.e. goes to) Śiva’s world. This is called the vow of Śiva.

57b-59a. He who avoids the (use of) flowers in the winter season (comprising the months of Mārgaśīrṣa and Pauṣa) encompassed by (i.e. along with) the cold season (comprising of the months of Māgha and Phālguna) and offers, according to his capacity, three golden flowers (to a brāhmaṇa) at an auspicious time (i.e. when it is not the time of Saturn[2]) saying ‘May Śiva and Viṣṇu be pleased with me’, goes, by making such offerings to the highest position. This is called Saumya-vrata.

59b-61a. He, who, on the third day of Phālguna etc., avoids (eating) salt, and, at the end of a year, having honoured a brāhmaṇa-couple, gives to them, saying, ‘May Bhavānī be pleased’, a bed and a furnished house, lives for a Kalpa in the world of Gaurī. This is called Saubhāgya-vrata.

61b-63a. He who, observing silence in the evenings, gives at the end of a year, a pitcher full of ghee, a pair of garments, sesamum, and a bell to a brāhmaṇa, goes to the world of Sarasvatī, from which return is difficult. This (vow) is called Sārasvata, which gives form and learning.

63b-65a. A man, worshipping Lakṣmī on the fifth day, should observe a fast. At the end of a year, he should present a golden lotus with a cow (to a brāhmaṇa). He goes to the position of Viṣṇu and has wealth in every existence. This is Lakṣmī-vrata which destroys grief.

65b-67a. Besmearing (with sandal the image of) Śiva before that of Viṣṇu, a cow and a water-pitcher should be given upto a year. (He who does this) would become a king for a myriad existences, and then would go to Śiva’s city. This is called Āyur-vrata, which gives (i.e. fulfils) all desires.

67b-69. A man, free from jealousy, saluting with concentrated mind the Aśvattha tree, the Sun and the Ganges, should eat once a day for one year. At the end of the vow he should honour a brāhmaṇa-couple along with three cows. He should (also) give a golden tree. He would obtain the fruit of a horse-sacrifice. This vow is called Kiīrti-vrata; and gives the fruit viz. prosperity and fame.

70-74. Besmearing Śiva or Viṣṇu with ghee and making a circle with cow-dung along with rice (used for sacred purposes) and flowers, one should give (a brāhmaṇa) a golden lotus along with sesamum and a cow and a pike having the length of eight fingers at the end of a year. He is honoured in Śiva’s world. He should also have the singing of Sāmans. This is called Sāmavrata in the world. On the ninth day, having eaten once a day, and having fed, according to his capacity, maidens, he should give (them) gold, bodices and garments. He should (also) give a golden lion to a brāhmaṇa; he would go to Śiva’s position. For a hundred million years he would be handsome and would not be defeated by his enemies. This is called Vīra-vrata, and it gives happiness to men.

75-78. Being kind, he should offer water (to the needy) for four months beginning with Caitra. At the end of the vow he should give a ruby along with food and garments, so also a pot (full) of sesamum and gold (to a brāhmaṇa). He is honoured in Brahmā’s world; and at the end of a Kalpa gets a prosperous birth (i.e. is born in a prosperous family). This is called Ānanda-vrata. Having bathed the lord with five sweet things[3] (viz. milk, sugar, ghee, curds and honey) for one year, he should give a cow with the five sweet things and a conch to a brāhmaṇa at the end of the year; he goes to the position of Śaṃkara. At the end of a Kalpa, he becomes a king. This is known as Dhṛti-vrata.

79-81. A man should avoid flesh (-eating) and should give a cow and a golden deer at the end of the vow. He gets the fruit of a horse-sacrifice. This is called Ahiṃsā-vrata. At the end of a Kalpa he would become a king. Having got up at day-break, and having bathed, he should worship a (brāhmaṇa-) couple, and feed the couple, according to his capacity, along with (i.e. give it) flowers, garments and ornaments. He would live in the Sun’s world for a Kalpa. This is known as Sūrya-vrata.

82-88a. In the four months beginning with Āṣāḍḥa, a man should bathe in the morning. Having given food to a brāhmaṇa, he should give a cow (to a brāhmaṇa) on the full-moon day of Kārtika. He goes to the position of Viṣṇu. This is called Vaiṣṇava-vrata. A man should avoid from one year to another (i.e. for one year) flowers and ghee; and at the end of it should give flowers, food, ghee with a cow and rice boiled in milk and mixed with ghee, to a brāhmaṇa; he goes to Śiva’s position; this is called Śīla-vrata; it gives good character and health. A man who observes the vow of (drinking) milk (only) on the fifteenth day (of every month) and at the end of the year offers a śrāddha and gives five milch-cows, tawny clothes with water-pitchers, goes to the position of Viṣṇu; and would liberate a hundred ancestors, at the end of a Kalpa, O king of kings. This is known as Pitṛ-vrata.

88b-90a. He, who offers an evening lamp with ghee, should avoid oil. At the end of the year he should present a golden lamp, a disc and a golden pike and a pair of garments to a brāhmaṇa. Such a man becomes lustrous; he obtains the Rudra-world. This is known as the Dīpti-vrata.

90b-92a. (A man) having drunk cow’s urine and (eaten) food prepared from barley[4] on the third day of Kārtika etc., should eat only at night for one year and offer a cow (to a (brāhmaṇa). For one Kalpa he would reside in the world of Gaurī and after that would become a king on the earth. This is known as Rudra-vrata and always leads to good fortune.

92b-98a. He who avoids besmearing (his body) with sandal paste (etc.) for four months, and gives (a kind of perfume called) Śukti, sandal-paste and sacred rice grains and a couple of white garments to a brāhmaṇa goes to the position of Varuṇa. This is called Dṛḍha-vrata. He who avoids (using) flowers and salt in Vaiśākha and presents a cow (to a brāhmaṇa), stays for a Kalpa at the place of Viṣṇu and becomes a king on the earth. This is said to be Śānti-vrata; it gives fame and gives the fruit of (i.e. satisfies) one’s desires. He, who, having made a golden egg (representing the egg of) Brahman, gives it along with a heap of sesamum with ghee to someone else, and having gratified a brāhmaṇa and having honoured a brāhmaṇa-couplewith flowers, garments and ornaments according to his capacity (saying) ‘May the world-soul be pleased’, gives (gold) weighing more than three palas[5] (to a brāhmaṇa) goes to Brahman not to be born again. This is called Brahma-vrata. It gives men the fruit viz. eternal bliss.

98b-101a. He who gives a pregnant cow with a low sound and remains for a day observing the vow of milk (i.e. subsisting on milk) goes to the highest position. This is called Suvrata, (having done which) rebirth is not easy. He who, remaining for three days observing the vow of milk, gives according to his capacity a golden (representation) of the desire-yielding tree weighing more than a pala along with rice measuring a prastha,[6] goes to the position of Brahmā. This is known as Bhīma-vrata.

101b-104. He, who, observing fast for a month gives a beautiful cow to a brāhmaṇa, goes to Viṣṇu’s position. This is called Bhīma-vrata. He who fashioning a golden image of the earth weighing more than twenty palas gives it (to a brāhmaṇa) and observes the vow of milk (i.e. subsists on milk) for a day is honoured in the world of Rudra. This is said to be the giver of wealth for the next seven hundred kalpas. He who gives a cow made of jaggery on the third day in the month of Māgha or Caitra is honoured in the world of Gaurī.

105-108. This Guḍa-vrata is called Mahā-vrata and gives great joy. He, who observes fast for a fortnight and gives a couple of tawny cows to a brāhmaṇa, being honoured by gods and demons obtains the world of Brahma, and becomes a sovereign king at the end of a Kalpa. This is called Prabhā-vrata. He who eats once a day for one year and gives a pitcher of water with food (to a brāhmaṇa) lives for one Kalpa in the world of Śiva. This is known a Prāpti-vrata. He who eats (only) at night on the eighth day (of every month) and gives a cow to a brāhmaṇa at the end of a year goes to the city of Indra. This is said to be Sugati-vrata.

109-110a. He who gives fuel to a brāhmaṇa during four seasons like the rainy-season, and gives ghee and cow to a brāhmaṇa, goes, after death, to the highest Brahman. This is known as Vaiśvānara-vrata. It destroys all sins.

110b-113. He, who, eating only at night on the eleventh day of a month and having made a golden disc, offers it (to a brāhmaṇa) at the end of the year, obtains Viṣṇu’s position. This is said to be Kṛṣṇa-vrata, which secures for him kingdom. One who drinks milk (only) and gives a couple of cows to a brāhmaṇa, would live, for a Kalpa, in the world of Lakṣmī. This is known as Devī-vrata. He who eats (only) at night on the seventh day of a month and gives a milch-cow (to a brāhmaṇa) at the end (of the vow) obtains the world of the Sun. This is said to be Bhānu-vrata.

114- 116a. Eating (only) at night on the fourth day of (every month) during winter, one should (at the end of the vow), give a couple of cows (to a brāhmaṇa). This is Vaināyaka-vrata, giving (i.e. taking one to) the world of Śiva. One should avoid (eating) bitter gourds for four months and give golden ones along with a couple of cows to a brāhmaṇa at the end of a sacrifice. This is called Saura-vrata. It gives the fruit (of going to) the world of the Sun.

116b-119. O king, a man, who observes fast on the twelfth day and worships, according to his capacity, brāhmaṇas with a cow, garments and gold, obtains the highest position. This is known as Viṣṇu-vrata. He who eats (only) at night on the fourteenth day (of every month) and gives, at the end of the year, a couple of cows (to a brāhmaṇa), goes to Śiva’s position. This is known as Tryambaka-vrata. Having observed fast for seven days one should give a pitcher (full) of ghee to a brāhmaṇa. This is called Vara-vrata. It gives the fruit of (going to) the world of Brahmā.

120-122. One, who, having gone to Kāśī, gives a milch-cow (to a brāhmaṇa), would live in the world of Indra for a Kalpa. This is known as Mantra-vrata. One, who, having avoided perfumes used to scent the mouth,[7] gives, at the end of the year, a cow (to a brāhmaṇa), goes to the world of Varuṇa. This is called Varuṇa-vraṭa. He who (i.e. one) should observe the Cāndrāyaṇa[8] (vow); should present a golden (image of) the Moon. This is called Candra-vrata which gives (i.e. leads one to) the world of the Moon.

123-124. He who observes the Pañcatapas[9] vow in (the month of) Jyeṣṭha and at the end (of the vow) offers a golden (image of a) cow (to a brāhmaṇa) on the eighth or the fourteenth day goes to heaven. This is known as Rudra-vrata. One should once observe a sacred rule (i.e. a vow) on the third (of a month) in a Śiva-temple. One, who, at the end of it, offers a cow (to a brāhmaṇa) goes to the (world of Śiva); this is called Bhavānī-vrata.

125. He, who, with wet clothes on his person on the night (s) of (the month of) Māgha, gives a cow (to a brāhmaṇa) on the seventh day, having lived for a thousand Kalpas in heaven, would become a king on the earth. (This is called) Pavana-vrata.

126. A man, having observed fast for three days should give an auspicious house (to a brāhmaṇa) on the full-moon day of Phālguna. He obtains the world of Āditya. This is known as Dhāma-vrata.

127-130a. He, who, observing a fast, worships a (brāhmaṇa) couple by giving them ornaments gets eternal bliss. This is said to be Mokṣa-vrata. He, who having offered on the second of the bright half a pot (full) of salt in (honour of) the Moon and a cow at the end of the vow (to a brāhmaṇa) goes to the abode of Śiva. O lord of kings, he also, who, (during the vow) gives a bell-metal (-vessel) with a garment and presents, and also a cow at the end (of the vow), goes to Śiva’s abode; and at the end of a Kalpa becomes a king of kings. This is called Soma-vrata.

130b-132. He, who eats (only) once on the first (of every fortnight) and offers fruits (to a brāhmaṇa) at the end (of the vow), goes to the position of Vaiśvānara; this is known as Śikhi-vrata. He, who, observing a fast, gives a golden chariot with the horses, weighing more than two palas (to a brāhmaṇa), would live in heaven for a hundred Kalpas; and at the end of that (period) would become a king of kings; this is known as Aśva-vrata.

133-135. Similarly he, who gives a golden chariot with two elephants (to a brāhmaṇa), would live in the Satyaloka for a thousand Kalpas; and having come to (i.e. being born on) the earth he would become a king; this is known as Kari-vrata. Eating once only on the tenth of a month and giving ten cows at the end of the vow, one should give a golden lamp (to a brāhmaṇa); one would be the lord of the universe. This is called Viśva-vrata which destroys great sins.

136-140. He, who offers a daughter (in marriage) on the full-moon day of Kārtika at Puṣkara, having earned twenty-one-fold religious merit, goes to the world of Brahmā; there is no greater gift than offering a daughter. Presents should be duly given to a brāhmaṇa specially at Puṣkara, and especially on the full-moon day of Kārtika. Such people (i.e. who give such gifts) will get (i.e. go to) an inexhaustible world (and live there) till universal deluge. He, who recites and listens to the best vow (called) Ṣaṣṭhī-vrata, (he) too becomes the lord of Gandharvas for a hundred Manvantara (ages of Manu).

141-145. O you descendant of the Bharata-family, I have told you this auspicious vow good for all mankind. If you desire to hear, O king of kings, listen to these duties of the brāhmaṇa-caste. Cleanliness and purity of mind cannot take place without a bath. Therefore, a bath is first laid down for the purification of the mind. He should bathe with water that is either not drawn out (i.e. of a lake etc.) or drawn out. (Such) a wise man knowing the original sacred texts should prepare a holy place with (the recitation of) an original sacred text. The original sacred text that is laid down is: ‘Salutation to Nārāyaṇa’. He, the wise one, with darbhas in his hand, who has duly sipped water, who is restrained and pure, having prepared a quadrangular measuring four hands, should invoke Gaṅgā with these basic texts:

146-149. ‘You have sprung from the feet of Viṣṇu, you are (therefore) Vaiṣṇavī (of Viṣṇu). Viṣṇu is your deity; therefore, protect us from the sin upto (i.e. from) birth and (upto) death. Vāyu said that there are three crores and a half sacred places; these (holy places), O Jāhnavī, belong to you in the heaven, on the earth and in the intermediate region between heaven and earth. Among the gods your name is (i.e. you are known as) Nandinī and Nalinī. You are also (known as) Dakṣā, Pṛthvī, Śubhagā, Viśvakāyā, Śivā and Sītā, Vidyādharī, Suprasanna and Lokaprasādini, Kṣemā, Jāhnavī, and also Śāntā and Śāntipradāyinī.’

150-151. One should recite these holy names at the time of bathing. Then Ganges, moving (i.e. flowing) along the three paths (viz. the sky, earth and the lower world) is near. Having muttered (the names) seven times, one should put the water, held in the cavity of his hands, on one’s head three, four, five or seven times.

152-154a. Having similarly invoked (the earth) duly, one should bathe with clay (besmeared on one’s body): ‘O you earth, you clay, who are trodden over by horses, chariots and by Viṣṇu, remove my sin—the wicked deed—I did. You were drawn up (out of the ocean) by Kṛṣṇa (i.e. Viṣṇu) having a hundred arms. (My), salutation to you who are the origin of all the people, O you of a good vow!

154b-155. Having thus (i.e. with this sacred text) taken bath, then having duly sipped water after that, one should stand up and having put on a couple of pure white garments one should present libations of water to the manes of his deceased ancestors for satisfying the three worlds.

156-158. First one should gratify Brahmā (by offering water and then) Viṣṇu, Rudra and Prajāpatis: ‘I offer this (libation of) water to satisfy the gods, Yakṣas, also Nāgas, Gandharvas and the hosts of the celestial nymphs, the cruel serpents, Suparṇas, trees like the citron tree, Vidyādharas, Jaladharas, also those who can move in the sky, and those beings who are without any support and those who are engaged in sinful acts.’

159-160. With the investiture of the sacred thread (i.e. wearing the sacred thread over the left shoulder) one should gratify (i.e. offer libation of water) to gods; then one should wear the sacred thread round one’s neck (like a garland)[10] and should offer libations of water with devotion to human beings, sons of sages and sages also. (The sages are:) Sanaka and Sananda and the third is Sanātana; also Kapila and Āsuri and Vodhṛ and Pañcaśikha.

161-164. (One should say:) ‘May all the sages be always pleased with the water offered by me.’ With sacred rice grains and water he should make offerings to all the divine and brahmanic sages (like) Marīci, Atri, Aṅgiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Pracetas, Vasiṣṭha, Bhṛgu and Nārada. Then wearing the sacred thread over the right shoulder and keeping the right knee on the ground, he should devoutly gratify with water, sesamum and sandal paste (the sages, viz.) Agniṣvāttas[11] (manes of brāhmaṇas), Haviṣmantas[12] (sons of Aṅgiras), Ūṣmapas, Sukālins[13] (manes of Śūdras and sons of Vasiṣṭha), Barhiṣads (sons of Atri and manes of demons, Yakṣas etc.) and Ājyapas[14] (sons of Pulastya).

165-166. Then one, with darbhas in one’s hand, should duly offer libations of water to one’s own manes. Having, with devotion and according to proper rites, offered libations of water to one’s manes, (uttering) their names and appellations and the maternal grandfathers and others, one should recite this basic sacred text: ‘May they who were my relatives in this existence and also may they who were my relatives in a past existence, be completely satisfied, and also those desiring water.’

167-170a. Having duly sipped water one should properly draw a lotus in front; (and) uttering the names of the Sun, one should carefully offer oblations with sacred rice grains, flowers, sesamum and reddish sandal paste: ‘My salutation to (the Sun) of a universal form; my salutation to (the Sun) of the form of Viṣṇu; my salutation to all gods; O Bhāskara, be pleased with me; O Divākara, my salutation to you; O Prabhākara, my salutation to you.’

170b-172. Having thus (that is, with the utterance of this sacred text) saluted the Sun and gone round (the lotus) three times, one should see and touch a brāhmaṇa, a cow and gold and then go home. One should then worship the holy image (of the deity) in one’s house. Then one should after feeding the brāhmaṇas eat meal. By (performing) this rite all the sages attain perfection.

Footnotes and references:


Caturvidham annam: Food is, in fact, said to be of five, and not four, types. The five types of food are: (1) Bhakṣya—to be chewed and then eaten, as bread. (2) Bhojya—to be eaten without chewing, as rice. (3) Coṣya—to be sucked, as a mango. (4) Lehya—to be licked, as thin luquid condiments. (5) Peya—to be drunk, as milk.


Kālavelā: The time of Saturn i.e. a particular time of the day (half a watch everyday) at which any religious act is improper.


Pancāmṛta: The collection of five sweet things used in worshipping deities: milk, sugar, ghee, curds and honey.


Yavaka: Food prepared from barley.


Pala: A particular weight equal to four karṣas. A karṣa is equal to sixteen māṣas. A māṣa is said to be equal to ten guñjas.


Prastha: A particular measure of the capacity equal to thirty-two palas.


Mukhavāsa: A perfume used to scent the mouth.


Cāndrāyaṇa: A religious observance of expiatory penance regulated by the waxing and waning of the moon. In it the daily quality of food, which consists of fifteen mouthfuls at the full moon, is reduced by one mouthful everyday during the dark fortnight till it is zero at the new moon, and is increased in like manner during the bright fortnight.


Pañcatapas: An ascetic who in summer practices penance sitting in the middle of the four fires with the sun burning right over his head.


Nivītī: Wearing the sacred thread, round the neck, making it hang down like a garland.


Agniṣvāttas: Are manes of gods, and are said to be the sons of Marīci.


Haviṣmantas: Sons of Aṅgiras.


Sukālins: Manes of śūdras and sons of Vasiṣṭha.


Ājyapas: Are sons of Pulastya.

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