Prastha, Prashtha, Praṣṭha, Prasthā: 22 definitions
Prastha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Praṣṭha can be transliterated into English as Prastha or Prashtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Prastha (प्रस्थ) is a Sanskrit unit of weight corresponding to “400 grams” (or, 8 palas). It is commonly used in Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy) such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara or the Rasaratna-samuccaya. Prastha is a weight-unit often used in various Ayurvedic recipes and Alchemical preparations.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Prastha (प्रस्थ) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘640 grams’ used in Ayurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Prastha unit corresponds to 2 Śarāva units (a single Śarāva unit equals 320 gram). You need 4 Prastha units to make a single Āḍhaka unit (1 Āḍhaka equals 2.56 kilograms).
Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:
- Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
- 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
- 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
- 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
- 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
- 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
- 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
- 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
- 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
- 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
- 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
- 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
- 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to the “table lands” on the top of mountains (giri) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Prastha], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Prastha (प्रस्थ) or Seru refers to a unit of measurement of weight (1 prastha equals 768mg; 4 prasthas = 1 āḍhaka = 3.072kg), as defined in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning prastha] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
A relative overview of weight-units is found below, prastha indicated in bold. In case of liquids, the metric equivalents would be the corresponding litre and milliliters.
1 Ratti or Guñjā = 125mg,
8 Rattis - 1 Māṣa = 1g,
4 Māṣa - 1 Kaḻañc = 4g,
12 Māṣas - 1 Karṣa = 12g,
1 Karṣa /Akṣa - 1 Niṣka = 12g,
2 Karṣas - 1 Śukti = 24g,
2 Śukti - 1 Pala = 48g,
2 Palas - 1 Prasṛti = 96g,
2 Prasṛtis - 1 Kuḍava = 192g,
2 Kuḍava - 1 Mānikā = 384g,
2 Mānikās - 1 Prastha (Seru) = 768g,
4 Prasthas - 1 Āḍhaka (Kaṃsa) = 3.072kg,
4 Āḍhakas or Kalaśas - 1 Droṇa = 12.288kg,
2 Droṇas - 1 Surpa = 24.576kg,
2 Surpas - 1 Droṇī (Vahi) = 49.152kg,
4 Droṇīs - 1 Khari = 196.608kg,
1 Pala = 48g,
100 Palas - 1 Tulā = 4.8kg,
20 Tulās - 1 Bhāra = 96kg.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to a unit for measurement of weight, corresponding to sixteen palas, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“twenty full lotuses (kamalā) constitute one prastha measure. A Thousand Bilva leaves (bilvapatra) constitute half a prastha. Petals of lotuses (śatapatra), a thousand in number constitute half a prastha. Ten ṭaṅka weight constitutes one pala and sixteen palas make one prastha. Flowers for worship shall be weighed in the balance according to this calculation. The worship thus duly performed shall accord all cherished desires. If the devotee worships with no specific desires he will become Śiva himself”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Prastha (प्रस्थ).—A measure of capacity.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 9; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 212; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 215.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)
Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to a unit of measurement equaling four āḍhakas, according to Kāśīnātha Upādhye’s Dharmasindhu, a commentary on the Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (an astrological work).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus it has has been said in the third Skandha of the sacred Bhāgavata. Its meaning is [as follows]. Eighty guñjas make one karṣa. The same has the designation of suvarṇa. Four karṣas are one pala. Thus, a vessel should be made of six palas of copper; it should be pierced at the base by means of a needle made of twenty guñjas’ weight of gold and four aṅgulas in length. Through this perforation, by the time a prastha measure of water enters, that bowl sinks in the water, because of the prastha measure of water that filled it. Then that vessel becomes the standard measure for the period of one ghaṭī. There the unit of one prastha contains sixteen palas. [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Prastha (प्रस्थ) is a bulk measure. The Āvaśyakasūtra (198b) gives a table beginning with asati, which makes a prastha=64 asatis. Asati is apparently the same as asali, a word in use at the present time in Kathawar, meaning “handful”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Prastha (प्रस्थ) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini IV.2.122 and IV.2.110. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Prastha.—(IE 8-6; CII 4; Chamba), a measure of capacity, often regarded as one-sixteenth of a droṇa; cf. Pāli pattha, a land measure. Note: prastha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Praṣṭha.—cf. praṣṭham (Sel. Ins., p. 236), ‘immediately’. Note: praṣṭha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
prastha (प्रस्थ).—n (S) The entertainment given to Brahmans on occasions of marriage, thread-investiture &c. 2 The hurry, bustle, confusion (as attendant upon the preparations of a great man for a journey &c.) 3 A term for a superior personage; for one eminently conspicuous for wealth, learning, wisdom; a Phœnix, a Crœsus, a Daniel. prastha mājaviṇēṃ or vāḍhaviṇēṃ To make an imposing display; to set up grand pretensions.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
prastha (प्रस्थ).—n A term for a superior personage. prastha mājaviṇēṃ or vāḍhaviṇēṃ To make an im- posing display.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Standing or being in front; पुरोगाग्रेसरप्रष्ठाग्रतःसरपुरस्सराः (purogāgresarapraṣṭhāgrataḥsarapurassarāḥ) Ak.; R.15.1; तं पृष्ठतः प्रष्ठमियाय नम्रः (taṃ pṛṣṭhataḥ praṣṭhamiyāya namraḥ) Bk.1.24.
2) Chief, principal, foremost, best; a leader; पुलस्त्यप्रष्ठः (pulastyapraṣṭhaḥ) Mv.1.3;6.3; Śi.19.3; सर्वनारीगुणैः प्रष्ठाम् (sarvanārīguṇaiḥ praṣṭhām) Bk.9.84.
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Prasthā (प्रस्था).—1 Ā.
1) To set out, depart; पारसीकांस्ततो जेतुं प्रतस्थे स्थलवर्त्मना (pārasīkāṃstato jetuṃ pratasthe sthalavartmanā) R.4.6; Ku.3.22.
2) To advance, march towards.
3) To walk, move; प्रस्थितायां प्रतिष्ठेथाः (prasthitāyāṃ pratiṣṭhethāḥ) R.1.89.
4) To stand firmly.
5) To be established.
6) To approach, come near. -Caus.
1) To cause to retire.
2) To send away, dismiss, despatch; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं प्रस्थापयामास वशी वशिष्ठः (tau dampatī svāṃ prati rājadhānīṃ prasthāpayāmāsa vaśī vaśiṣṭhaḥ) R.2.7.
2) To drive away, banish, expel; अधः प्रस्थापिताश्वेन (adhaḥ prasthāpitāśvena) Ku.6.7.
4) To urge forward, push on.
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1) Going to, visiting, abiding in; as in वानप्रस्थ (vānaprastha).
2) Going on a journey.
3) Spreading, expanding.
4) Firm, stable.
-sthaḥ, -stham 1 A level expanse, level plain; as in ओषधिप्रस्थ, इन्द्रप्रस्थ (oṣadhiprastha, indraprastha) &c.
2) Table-land on the top of a mountain; प्रस्थं हिमाद्रेर्मृगनाभिगन्धि किंचित् क्कणत्किन्नरमध्युवास (prasthaṃ himādrermṛganābhigandhi kiṃcit kkaṇatkinnaramadhyuvāsa) Ku.1.54; Me.6.
3) The top or peak of a mountain; Śi.4.11.(where it has sense 4 also).
4) A particular measure of capacity equal to thirty-two palas.
5) Anything measuring a Prastha (a seer); प्रस्थभुग्देवदत्त इत्युच्यते । यद्यपि सूपशाकादिभिरधिकः प्रस्थो भवति तथापि भुजौ प्रस्थो निर्दिश्यते । व्यञ्जनानि ओदनार्थानि (prasthabhugdevadatta ityucyate | yadyapi sūpaśākādibhiradhikaḥ prastho bhavati tathāpi bhujau prastho nirdiśyate | vyañjanāni odanārthāni) ŚB. on MS.1.8.29; प्रस्थं वाहसहस्रेषु यात्रार्थं चैव कोटिषु (prasthaṃ vāhasahasreṣu yātrārthaṃ caiva koṭiṣu) Mb.12.288.3; (com. prasthaṃ puruṣāhāraparimitaṃ dhānyam).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṣṭhaḥ-ṣṭhā-ṣṭhaṃ) 1. A leader, a conductor, one who goes first or before. 2. Prior, preceding. 3. Chief, principal, best. f. (-ṣṭhī) The wife of a leader or chief. E. pra pre-eminent, sthā to stay or be, aff. ka .
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(-sthaḥ-sthā-sthaṃ) 1. Expanding, spread. 2. What stays well, firm, solid. 3. Who goes on a journey or march, &c. m.
(-sthaḥ) 1. A measure of quantity, four Kudavas, or forty-eight double-handfuls. 2. Table land on the top of a mountain. 3. A level expanse. 4. A Prast'ha of any thing, or any thing measuring a Prast'ha. E. pra before, sthā to stand, aff. ka .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ).—i. e. pra-stha, I. adj. One who goes first. Ii. m. A leader.
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Prastha (प्रस्थ).—[pra-stha] (vb. sthā), I. adj. 1. Who goes on a journey. 2. Expanding. 3. Solid. Ii. m. and n. 1. Tableland on the top of a mountain, [Sundopasundopākhyāna] 4, 6. 2. A measure of quantity.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ).—[adjective] standing in front, preceding, best of (—°); [masculine] foreman, leader.
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Prastha (प्रस्थ).—[masculine] [neuter] table-land on a mountain, surface, plain; a cert. weight & measure.
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Prasthā (प्रस्था).—A. ([Middle]) rise, stand upright, stand before ([accusative]); [Middle] be up or awake, (A.) set out to go, depart from ([ablative]), betake one’s self to ([accusative] ±prati or [locative]). [Causative] send out, dismiss, banish, put away.
Prasthā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pra and sthā (स्था).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ):—[=pra-ṣṭha] mf(ī)n. (√sthā; cf. [Pāṇini 8-3, 92]) standing in front, foremost, principal, best, chief, [Raghuvaṃśa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
2) [v.s. ...] m. a leader, conductor, [Kuvalayānanda]
3) [v.s. ...] a species of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) Prasthā (प्रस्था):—[=pra-√sthā] a [Parasmaipada] -tiṣṭhati, (rarely [Ātmanepada] te). to stand or rise up ([especially] before the gods. an altar etc.), [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā];
—to advance towards ([accusative]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra];—([Ātmanepada]; cf. [Pāṇini i, 3, 22])
—to be awake, [Mahābhārata];
— ([Ātmanepada] mc. also [Parasmaipada]) to set out, depart from ([ablative]), proceed or march to ([accusative] with or without prati) or with a view to or in order to ([dative case] or [infinitive mood]), [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;
— (with ākāśe) to move or abide in the open air, [Rāmāyaṇa] :
—[Causal] -sthāpayati, to put aside, [Atharva-veda] ;
—to send out, send to ([accusative] with or without prati) or for the purpose of ([dative case] or [locative case]), send away or home, dispatch messengers etc., dismiss, banish, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;
— drive, urge on (horses), [Kumāra-sambhava] [Desiderative] [Ātmanepada] -tiṣṭhāsate, to wish to set out, [Śaṃkarācārya; Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]
5) Prastha (प्रस्थ):—[=pra-stha] [from pra-sthā] mfn. going on a march or journey, going to or abiding in (cf. vana-pr)
6) [v.s. ...] stable, firm, solid, [Horace H. Wilson]
7) [v.s. ...] expanding, spread, [ib.]
8) [v.s. ...] m. n. table-land on the top of a mountain, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] m. a level expanse, plain ([especially] at the end of names of towns and villages; cf. indra-, oṣadhi-, karīra-pr and See, [Pāṇini 4-2, 110])
10) [v.s. ...] a [particular] weight and measure of capacity (= 32 Palas or = 1/4 of an Āḍhaka; or = 16 Palas = 4 Kuḍavas = 1/4 of an Āḍhaka; or = 2 Śarāvas; or = 6 Palas; or = 1/16 of a Droṇa), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Suśruta] etc.
11) [v.s. ...] Name of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa]
12) Prasthā (प्रस्था):—[=pra-sthā] [from pra-stha] b f. = stha in -vat mfn. having a platform, [Atharva-veda]
13) Prāṣṭha (प्राष्ठ):—[=prā-ṣṭha] [from prā] mf(ī)n., [Patañjali]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Praṣṭha (प्रष्ठ):—[pra-ṣṭha] (ṣṭhaḥ-ṣṭhā-ṣṭhaṃ) a. Prior, best. m. A chief, a leader, a conductor. f. Wife of a chief or leader.
2) Prastha (प्रस्थ):—[pra-stha] (sthaḥ) 1. m. A measure of quantity, 4 kudavas, 48 double handfuls; table-land on a mountain. a. Going forth; spread; solid.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] being or moving in front.
2) [adjective] important; prominent.
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1) [noun] a man who leads, directs or guides another or others; a leader.
2) [noun] a servant who goes or is sent ahead of his master.
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1) [adjective] moving forward or onward; progressing; advancing.
2) [adjective] continuing to be; existing.
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1) [noun] going and coming (as to see someone or something); visiting.
2) [noun] an extent of more or less level surface on a mountain; plateau.
3) [noun] the highest point of a mountain; the peak or appex.
4) [noun] superiority in rank, position, character, achievement, etc.; greatness; eminence.
5) [noun] an old unit of measure (thirty two palas).
6) [noun] a measure equal to eight seers.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+29): Prashthatva, Prashthauhi, Prashthavah, Prasthaka, Prasthakusuma, Prasthala, Prasthamana, Prasthampaca, Prasthampacha, Prasthan, Prasthana, Prasthanabheda, Prasthanabhimukha, Prasthanadundubhi, Prasthanaka, Prasthanamgey, Prasthanaratnakara, Prasthanatraya, Prasthanatrayabhashya, Prasthanatrayi.
Ends with (+59): Abhiprastha, Akshapatala-prastha, Anuprastha, Atiprastha, Badariprastha, Bhogaprastha, Candraprastha, Chandraprastha, Dakshiprastha, Dashabandha-vimshatika-ttriprastha, Dashabandha-visatia-ttriprastha, Devaprastha, Dharmaprastha, Drakshaprastha, Ekaprastha, Gautuprastha, Giriprastha, Hariprastha, Himaprastha, Himavatprastha.
Full-text (+211): Prasthika, Prasthampaca, Prasthapushpa, Prashthavah, Adhaka, Indraprastha, Kudava, Ardhaprasthika, Prasthavati, Prasthavat, Rajataprastha, Anuprastha, Khandavaprastha, Udayaprastha, Prasthakusuma, Prashthauhi, Himaprastha, Maghniprastha, Shakraprastha, Tungaprastha.
Search found 40 books and stories containing Prastha, Pra-shtha, Pra-stha, Pra-sthā, Pra-ṣṭha, Prā-ṣṭha, Prashtha, Praṣṭha, Prasthā, Prāṣṭha; (plurals include: Prasthas, shthas, sthas, sthās, ṣṭhas, Prashthas, Praṣṭhas, Prasthās, Prāṣṭhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 14 - Directions for the worship of Śiva < [Section 2.1 - Rudra-saṃhitā (1): Sṛśṭi-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 16 - Different modes of worship of clay idols and their results < [Section 1 - Vidyeśvara-saṃhitā]
Chapter 21 - Nitya and Naimittika rites < [Section 7.2 - Vāyavīya-saṃhitā (2)]
Brahma Sutras (Shankaracharya) (by George Thibaut)
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CCXVII - Various Recipes for the cure of sterility, virile impotency, etc. < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CXCVII - Preparations of medicinal oils and Ghritas < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCXXVII - Different names of the Ayurvedic Drugs < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 15 - Fermented non-alcoholics (5): Dhanyamla < [Chapter XXXIII - Spirituous liquors (Sandhana or Samdhana)]
Part 12 - Fermented non-alcoholics (1-2): Asava and Arista < [Chapter XXXIII - Spirituous liquors (Sandhana or Samdhana)]
Part 16 - Fermented non-alcoholics (6): Kanji < [Chapter XXXIII - Spirituous liquors (Sandhana or Samdhana)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 1: Initiation, Mercury and Laboratory (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 2 - Measures of weight < [Chapter VII - Enumeration of technical terms]
Part 1 - Alchemical apparatus (yantra) < [Chapter VI - Laboratory equipment]
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 25 - The Superintendent of Liquor < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 31 - The Superintendent of Elephants < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 30 - The Superintendent of Horses < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]