Vaishnava, aka: Vaiṣṇava, Vaisnava; 13 Definition(s)
Vaishnava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Vaiṣṇava can be transliterated into English as Vaisnava or Vaishnava, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Vaiṣṇava is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—A type of standing-posture (sthāna);—Instructions: the feet two Tālas and a half apart, one for the natural posture and another obliquely placed with toes pointing sideways and the shank bent (añcita) and limbs with Sauṣṭhava. Viṣṇu is the presiding deity of this Sthāna.
(Uses): From this Sthāna persons of the superior and the middling types should carry on their ordinary (lit. natural) conversation in connexion with various duties.(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव) is a Sanskrit word for a weapon used in Purāṇic literature, such as the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53), where it was in the presence of Devī Bhadrakālī, who was preparing for the war between Śankhacūḍa with the Devas.(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
1a) Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—A muhūrta of the night.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 43; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 44.
1b) Eligible for Pārvaṇa śrāddha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 16. 9.
1c) The Purāṇa of 23,000 ślokas compiled by Parāśara; he who copies this and makes a gift of it on the āṣāḍha full moon day reaches the world of Varuṇa; gives an account of Varāha kalpa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 53. 16-17.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—Anyone who is a not a Vaiṣṇava, or an unalloyed devotee of the Supreme Lord, must be a materialist. A Vaiṣṇava living according to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s injunctions is certainly not on the materialistic platform. Caitanya means “spiritual force”. All of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's activities were carried out on the platform of spiritual understanding; therefore only those who are on the spiritual platform are able to understand the activities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
A Vaiṣṇava never agrees with the speculative system of the jñānīs. Both the jñānīs and karmīs depend on direct sense perception for their imperfect knowledge. The karmīs never agree to accept anything not directly perceived, and the jñānīs put forth only hypotheses. However, the Vaiṣṇavas, the unalloyed devotees of the Lord, do not follow the process of acquiring knowledge by direct sense perception or mental speculation.(Source): Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—The nakṣatra, Śravaṇa that is presided over by Viṣṇu. Note: Vaiṣṇava is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.164.30) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vaiṣṇava) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Vaishnava (वैष्णव): A sacrifice performed by Duryodhana in the forest. Yayati, Mandhata, Bharata and others also performed it.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
In order to get an idea of the traits of a true Vaiṣṇava one has to look at a sample of the works of the Advaitins, that include Veda Vyasa, Shankara, Madhusudana Saraswati, Appayya Dikṣita, etc. a few of which are presented here.
- The Vaiṣṇava believes that Viṣṇu, under an apparent ignorance, is the one in samsāra.
- The Vaiṣṇava believes that Hari and Hara are non-different; it is One tattvam appearing as two.
- The Vaiṣṇava believes that the upāsana, worship, of any deity of the purāṇic/vedic pantheon leads to liberation through chitta shuddhi since the worship is directed to Brahman that is what is the core of all deities.
- The Vaiṣṇava believes that all lokas, including Vaikunṭha, are not eternal, even in the creation sphere. For the Vaiṣṇava these are subject to pralaya.
- The Vaiṣṇava believes that all attributes, guṇas, of Bhagavan, Brahman, are superimposed by the shāstra on the Nirguṇa Brahman in order to aid the aspirant to reach the goal of securing the realization of the attributeless Brahman.
India history and geogprahy
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव) refers to a system of worship that was once commonly practised in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The popularity of the Vaiṣṇava cult in early Kaśmīra, as indicated by the Nīlamata, is corroborated by the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa mentioning Kaśmīra as a seat of Viṣṇu in the form of Cakrin and by the Rājataraṅgiṇī informing about various temples of Viṣṇu erected by various kings, their relatives and ministers. Raṇāditya, Pravarasena II, Durlabhavardhana and his son Malhaṇa, Gandrāpīḍa, his wife and his preceptor Mihiradatta, Candrāpīḍa’s city-prefect Chalitaka, Lalitāditya and his queen Kamalāvatī and many others are known to have founded shrines of Viṣṇu.(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—a (S) Relating to viṣṇu. 2 A devotee or follower of viṣṇu.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—a A devotee of viṣṇu.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Vaiṣṇava (वैष्णव).—a. (-vī f.) [विष्णुर्देवतास्य तस्येदं वा अण् (viṣṇurdevatāsya tasyedaṃ vā aṇ)]
1) Relating to Viṣṇu; गां गतस्य तव धाम वैष्णवम् (gāṃ gatasya tava dhāma vaiṣṇavam) R.11.85.
2) Worshipping Viṣṇu.
-vaḥ 1 One of the three important modern Hindu sects, the other two being Śaiva and Śākta sects.
2) Name of the asterism Śravaṇa.
-vī 1 The personified Śakti or energy of Viṣṇu.
2) Name of Durgā.
3) Asparagus Racemosus (Mar. śatāvarī).
4) The Tulasī plant.
-vam 1 The residence of Viṣṇu; i. e. वैकुण्ठ (vaikuṇṭha).
2) The ashes of a burnt offering.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 49 books and stories containing Vaishnava, Vaiṣṇava or Vaisnava. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.3.10 < [Chapter 3 - Prapancatita: Beyond the Material World]
Verse 2.1.137 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya: Renunciation]
Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara (by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati)
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter L - Death of viduratha < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
Chapter XXXII - The spiritual and formal worship of vishnu < [Book V - Upasama khanda (upashama khanda)]
Chapter LXXXIII - Worship of kandara alias mangala < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 4 - Vedānta in Gauḍapāda < [Chapter X - The Śaṅkara School Of Vedānta]
Part 1 - The place of the Upaniṣads in Vedic literature < [Chapter III - The Earlier Upaniṣads (700 B.c.— 600 B.c.)]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CCXXXVI - Vishnu Bhakti < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCXIX - The prophylactic charm of Vaishnava Kavacham < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCXL - Traits of a true Vaishnava < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 16 - Two Doorkeepers of Vaikuntha, Cursed by the Sages < [Canto III - The Status Quo]
Chapter 4 - Gajendra Returns to the Spiritual World < [Canto VIII - Withdrawal of the Cosmic Creations]
Chapter 40 - The Prayers of Akrura < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]