Atharvaveda and Charaka Samhita

by Laxmi Maji | 2021 | 143,541 words

This page relates ‘4a. Kushtha-roga (leprosy) in the Atharvaveda’ found in the study on diseases and remedies found in the Atharvaveda and Charaka-samhita. These texts deal with Ayurveda—the ancient Indian Science of life—which lays down the principles for keeping a sound health involving the use of herbs, roots and leaves. The Atharvaveda refers to one of the four Vedas (ancient Sanskrit texts encompassing all kinds of knowledge and science) containing many details on Ayurveda, which is here taken up for study.

4a. Kuṣṭha-roga (leprosy) in the Atharvaveda

Leprosy makes the body ugly. So, it is called leprosy—

śarīraṃ kuṣṇāti kutsitaṃ karoti, iti kuṣṭham |’.

Ignoring it makes the whole body gradually ugly. It contaminates the dhātus with sap etc. Reaching the dhatus, it spreads inside, producing foul-smelling worms. Worms gradually eat away at hair, skin, nerves, arteries, and bones. Therefore, it is called leprosy. White leprosy and its treatment have been described in Atharvaveda and two hymns are dedicated solely to white leprosy or Kilāsa[1]. This disease causes white spots without any ulcer. According to hymns, there are many causes of this disease including communication by contact, sufferer’s own former sins, inherited from parents, and witchcraft infection. The first variant is caused by wearing the clothes or ornaments of the patient, breathing the same air[2]. The disease when deep-seated in the bones is caused by inheritance or by sin.

The three verities are–

  1. Asthija,
  2. Tanūja, and
  3. Yat-tvachi.

This disease is also caused by three doṣas. The fourth variety is caused by hostile witchcraft. Eating indigestible food, fasting, mantel agitation, and excessive fatigue give rise to white spots and slowly spread over the body, blood, marrow, and bones. In the initial stage, the diseases are curable. The difference between Śvitra and leprosy is that Śvitra is on the outer skin and leprosy is in the inner dhatus[3]. Among the seven types of leprosy, three of them are caused when affected by the doṣa of vāta etc., three affected by the doṣa of saṃsarga, and one affected by the doṣa of Sannipāta[4].

Śvitra is filtrate and leprosy is non-filtrate. Flesh-covered Śvitra is more painful than blood-stained Śvitra and phlegmatic discrimination Śvitra is the most difficult[5]. In the Atharvan literature Śvitra appears for the first time in the comment of Dārila on Kauśika Sūtra 26.22 and Keśava with the uses the word Kuṣṭha[6].

Leprosy is known in the Atharvaveda. And the treatment of leprosy is mentioned in a few sūktas. There are many medicines mentioned in the Atharvaveda for the treatment of leprosy. Kilāsa and Palita are synonymous with white leprosy[7]. These two are parts of white leprosy. These two diseases cause spots on the skin but they do not cause discharge. Kilāsa signs are somewhat red and rough. Palita's sign is white. There are three synonyms of Kilāsa in Mādhavanidāna, namely-Dāruṇa, Aruṇa, and Śvitra. As suggested in Mādhava Nidāna, Kuṣṭha arises from tridoṣas and it affects skin, blood, fat, and limb. If there is a defect in the blood, it is red, if there is a defect in the fat, it is white, and if there is a defect in the meat, it is copper[8]. Similarly, according to Aṣṭāṅga Saṃgraha the disease is said to appear because of ill-treatment with sages’ sin, etc.[9] In the Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdaya, some special reasons have been mentioned for the origin of leprosy, namely-irregular diet, the killing of relatives, etc., subsequent deprivation of property, Vātādi doṣas, etc. due to pre-existing karma[10]. It is of seven kinds like kapāla, audumvara, maṇḍala, vicarcī, ṛṣyajihvā, etc. Among this kapāla, audumvara, maṇḍala, etc. are regarded as Mahākuṣṭha.

In Atharvaveda, Kuṣṭha is described as night born, dark, black, dusky entity and is requested to replace the white colour with its colour. Leprosy is also called dusky and herbs are invoked to make the white colour of leprosy disappear[11].

The Asura women who conquered by fight, taking shape as forest trees made the first remedy of leprosy by making the skin uniform[12].

The herb Kuṣṭha, born on the mountains, is regarded as the strongest plant to pacify fever. The herb Kuṣṭha is described as the heavenly plant own by the Gods. The herb was brought by the golden roads, golden oars, and golden ship that moved about the sky. Kuṣṭha is described as the flower of immortality in Atharvaveda. The Kuṣṭha is invoked to relieve the patient from the disease of leprosy[13].

The herb Kuṣṭha has three names like Nadyamāra, Nadyāriṣa, and Paribru. It is described as the highest of the herbs standing along with some to banish all the Takman and sorceresses and leprosy[14].

The Atharvaveda describes the causes of doṣas of Kilāsa disease and Palita disease[15], namely, irregular eating, promenade, evil deeds, illicit relationships, and meals with the diseased person, etc. According to the Atharvaveda, when metals like meat, fat, bones, etc., are contaminated, Kilāsa, and Palita diseases are born[16]. In modern life science, Kilāsa is called leucoderma which is called vitiligo. The substance that colours the body's gut is called melanin. Melanin is black. Melanin is produced from cells called Melan oblast. Hair and eyebrows are blackened due to melanin[17].

The disease Balāsa is often referred to in the Atharvaveda where Balāsa is termed as Abalāsau or Balāsanāśana. There are specific hymns dedicated to the treatment of this disease[18]. The hymns belong to Atharvaveda of the Paippalāda version. Because of the doubtful character of the disease Balāsa, it is often termed as Ajñātayakṣma means unfamiliar disease. According to later medical literature, this disease has no serious consequences but is merely termed as phlegmatic humour. According to Sāyaṇa, the disease Balāsa is the other name of consumption. Balāsa and Kilāsa are seen to have some similar connections between them[19]. The Kilāsa is a kind of skin disease known as white leprosy or leucoderma. The visible symptom of Balāsa is the eruption in the skin and inflammatory patches on the body. This disease can turn out to be a very fatal one. There are hymns suggested to cure this disease. It is to be noted that Balāsa is connected to Takman, Kāsa, Ādahi, Udyuga, Vidradha, Lohita, Visalpaka, Pṛṣṭyāmaya, Hṛdayāmaya, Āśarīka and Viśarīka. A weak patient suffering from any fever may attract Balāsa. Balāsa is such a disease that can spread very quickly. It seriously affects the eyes, ear, limbs, skin, and spasm accompanied by Takman, Kāsa, etc. To treat Balāsa the Doctor needs to place a ride in the water of the river and the patient should be washed with the water while the water flows down the reed. The patient then should be smeared with the powder of Palāśa mixed with water[20]. In another reference from the Atharvaveda, we find that Iṭa grass; bulrush should be used to smooth the skin of the patient. Also, Cīpudru along with Palāśa may be used to treat Balāsa[21].

The following medicines have been prescribed in the Atharvaveda for white leprosy or Kilāsa and Palita. The three plants Rāmā, Kṛṣṇā and Asiknī and also Bhṛṅgarāja, Indravāruṇī, and Nīlī are useful to restore the natural colour of the skin. According to Kauśika Sūtra, the rubbing of the dung of the above mention plants white reciting I.23 and 24. So, the patient sweats cure the disease[22]. The Atharvaveda also mentions Kṛṣṇā medicine with Rāmā[23]. Sāyaṇācārya it means Indravāruṇī. In Kauśika Sūtra, Nīlī is accepted by Kṛṣṇā. It has been called the medicine of Śvitra and Palita. Indravāruṇī is called Colocynthis. It is an antidote for koḍha, cough, breathing, gonorrhoea, goiter, and poisoning[24]. Black basil, Nilapunarṇavā, Dākṣā, and Pippalī are known by the word Kṛṣṇā. Black basil destroys leprosy, anemia, phlegm, and arthritis[25]. Nilapunarṇavā is an antidote for a blood disorder and also destroys Pāṇḍuroga, inflammation, stomach disease, etc.[26] Pippalī destroys koḍha, gonorrhoea, bavāsīra, hives, etc.[27]

In the Atharvaveda, there is a reference to Asiknī medicine for the treatment of white leprosy[28]. Asiknī means black. Sāyaṇācārya it means Nīlī medicine. It is used in bowel discomfort and anemia. Nighaṇṭu Ratnākara Nīla has been called the destroyer of leprosy. Ācārya Suśruta has described the application of Nīlī mixed with ghee to destroy leprosy[29]. In Yogaratnākara said that the coating of Nīla leaves is useful[30]. In the Atharvaveda, Śyāmā is called Śvitra or white leprosy and Palita or hair ripening and the best medicine for leprosy[31]. It removes white spots on the skin and makes the skin even. So, it has been called ‘Sarūpaṅkarṇī’. In Rājanighaṇṭu, Śyāmā is called Nīla.

The plants Rajanī and Āsurī Śyāmā restore natural colour to the skin. The Atharvaveda mentions the use of Rajanī in the treatment of white leprosy and Palita[32]. In the Bhāvaprakāśa Nighaṇṭu, Nīla or Nīlī is called Rañjanī[33]. Dāḍila has accepted it as Methikā or Methī. And according to Keśava, it is called Haridrā. Turmeric is used in the treatment of blood disorders, inflammation, Pāṇḍuroga, and gonorrhoea or diabetes. Turmeric is mixed with sesame oil and massaged to cure skin diseases[34]. In the Atharvaveda, Āsurī medicine is also said to be beneficial for the treatment of leprosy[35]. In Atharvapariśiṣṭa Āsurī Kalpa, Āsurī is considered as Rājikā or Rāi. In the Bhāvaprakāśa, Rājikā's synonym is Āsurī. It is said to cure leprosy and itching[36]. In the Vaidyaka-śabda-Sindhu, white mustard is called Āsurī.

The name of Naktaṃ medicine is found in the Atharvaveda, which is beneficial in the case of leprosy. There are three common medicines called Naktaṃ, namely-Kalihārī or Naktendupuṣpikā. It eliminates leprosy, oedema, haemorrhoids, worms, pain, etc. Guggulu or Gūgala is also called Naktaṃ. It eliminates diseases like leprosy, gallstones, hives, oedema, bavāsīra, and goiter, etc. The Sanskrit name of Karañja and Kañja or Ghiyākarañja is Naktamāla. It eliminates koḍha, worms, bavāsīra, and gonorrhoea. Lemon juice and Naktamāla oil are mixed in equal parts and applied. It is an antidote for dermatitis. Naktamāla oil is applied on the body and there are no spots on the skin. Naktamāla leaves are also medicinal. It is beneficial in leprosy, diarrhoea, epilepsy, bloating of the stomach, and liver disease[37]. In the Atharvaveda, Rāmā medicine is said to be the destroyer of white leprosy[38]. Sāyaṇācārya, this is means Bhṛṅgarāja. Rāmā

medicine along with other medicines is applied in white leprosy and Palita. The rule of application is to rub the Śvitra area with dry dung and when the blood comes out, crush the Bhṛṅgarāja, Haridrā, Indravāruṇī, and Nīlikā and then apply the coating. Ghṛtakumārī, Ghikunvāra, Gvārapāthā, etc., are also called Rāmā. She is also called a Kanyā and Kumārī. It is a destroyer of blood disorders, skin diseases, skin disorders, leprosy, etc. Aloe medicine is made by freezing its juice. Ghṛtakumārī paste is a destroyer of skin disorder[39].

In the Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdaya, some simple treatments for leprosy have been described. All types of leprosy patients need to drink fat for the unctuousness of the body. All types of leprosy patients will drink e.g., Bhallātaka oil, Tuvaraka oil, and mustard oil[40]. In the Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdaya, there are references to acupuncture for leprosy[41]. For leprosy patients, vows, fasting, chanting, and also additional sunlight treatment is useful[42]. The lepers must sit for thirty minutes or one hour in the morning facing the sun.

ārogyaṃbhāskarād icchet

[That is] healing is achieved by consuming.

There are also dietary and inedible instructions for leprosy patients. The diet consists of Śālidhānya, barley, Wheat, Kodo, Priyaṅgu, Moong, Masoor, Aḍahara, Triphalā, Paṭola, Neem, etc. Inedible is-Sour, Salty and Salty foods. Yogurt, Milk, Ghee, Sesame, and Uḍada should be left out especially[43].

The Atharvaveda speaks of the application of Brahman medicine for white leprosy[44]. Bhāraṅgī or Phañjī is also called Brahmasuvarcalā and Brahmayaṣṭi. It is beneficial for blood disorders, cough, shortness of breath, and diseases of the pancreas, phlegm in the lungs, goiter, and hives. According to Ācārya Suśruta, Khaira and Vijayasāra are the medicines which destroy all types of leprosy. The Atharvaveda also mentions some other medicines that are beneficial for leprosy namely-Tilvaka, Maṇḍūkī, Māṣaparṇī and Pṛśniparṇī, Vīriṇa or Vīraṇa, Śatavāra, Puṣpā, Baja, Babhrū or Śaṅkhapuṣpī, Vibhīdaka or Vibhītaka, Śamī, Hāridrava, Haridru, etc.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

AV. -I.23; I.24; K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā -Vol. I, Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2015, pp. 41-43.

[2]:

asthijasya kilāsasya tanujasya ca yattvaci |
dū ṣyā kṛ tasya brahmaṇā lakṣma śvetamanīnaśam ||
(AV. -I.23.4); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 53.

[3]:

kālenopekṣitaṃ yasmātsarvaṃ kuṣṇāti tadvapuḥ |
prapadya dhātūnvyāpyāntaḥ sarvān sakledya cāvahet ||
sasvedakledasaṅkothān kṛ mīn sūkṣmān sudāruṇān |
lomatvaksnāyudhamanītaruṇāsthīni yaiḥ kramāt ||
(Aṣṭā. H. Nidānasthāna-14/4-5); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p.136.

[4]:

bhakṣayecchitramasmācca kuṣṭhabāhyamudāhṛtam |
kuṣṭhāni saptadhā doṣaiḥ pṛthaṅmiśraiḥ samāgataiḥ ||
sarvaṣvapi tridoṣeṣu vyapadeśo'dhikatvataḥ |
vātena kuṣṭhaṃ kāpālaṃ
, pittadaudumbaraṃ, kaphāt || (Aṣṭā. H. –Nidānasthāna-14/6-7); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p. 137.

[5]:

tatra tvaci sthite kuṣṭhe todavaivarṇyarūkṣatā |
svedasvāpaśvayathavaḥ śoṇite
, piśite punaḥ |
paṇipādāśritā
...................(Aṣṭā. H. –Nidānasthāna-14/33-39); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p. 141-142.

[6]:

Atharvavedīya–Kauśika Gṛhyasūtraṃ (Dārilakeśavayosaṃkṣiptaṭīkaya sahitaṃ), trans. Udayanarayana Sinha, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series office, 2009, p. 60.

[7]:

idaṃ rajani rajaya kilāsaṃ palitaṃ ca yat || (AV. –I.23.1); K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā -Vol. I, Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2015, p. 41.

[8]:

dāruṇaṃ cāruṇaṃ śvitraṃ kilāsaṃ nāmabhistribhiḥ |
doṣe raktāśrite raktaṃ
, tāmraṃ māṃsasamāśrite |
śvetaṃ medaḥśrite śvitraṃ
, guru taccottarottaram || (Mā. Ni. –II /Kuṣṭha Nidānam/37-39); Mādhava-Nidāna of Mādhavakara with the Commentary Madhukoṣa by Vijayarakṣita & Śrīkaṇṭhadatta, Brahmanand Tripathi(ed.), trans. Kanjiv Lochan, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, 2018, p. 734.

[9]:

sādhunindāvadhānyasvaharaṇādyaiśca sevitaiḥ ||
pāpmabhiḥ karmabhiḥ sadyaḥ prāktanairvaritā malāḥ |
(Aṣṭā. S. –Nidānasthāna-14/1-2); Aṣṭāṅga Saṃgraha of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2018, p. 235.

[10]:

mithyāhāravihāreṇa viśeṣeṇa virodhinā |
sādhunindāvadhānyasvaharaṇādyaiśca sevitaiḥ ||
pāpmabhiḥ karmabhiḥ sadyaḥ prāktanairvaritā malāḥ |
sirāḥ prapadya tiryaggāstvaglasīkāsṛgābhiṣam ||
dū ṣayanti ślathīkṛ tya niścarantastato bahiḥ |
tvacaḥ kurvanti vaivarpyaṃ duṣṭāḥ kuṣṭhamuśanti tat ||
(Aṣṭā. H. –Nidānasthāna-14/1-3); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p.136.

[11]:

naktaṃ jātāsyoṣadhe rāme kṛṣṇo asikni ca |
idaṃ rajani rajaya kilāsaṃ palitaṃ ca yat ||
kilāsaṃ ca palitaṃ ca nirito nāśayā pṛṣat |
ā tvā svo viśatāṃ varṇaḥ parā śuklāni pātaya ||
asitaṃ te pralayanamāsthanamasitaṃ tava |
asiknyasyoṣadhe nirito nāśayā pṛṣat ||
asthijasya kilāsasya tanūjasya ca yat tvaci |
dū ṣyā kṛ tasya brahmaṇā lakṣma śvetamanīnaśam ||
(AV. –I.23.1-4); Veda Atharvaveda Saṃhitā, trans. Dilip Mukhopadhyaya, Kolkata, Aksaya Library, 2017, pp. 158-161.

[12]:

suparṇo jātaḥ prathamastasya tvaṃ pittamāsitha |
tadāsurī yudhā jitā rupaṃ cakre vanaspatīn ||
āsurī cakre prathamedaṃ kilāsabheṣajamidaṃ kilāsanāśanam |
anīnaśat kilāsaṃ sarūpāmakarat tvacam ||
sarūpā nāma te mātā sarūpo nāma te pitā |
sarūpakṛt tvamoṣadhe sā sarūpamidaṃ kṛdhi ||
śyāmā sarūpaṅkaraṇī pṛthivyā adhyud bhṛtā |
idamū ṣu pra sādhaya punā rūpāṇi kalpaya ||
(AV. –I.24.1-4); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 53.

[13]:

yo giriṣvajāyathā vīrudhāṃ balavattamaḥ |
kuṣṭhehi takmanāśana takmānaṃ nāśayannitaḥ ||
suparṇasuvane girau jātaṃ himavataspari |
dhanairabhi śrutvā yanti vidurhi takmanāśanam ||
aśvattho devasadanastṛtīyasyāmito divi |
tatrāmṛtasya cakṣaṇaṃ devāḥ kuṣṭhamavan
………..(AV. –V.4.1-10); K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā -Vol. I, Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2015, pp. 374-376.

[14]:

aitu devastrāyamāṇaḥ kuṣṭho himavataspari |
takmānaṃ sarvaṃ nāśaya sarvāśca yātudhānyaḥ ||
trīṇi te kuṣṭha nāmāni nadyamāro nadyāriṣaḥ |
nadyāyaṃ puruṣo riṣat |
yasmai paribravīmi tvā sāyaṃprātaratho divā ||
jīvalā nāma te mātā jīvanto nāma te pitā |
nadyāyaṃ puruṣo riṣat |
yasmai paribravīmi tvā sāyaṃprātaratho
……….. (AV. –XIX.39.1-10); Atharva-Veda-Saṃhitā along with Sāyaṇabhāṣya–Vol.–7, Ramswaroop Sharma Gaud (ed.), Varanasi, Chowkhamba Vidyabhawan, 2011, pp. 256-265.

[15]:

dū ṣyā kṛ tasya brahmaṇā lakṣma śvetamanīnaśam || (AV. -I.23.4); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 53.

[16]:

asthijasya kilāsasya tanūjasya ca yat tvaci | (AV. -I.23.4); K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā -Vol. I, Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2015, p. 404.

[17]:

K. D. Dvivedi & B. Dvivedi, Vedoṇ Meṇ Āyurveda (Medical Science in the Vedas), Jyanapur, Visvabharati Anusandhan Parishad, 2018, pp. 70-71.

[18]:

AV. –IV.9.8; V.22.11-12; IX.8.8, 10; XIX.34.10; VI.14; & VI.127

[19]:

Dr. V. W. Karambelkar, The Atharva-Veda and The Āyur-Veda, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 2003, pp. 182-191.

[20]:

aghadviṣṭā śaṃ no devī varaṇaḥ pippalī vidradhasya yā babhrava iti || (Kauśika Sūtra 26.33) Atharvavedīya–Kauśika Gṛhyasūtraṃ (Dārilakeśavayosaṃkṣiptaṭīkaya sahitaṃ), trans. Udayanarayana Sinha, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series office, 2009, p. 62.; & Sāyaṇa defined-caturaṃgulaṃ palāśaśakalaṃ piṣṭvā abhimantrya vyādhitaśarīraṃ limpet ||

[21]:

ve vedāhaṃ tasya bheṣajaṃ cīprudru rabhicakṣaṇam || (AV. –VI.127.2); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda– Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 356.

[22]:

naktaṃ jātā suparṇo jāta iti mantroktaṃ śakṛ dā lohitaṃ praghṛṣyālimpati || palitānyācchidya || mārutānyapihitaḥ || (Kauśika Sūtra 26.22-24) Atharvavedīya–Kauśika Gṛhyasūtraṃ (Dārilakeśavayosaṃkṣiptaṭīkaya sahitaṃ), trans. Udayanarayana Sinha, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series office, 2009, p. 60.; & Bhṛṅgarāja–Eclipta Prostrata; Trailing eclipta. Indravāruṇī–Cucumis Colocynthis; Indian Bitter apple. Nīlī–Indigo Plant.

[23]:

rāme kṛ ṣṇo asikni ca | (AV. –I.23.1); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 52.

[24]:

endrīvāruṇī citrā gavākṣī ca gavādanī |
vāruṇī ca parāpyukto sā viśālā mahāphalā |
śvetapuṣpā mṛgākṣī ca mṛgarvārurmṛgādanī ||
gavādanīdvayantiktaṃ pāke kaṭū saraṃ laghu |
vīryyoṣṇaṃ kāmalāpittakapha plīhodarāpaham ||
śvāsakāsāpahaṅ kuṣṭhagulmagranthivraṇapraṇut |
pramehamūḍhagarbhāmagaṇḍāmayaviṣāpaham ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Gugucyādivarga -1/196-199) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 226.

[25]:

tulasī surasā grāmyā sulabhā vahumañjarī |
apretarākṣasī gaurī bhūtaghnī devadundubhiḥ ||
tulasī kaṭū kātiktāhṛdyoṣṇā dāhapittakṛt |
dīpanī kuṣṭhakṛ cchrā srapārśvarukvaphavātajit |
śuklā kṛṣṇā ca tulasī guṇaistulyā prakīrttitā ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Puṣpavarga -1/58-59) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 244.

[26]:

punarnavā śvetamūlā śothaghnī dīrghapatrikā |
kaṭuḥ kaṣāyarucyarśaḥ pāṇḍuhṛddīpanī parā |
śophā nilagaraśleṣmaharī vraṇyodarapraṇut ||
punarnavāparā raktā raktapuṣpā śilāṭikā |
śothaghnī kṣudrarvarṣābhūrvarṣake tuḥ kaṭillakaḥ ||
punarnavāruṇā tiktā kaṭupākā himā laghuḥ |
vātalā grāhiṇī śleṣmapittaraktavināśinī ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Gugucyādivarga -1/236-237) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 229.

[27]:

pittalā māgadhī kṛ ṣṇā vaidehi capalā kaṇā |
upakulyoṣaṇā śaiṇḍī kolā syāt tīkṣṇataṇḍū lā ||
pippalī dīpanī vṛṣyā svādupākā rasāyanī |
anuṣṇā kaṭukā snigdhā vātaśleṣmaharī laghuḥ ||
pippalī recanī hanti śvāsakāsodarajvarān |
kuṣṭhapramehagulmārśaḥ plīhaśūlāmamārutān ||
ādrā kaphapradā
............. || (Bhāvaprakāśa–Harītakyādivarga -1/53-58) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 174.

[28]:

rāme kṛ ṣṇo asikni ca | (AV. –I.23.1); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 52.

[29]:

tadvad dhṛtasya tatsādhyaṃ bhūnimbavyoṣacitrakaiḥ |
karañjaphalanīlikāśyāmavalgujapīlubhiḥ ||
(Suśruta Cikitsāsthāna–9.37) Suśruta Saṃhitā of Maharṣi Suśruta Vol. II, Anant Ram Sharma (ed.), Varanasi, Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan, 2018, p. 256.

[30]:

triphalā nīlinīpatraṃ lohacūrṇaṃ rasāñjanam | (Yogaratnākara–Kuṣṭha Nidāna Cikitsā Prakaraṇaṃ–210); Yogaratnākara with ‘Vaidyaprabha’ Hindi Commentary, trans. Indradev Tripathi & Daya Shankar Tripathi, Varanasi, Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, 2013, p. 661.

[31]:

śyāmā sarūpaṅkaraṇī pṛthivyā adhyud bhṛtā |
idamū ṣu pra sādhaya punā rūpāṇi kalpaya ||
(AV. –I.24.4); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 53.

[32]:

idaṃ rajani rajaya kilāsaṃ palitaṃ ca yat || (AV. –I.23.1); K. L. Joshi (ed.), Atharvaveda Saṃhitā -Vol. I, Delhi, Parimal Publication, 2015, p. 41.

[33]:

nīlī tu nīlinī tulī kālā dolā ca nīlikā |
rañjanī śrīphalī tucchā grāmīṇā madhuparṇikā ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Gugucyādivarga -1/200-203) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 226.

[34]:

haridrā kāñcanī pītā niśākhyā varavarṇinī |
kṛ mighnā haladī yoṣitpriyā haravilāsinī ||
haridrā kaṭukā tiktā rukṣoṣṇā kaphapittanut |
varṇyā tvagdoṣamehāsraśothapāṇḍu vraṇāpahā ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Harītakyādivarga -1/184-185) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 188.

[35]:

āsurī cakre prathamedaṃ kilāsabheṣajamidaṃ kilāsanāśanam |
anīnaśat kilāsaṃ sarūpāmakarat tvacam ||
(AV. –I.24.2); Atharva-Veda-Saṃhitā along with Sāyaṇabhāṣya–Vol. -1, Ramswaroop Sharma Gaud (ed.), Varanasi, Chowkhamba Vidyabhawan, 2011, p. 318.

[36]:

rājī tu rājikā tīkṣnagandhā kṣujjā nikāsarī |
kṣayakṣatābhijanakā kṛ mikā kṛ ṣṇasarṣapaḥ ||
rājikā kaphapittaghnī tīkṣnoṣṇā raktapittakṛt |
kiñcidrukṣāgnidā kaṇḍū kuṣṭhakoṣṭhakṛ mīn haret ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Dhyānavarga-1/72-74) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 297.

[37]:

karañjo naktamālaśca karajaściravilvakaḥ |
ghṛtapūrṇakarañjo'nyaḥ prakīryyaḥ pūtiko'pi ca ||
sa coktaḥ pūtikarajaḥ somavalkaśca sa smṛtaḥ ||
karañjaḥ kaṭū kastīkṣṇo vīryyoṣṇo yonidoṣahṛt |
kuṣṭhodāvarttagulmārśovraṇakṛ mikaphāpahaḥ ||
tatrapatraṃ kaphavātārśaḥkṛ miśothaharaṃ param |
bhedanaṃ kaṭukaṃ pāke vīryyoṣṇaṃ pittalaṃ laghu ||
tataphalaṃ kaphavātaghnaṃ mehārśaḥkṛ mikuṣṭhajit |
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Gugucyādivarga-1/116-117) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 218.

[38]:

rāme kṛ ṣṇo | (AV. –I.23.1); Acarya Vedanta Tirtha (ed.), Atharvaveda–Vol. 1, Delhi, Manoj Publication, 2012, p. 52.

[39]:

kumāri gṛhakanyā ca kanyā ghṛtakumārikā |
kumāri bhedanī śītā tiktā netryā rasayanī ||
madhurā bṛṃhaṇī valyā vṛṣyā vātabiṣapraṇut |
gulmaplīhayakṛ d vṛddhikaphajvaraharī haret |
granthyagnidagdhavisphoṭapittaraktatvagāmayān ||
(Bhāvaprakāśa–Gugucyādivarga -1/232-233) Bhāvaprakāśa by Bhāvamiśra Vol. I, trans. Kalishachandra Sengupta, Vaidyacarya Kalikinkara Senasharma & Ayurvedacharya Satya Shekhara Bhattyacharya (eds.), Kolkata, Deepayan, 2000, p. 228.

[40]:

kuṣṭhiṣaṇavacāśālapriyālacaturaṅ gulaiḥ |
sarveṣu cāruṣkarajaṃ tauvaraṃ sārṣapaṃ pibet ||
snehaṃ ghṛtaṃ vā kṛ mijitpathyābhallātakaiḥ śṛtam ||
(Aṣṭā. H. –Cikitsāsthāna-19/12-13); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, pp. 473-474.

[41]:

lalāṭahastapādeṣu sirāścāsya vimokṣayet || (Aṣṭā. H. –Cikitsāsthāna-19/15); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p. 474.

[42]:

śivaśivasutatārābhāskarārādhanāni prakaṭitamalāpaṃ kuṣṭhamunmūlayanti || (Aṣṭā. H. –Cikitsāsthāna-19/98); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p. 489.

[43]:

śālayo yavagodhūmāḥ koradū ṣāḥ priyaṅgavaḥ |
mudrā masurāstuvarī tiktaśākāni jāṅgalam ||
varāpaṭolakhadiranimbāruṣkarayojitam |
madyānyauṣadhagarbhāṇi mathitaṃ cendurājimat ||
annapānaṃ hitaṃ kuṣṭhe, tvamlalavaṇoṣaṇam |
dadhidugdhaguḍānūpatilamāṣāṃstyajettarām ||
(Aṣṭā. H. –Cikitsāsthāna-19/25-27); Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayaṃ of Vāgbhaṭṭa Vol. II, trans. K. R. Srikantha Murthy, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, 2018, p. 476.

[44]:

asthijasya kilāsasya tanūjasya ca yat tvaci |
dūṣyā kṛtasya brahmaṇā lakṣma śvetamanīnaśam ||
(AV. –I.23.4) Atharva-Veda-Saṃhitā along with Sāyaṇabhāṣya–Vol.–1, Ramswaroop Sharma Gaud (ed.), Varanasi, Chowkhamba Vidyabhawan, 2011, p. 316.

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