Saumya, aka: Saumyā; 22 Definition(s)


Saumya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Saumya (सौम्य, “pleasing one”) refers to a specific “mode of address” (nāman) used in drama (nāṭya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 19. Saumya is used to address inferior persons. A similair address to be used in this situation would be Bhadramukha.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

One of the Twenty-four Heads. Saumya: motionless. Usage: when the dance (nṛtya) is to be begun.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

1) Saumyā (सौम्या):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Dhvaja, the fourth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Saumyā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

2) Saumyā (सौम्या):—One of the sixteen yoginīs representing the sixteen petals of the Dūtīcakra. The sixteen petals comprise the outer furnishment, whereupon the abode of the Dūtīs is situated. The Dūtīs refer to the eighty-one “female messengers/deties” of the Dūtīcakra.

3) Saumyā (सौम्या):—Sanskrit name of one of the twenty-four goddesses of the Sūryamaṇḍala (first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth cakra (‘internal mystic center’) of the five (pañcacakra) and is located on or above the head. She presides over the pītha (‘sacred site’) called Aṭṭahāsa. She is also known as Saumyāsyā (according to Kubjikāmata-tantra) or Kadambā (according to Śrīmatottara-tantra).

4) Saumyā (सौम्या):—Sanskrit name of one of the thirty-two female deities of the Somamaṇḍala (second maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. These goddesses are situated on a ring of sixteen petals and represent the thirty-two syllables of the Aghoramantra. Each deity (including Saumyā) is small, plump and large-bellied. They can assume any form at will, have sixteen arms each, and are all mounted on a different animal.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Saumya (सौम्य) or Saumyāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Vijayāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Saumya Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Vijaya-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Saumyā (सौम्या) is another name (synonym) for Śaṭī, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Hedychium spicatum (spiked ginger lily). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 6.226-227), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Saumya (सौम्य) is another name for Svarṇajīvantī, a plant similar to Jīvantī, a medicinal plant identified with Leptadenia reticulata (cork swallow-wort) from the Apocynaceae, or “dogbane family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.42-44 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Saumya and Svarṇajīvantī, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Saumyā (सौम्या) is also mentioned as a synonym for Rudrajaṭā, a medicinal plant identified with Aristolochia indica (Indian birthwort or duck flower) from the Aristolochiaceae or “birthwort family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.79-81.

3) Saumyā (सौम्या) is also mentioned as a synonym for Tejovatī, a medicinal plant similar to Jyotiṣmatī Celastrus paniculatus (black oil plant or intellect tree) from the Celastraceae or “staff vine” or “bittersweet family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.82. The Raj Nighantu reads Jyotiṣmatī and Tejovatī together while Bāpālāl identifies Tejovatī with Zanthoxylum budrunga (cape yellowwood or Indian ivy-rue) from the Rutaceae or “rue” or “citrus” family.

4) Saumyā (सौम्या) is also mentioned as a synonym for Mahiṣavallī, a medicinal plant identified with Sarcostemma brevistigma (synonym of Sarcostemma acidum or leafless east-Indian vine) from the Apocynaceae or “dog-away” family of flowering plants, according to verse 3.100-101.

5) Saumyā (सौम्या) is also mentioned as a synonym for Raktaguñjā, one of the two varieties of Guñjā: a medicinal plants identified with Abrus precatorius (Indian licorice or rosary pea) from the Fabaceae or “legume family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.113-116.

6) Saumyā (सौम्या) is also mentioned as a synonym for Śāliparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Desmodium gangeticum (sal leaved desmodium), from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.17-20. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa).

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Saumya in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Saumya (सौम्य).—One of the nine divisions of Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Saumya is surrounded by an ocean (sāgara) and is one thousand yojanas in extent. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Saumyā (सौम्या) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Saumyā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

1a) Saumya (सौम्य).—The town of Soma visited by Arjuna in search of the dead child of the Dvārakā Brahman.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 89. 44.

1b) One of the nine divisions of Bhāratavarṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 9; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 79; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 7.

1c) A muhūrta of the night.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 43; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 44.

1d) A son of Purindrasena (Āndhra).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 273. 10.

1e) Budha, the son of Rohiṇī; born in Naimiṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 2. 9.

1f) (Sauram Ucānam)—solar measurements.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 137; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 188.

1g) Sūkta of the Yajurvedins; to be recited in tank rituals.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 58. 35; 93. 132.

1h) A sāma.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 9. 48.

1i) The place of the moon in the maṇḍalam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 59.

1j) A class of sacred fire.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 63.

1k) A class of Pitṛs who drink Soma's svadha; deities of Ṛtus and hence Ṛtvas; Pitṛs born of Soma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 39, 75; 28. 4, 15, 18, 70; Matsya-purāṇa 102. 20; 126. 69; 141. 4, 13, 16. Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 67; 56. 13, 16, 66; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 12. 13.

2) Saumyā (सौम्या).—A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 10.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Saumya (सौम्य) refers to the forty-third saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—If the birth is there in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘saumya’, the native is destined to be a pandit or learned-man, wealthy, very sensual (or given to worldly pleasures) has love for his deity or god and his guest, is pure, is endowed with Sattwika habits and a weak body, reputation through the medium of trade.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year saumya (2029-2030 AD) will be tranquil, universally popular, exceedingly wealthy and firm-minded.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Saumyā (सौम्या) or Saumyatithi is the name of the last of fifteen tithis (cycle of time) according to the Gārgīyajyotiṣa while the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna considers Siddhā to be the fifteenth. The associated deity for Saumyā or Siddhā according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā are the Pitṛs. A tithi was defined as one thirtieth of a synodic month (c. 29.5 days), resulting in an average tithi being slightly less than a day.

Accordingly, “(39) The New Moon is Siddhārthā. The worship of ancestors is praised on this tithi. One should enter sanctuaries (gokulāni) where there are holy rites and fire rites. (40) One should appoint a Purohita and perform sacrificial rites, make offerings and occasional oblations. The ancestors are the deity on this tithi”.

Also, “(41) The Full Moon is Kalyāṇī. One should engage in duties for the gods, acts for the Brahmans and kindle the sacrificial fire. One should devote to the sounds of the cattle. (42) One should appoint Purohitas and perform various rites for the kings. Auspicious acts should be performed. One should know Soma as the deity”.

Source: Tithikarmaguṇa in Gārgīyajyotiṣa

Saumya (सौम्य).—1. North. The northern (hemisphere). 2. Mercury. Note: Saumya is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Saumya in Kavya glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Saumya (सौम्य) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—One of the nine parts of Bhāratavarṣa. It is seems to be a region situated in the North-west part of India.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Saumyā (सौम्या) refers to one of the thirty mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the 331st chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (eg., the saumyā metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Saumya (सौम्य) or Saumyasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (eg., Saumya-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Saumyā (सौम्या) refers to one of the eight wisdoms (vidyās) described in the ‘guhyamaṇḍala-karaṇābhinaya’ chapter of the 9th-century Vajrāmṛtatantra or Vajrāmṛtamahātantra: one of the main and earliest Buddhist Yoginītantras. The first chapter begins, in the fashion of the ‘explanatory tantras’ (vyākhyātantra), by stating that the actual teachings have already been imparted; the Goddess (Devī) Māmakī then asks for insights on the means to achieve (sādhana) the supreme Nectar of the Vajra (vajrāmṛta) [...] Afterwards, the text describes the door-guardians (dvārapāla) and the eight Wisdoms (vidyā) [viz., Saumyā, etc.] which are located in the eight leaves of the lotus.

Source: De Gruyter: A Fragment of the Vajrāmṛtamahātantra
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Saumya (सौम्य) is one of the nine anudiśas: a subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

The nava-anudiśas (eg., Saumya) are called so because they have nine heavenly abodes one in each of the eight directions. Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Saumya.—(EI 27), lunar or auspicious. Note: saumya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

saumya (सौम्य).—a (S) Mild, gentle, clement, soft;--as a person or a disposition: mild or gentle; not acrid, acrimonious, harsh, rough, violent &c.;--as a medicine, an operation, a measure, an act. 2 Quiet, still, calm, composed. 3 Belonging or relating to sōma or the moon, lunar.

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saumya (सौम्य).—m S The planet Mercury or the Regent of it. He is the same with Buddh and the son of Som the moon. 2 One of the nine khaṇḍa or divisions of the continent as known to or feigned by the Hindus.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saumya (सौम्य).—a Mild; quiet. Lunar.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saumya (सौम्य).—a. (-myā or -myī f.) [सोमो देवतास्य तस्येदं वा अण् (somo devatāsya tasyedaṃ vā aṇ)]

1) Relating or sacred to the moon.

2) Having the properties of Soma.

3) Handsome, lovely, charming; pleasing, agreeable.

4) Gentle, soft, mild, placid; संरंम्भं मैथिलीहासः क्षणसौम्यां निनाय ताम् (saṃraṃmbhaṃ maithilīhāsaḥ kṣaṇasaumyāṃ nināya tām) R.12.36; सौम्यस्व- भावोऽपि पृथुप्रतापः (saumyasva- bhāvo'pi pṛthupratāpaḥ) (where saumya means both 'gentle' and 'lunar') Bu. Ch.1.1; (the voc. saumya is often used in the sense of 'good sir', 'gentle sir', 'good man'; prītāsmi te saumya cirāya jīva R.14.59; saumyeti cābhāṃṣya yathārthavādī 14. 44; Me.51; Ku.4.35; Māl.9.25).

5) Auspicious.

6) Bright, brilliant.

7) Cool, moist.

8) Northern.

-myaḥ 1 Name of Budha or the planet Mercury.

2) A proper epithet by which a Brāhmaṇa should be addressed; आयुष्मान् भव सौम्येति वाच्यो विप्रोऽभिवादने (āyuṣmān bhava saumyeti vācyo vipro'bhivādane) Ms.2.125.

3) A Brāhmaṇa.

4) The Udumbara tree.

5) Blood before it becomes red, serum.

6) The gastric juice.

7) Name of one of the nine divisions of the earth.

8) An auspicious planet.

9) A Brāhmaṇa drinking the Soma juice.

1) A kind of penance (saumyakṛcchra).

11) An adherent, worshipper; पपुर्ज्ञानमयं सौम्या यन्मुखाम्बुरुहासवम् (papurjñānamayaṃ saumyā yanmukhāmburuhāsavam) Bhāg. 2.4.24.

12) The left hand.

13) The month मार्गशीर्ष (mārgaśīrṣa).

-myam 1 Gentleness.

2) The मृगशिरस् (mṛgaśiras) constellation.

3) The left eye.

4) The middle of the hand.

-myā 1 Name of Durgā.

2) The moon-plant.

3) A pearl.

4) The मृगशिरस् (mṛgaśiras) constellation.

-myī Moon-shine. -m. pl.

1) Name of the five stars in Orion's head.

2) A particular class of Pitṛs or Manes; अग्निष्वात्तांश्च सौम्यांश्च विप्राणामेव निर्दिशेत् (agniṣvāttāṃśca saumyāṃśca viprāṇāmeva nirdiśet) Me.3.199.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 77 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

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Saumya Graha
saumya graha (सौम्य ग्रह).—m (S) A good or benign planet (as Mercury, Venus, Jupiter).
Saumyasaṃhitā (सौम्यसंहिता) or simply Saumya is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classif...
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Saumya Kricachra
saumya kṛcachra (सौम्य कृचछ्र).—n S A particular religious penance.
Saumyacchanda (सौम्यच्छन्द) refers to a type of pillar (stambha). It is a sixteen-sided shaf...
Siddha (सिद्ध).—mfn. (-ddhaḥ-ddhā-ddhaṃ) 1. Accomplished, effected, completed. 2. Liberated, em...
Rasa (रस).—m. (-saḥ) 1. Flavour, taste, viz:—sweet, salt, pungent, bitter, sour, and astr...

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