Prastha, Prashtha, Praṣṭha, Prasthā: 15 definitions

Introduction

Prastha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Praṣṭha can be transliterated into English as Prastha or Prashtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Prastha (प्रस्थ) is a Sanskrit unit of weight corresponding to “400 grams” (or, 8 palas). It is commonly used in Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy) such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara or the Rasaratna-samuccaya. Prastha is a weight-unit often used in various Ayurvedic recipes and Alchemical preparations.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Prastha (प्रस्थ) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘640 grams’ used in Ayurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Prastha unit corresponds to 2 Śarāva units (a single Śarāva unit equals 320 gram). You need 4 Prastha units to make a single Āḍhaka unit (1 Āḍhaka equals 2.56 kilograms).

Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:

  • Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
  • 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
  • 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
  • 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
  • 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
  • 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
  • 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
  • 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
  • 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
  • 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
  • 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
  • 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
  • 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to the “table lands” on the top of mountains (giri) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Prastha], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Prastha (प्रस्थ) or Seru refers to a unit of measurement of weight (1 prastha equals 768mg; 4 prasthas = 1 āḍhaka = 3.072kg), as defined in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning prastha] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

A relative overview of weight-units is found below, prastha indicated in bold. In case of liquids, the metric equivalents would be the corresponding litre and milliliters.

1 Ratti or Guñjā = 125mg,
8 Rattis - 1 Māṣa = 1g,
4 Māṣa - 1 Kaḻañc = 4g,
12 Māṣas - 1 Karṣa = 12g,
1 Karṣa /Akṣa - 1 Niṣka = 12g,
2 Karṣas - 1 Śukti = 24g,
2 Śukti - 1 Pala = 48g,
2 Palas - 1 Prasṛti = 96g,
2 Prasṛtis - 1 Kuḍava = 192g,
2 Kuḍava - 1 Mānikā = 384g,
2 Mānikās - 1 Prastha (Seru) = 768g,
4 Prasthas - 1 Āḍhaka (Kaṃsa) = 3.072kg,
4 Āḍhakas or Kalaśas - 1 Droṇa = 12.288kg,
2 Droṇas - 1 Surpa = 24.576kg,
2 Surpas - 1 Droṇī (Vahi) = 49.152kg,
4 Droṇīs - 1 Khari = 196.608kg,
1 Pala = 48g,
100 Palas - 1 Tulā = 4.8kg,
20 Tulās - 1 Bhāra = 96kg.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to a unit for measurement of weight, corresponding to sixteen palas, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“twenty full lotuses (kamalā) constitute one prastha measure. A Thousand Bilva leaves (bilvapatra) constitute half a prastha. Petals of lotuses (śatapatra), a thousand in number constitute half a prastha. Ten ṭaṅka weight constitutes one pala and sixteen palas make one prastha. Flowers for worship shall be weighed in the balance according to this calculation. The worship thus duly performed shall accord all cherished desires. If the devotee worships with no specific desires he will become Śiva himself”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Prastha (प्रस्थ).—A measure of capacity.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 9; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 212; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 215.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini IV.2.122 and IV.2.110. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Prastha.—(IE 8-6; CII 4; Chamba), a measure of capacity, often regarded as one-sixteenth of a droṇa; cf. Pāli pattha, a land measure. Note: prastha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Praṣṭha.—cf. praṣṭham (Sel. Ins., p. 236), ‘immediately’. Note: praṣṭha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prastha (प्रस्थ).—n (S) The entertainment given to Brahmans on occasions of marriage, thread-investiture &c. 2 The hurry, bustle, confusion (as attendant upon the preparations of a great man for a journey &c.) 3 A term for a superior personage; for one eminently conspicuous for wealth, learning, wisdom; a Phœnix, a Crœsus, a Daniel. prastha mājaviṇēṃ or vāḍhaviṇēṃ To make an imposing display; to set up grand pretensions.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prastha (प्रस्थ).—n A term for a superior personage. prastha mājaviṇēṃ or vāḍhaviṇēṃ To make an im- posing display.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ).—a.

1) Standing or being in front; पुरोगाग्रेसरप्रष्ठाग्रतःसरपुरस्सराः (purogāgresarapraṣṭhāgrataḥsarapurassarāḥ) Ak.; R.15.1; तं पृष्ठतः प्रष्ठमियाय नम्रः (taṃ pṛṣṭhataḥ praṣṭhamiyāya namraḥ) Bk.1.24.

2) Chief, principal, foremost, best; a leader; पुलस्त्यप्रष्ठः (pulastyapraṣṭhaḥ) Mv.1.3;6.3; Śi.19.3; सर्वनारीगुणैः प्रष्ठाम् (sarvanārīguṇaiḥ praṣṭhām) Bk.9.84.

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Prasthā (प्रस्था).—1 Ā.

1) To set out, depart; पारसीकांस्ततो जेतुं प्रतस्थे स्थलवर्त्मना (pārasīkāṃstato jetuṃ pratasthe sthalavartmanā) R.4.6; Ku.3.22.

2) To advance, march towards.

3) To walk, move; प्रस्थितायां प्रतिष्ठेथाः (prasthitāyāṃ pratiṣṭhethāḥ) R.1.89.

4) To stand firmly.

5) To be established.

6) To approach, come near. -Caus.

1) To cause to retire.

2) To send away, dismiss, despatch; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं प्रस्थापयामास वशी वशिष्ठः (tau dampatī svāṃ prati rājadhānīṃ prasthāpayāmāsa vaśī vaśiṣṭhaḥ) R.2.7.

2) To drive away, banish, expel; अधः प्रस्थापिताश्वेन (adhaḥ prasthāpitāśvena) Ku.6.7.

4) To urge forward, push on.

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Prastha (प्रस्थ).—a.

1) Going to, visiting, abiding in; as in वानप्रस्थ (vānaprastha).

2) Going on a journey.

3) Spreading, expanding.

4) Firm, stable.

-sthaḥ, -stham 1 A level expanse, level plain; as in ओषधिप्रस्थ, इन्द्रप्रस्थ (oṣadhiprastha, indraprastha) &c.

2) Table-land on the top of a mountain; प्रस्थं हिमाद्रेर्मृगनाभिगन्धि किंचित् क्कणत्किन्नरमध्युवास (prasthaṃ himādrermṛganābhigandhi kiṃcit kkaṇatkinnaramadhyuvāsa) Ku.1.54; Me.6.

3) The top or peak of a mountain; Śi.4.11.(where it has sense 4 also).

4) A particular measure of capacity equal to thirty-two palas.

5) Anything measuring a Prastha (a seer); प्रस्थभुग्देवदत्त इत्युच्यते । यद्यपि सूपशाकादिभिरधिकः प्रस्थो भवति तथापि भुजौ प्रस्थो निर्दिश्यते । व्यञ्जनानि ओदनार्थानि (prasthabhugdevadatta ityucyate | yadyapi sūpaśākādibhiradhikaḥ prastho bhavati tathāpi bhujau prastho nirdiśyate | vyañjanāni odanārthāni) ŚB. on MS.1.8.29; प्रस्थं वाहसहस्रेषु यात्रार्थं चैव कोटिषु (prasthaṃ vāhasahasreṣu yātrārthaṃ caiva koṭiṣu) Mb.12.288.3; (com. prasthaṃ puruṣāhāraparimitaṃ dhānyam).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ).—mfn.

(-ṣṭhaḥ-ṣṭhā-ṣṭhaṃ) 1. A leader, a conductor, one who goes first or before. 2. Prior, preceding. 3. Chief, principal, best. f. (-ṣṭhī) The wife of a leader or chief. E. pra pre-eminent, sthā to stay or be, aff. ka .

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Prastha (प्रस्थ).—mfn.

(-sthaḥ-sthā-sthaṃ) 1. Expanding, spread. 2. What stays well, firm, solid. 3. Who goes on a journey or march, &c. m.

(-sthaḥ) 1. A measure of quantity, four Kudavas, or forty-eight double-handfuls. 2. Table land on the top of a mountain. 3. A level expanse. 4. A Prast'ha of any thing, or any thing measuring a Prast'ha. E. pra before, sthā to stand, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ).—i. e. pra-stha, I. adj. One who goes first. Ii. m. A leader.

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Prastha (प्रस्थ).—[pra-stha] (vb. sthā), I. adj. 1. Who goes on a journey. 2. Expanding. 3. Solid. Ii. m. and n. 1. Tableland on the top of a mountain, [Sundopasundopākhyāna] 4, 6. 2. A measure of quantity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ).—[adjective] standing in front, preceding, best of (—°); [masculine] foreman, leader.

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Prastha (प्रस्थ).—[masculine] [neuter] table-land on a mountain, surface, plain; a cert. weight & measure.

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Prasthā (प्रस्था).—A. ([Middle]) rise, stand upright, stand before ([accusative]); [Middle] be up or awake, (A.) set out to go, depart from ([ablative]), betake one’s self to ([accusative] ±prati or [locative]). [Causative] send out, dismiss, banish, put away.

Prasthā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pra and sthā (स्था).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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