Prakarana, aka: Prakaraṇa, Prākaraṇa; 12 Definition(s)
Prakarana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Prakaraṇa (प्रकरण) refers to one of the “ten kinds of dramatic plays” (daśarūpa), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 20. These different types of dramas are considered to have originated from the various styles (vṛtti), which is discussed in chapter 22 of the same work. The Prakaraṇa type of drama includes the following styles: Verbal (bhāratī), Grand (sāttvatī) and Energetic (ārabhaṭī).
2) Prakaraṇa (प्रकरण) refers to one of the twenty aspects of tāla (time-measure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstrahapter chapter 28. In musical performance, tāla refers to any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. It is an important concept in ancient Indian musical theory (gāndharvaśāstra) traceable to the Vedic era.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
One of the Ten Types of Play (nāṭya).—Prakaraṇa: the second species of Hindu play, is the Prakaraṇa which resembles the Nāṭaka in all respects except that “it takes a rather less elevated range”. Its Plot is to be original and drawn from real life and the most approprtiate theme is love. The Hero may be a Brahmin, merchant, minister, priest, and officer of the king or a leader of the army. The female characters include a courtezan or a depraved woman of good family. But the courtezan should not meet the Hero when he is in the company of a lady or gentleman of high family, and if the courtezans and respectable ladies must meet on any account they are to keep their language and manners undistorted. From these and other features, the Prakaraṇa has been called a bourgeois comedy or comedy of manners of a rank below royalty.
Śūdraka’s Mṛcchakaṭika and Bhavabhūti’s Mālatīmādhava are well-known examples of the Prakaraṇa.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vedanta (school of philosophy)
A Prakaraṇa (treatise) has four indispensable elements (anubandha) literally, “what sticks to another,” namely,
- the determination of the fitness of the student for the study of the treatise (abhikārī),
- the subject-matter (viṣaya),
- the mutual relationship (sambandha) between the treatise and the subject-matter (which is that of the explainer and the explained)
- and the object to be attained by the study, i.e., its utility (prayojana).
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)
Prakaraṇa (प्रकरण, “context”) refers to one of the various tools used by authors displaying their skill in the art of writing.—When the validity of an injunction or teaching is dependant upon a specific time (kāla) place (deśa) and circumstance (pātra). Not all injunctions are perpetually valid and they need to be applied according to the context (prakaraṇa) given within the passage. If the context is not explicitly stated then one should apply reason.Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Prakaraṇa (प्रकरण).—Context; a section where a particular subject is treated.Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Prakaraṇa (प्रकरण).—Topic; context; a section wherein a particular subject is treated; cf. अर्थात् प्रकरणाद्वा लोके कृत्रि-माकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे संप्रत्ययो भवति (arthāt prakaraṇādvā loke kṛtri-mākṛtrimayoḥ kṛtrime saṃpratyayo bhavati) M.Bh. on I. 1. 23; cf. also सामान्यशब्दाश्च नान्तरेण विशेषं प्रकरणं वा विशेषेष्ववतिष्ठन्ते (sāmānyaśabdāśca nāntareṇa viśeṣaṃ prakaraṇaṃ vā viśeṣeṣvavatiṣṭhante) M. Bh. on I. 2.45 Vart 9.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Prākaraṇa (प्राकरण) or Prākaraṇāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Aṃśumāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Prākaraṇa Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Aṃśumān-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Used to indicate a chapter or section of a book.
2) Sanskrit literature not based on epic stories (eg. Mahabharata or Ramayana).Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
The scholars say that prakaraṇa grantha is: A section of the vedānta śāstra. Enables a thorough understanding of the śāstra.
There are granthabhedaṃ four types of prakaraṇa-granthas:
- Those that explain the doctrines of vedānta-śāstra – (pañcadaśī)
- Those that condemn anti advaita doctrines to establish advaita siddhānta – (ajñānadvāntacandrabhāskara)
- Those which present the rich experience of the authors – (anubhūti-prakāśa)
- Explain advaita tattva in alitraray manner – (yoga-vāsiṣṭha)
Languages of India and abroad
prakaraṇa (प्रकरण).—n (S) A province or department; a branch or distinct business or subject. Ex. rājya- kārabhārācēṃ pra0 nirāḷēṃ sāvakārīcēṃ pra0 nirāḷēṃ. 2 A chapter, section, book; a division of a treatise or discourse. 3 A subject or topic; a head, article, item. Ex. yuddhaprakaraṇīṃ gōṣṭī karā. 4 A business, affair, matter; a case or cause. Ex. lagnaprakaraṇīṃ cāra hajāra rupayē kharcilē; pañcāitīcēṃ pra0 sampata ālēṃ; tē prastuta kajajyācē prakaraṇānta āhēta. 5 A body, class, party; a number united by some common tie: applied also to an individual preeminently excellent, learned, clever, wicked &c. Ex. gāṃvānta cāra kuṇṭaṇīcīṃ prakaraṇēṃ āhēta tīṃ mōḍalyāṃvara vyabhicāra banda hōīla; tukārāma ēka mōṭhēṃ pra0 hōūna gēlē. 6 This word is very popularly used in the sense of Affairs, concernments, peculiar interests &c.; and with such convenient laxity as may preclude in the learner the fear of misapplication. Ex. musalamā- nācēṃ pra0 nirāḷēṃ hindūcēṃ pra0 nirāḷēṃ; tyā māmalatadā- rācēṃ pra0 buḍālēṃ hyācēṃ pra0 mājalēṃ; gharīṃ cāra bhāū āhēta caughāñcīṃ cāra prakaraṇēṃ nirāḷīṃ āhēta.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
prakaraṇa (प्रकरण).—n A department. A chapter. A subject. A business, affair. A body.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Prakaraṇa (प्रकरण).—1 Treating, explaining, discussing.
2) (a) A subject, topic, department, a subject (of representation); कतमत् प्रकरणमाश्रित्य (katamat prakaraṇamāśritya) Ś.1. (b) A head or subject of treatment. (c) A province or department.
3) A section, chapter or any smaller division of a work. तस्यायं प्रकरणाधिकरणसमुद्देशः (tasyāyaṃ prakaraṇādhikaraṇasamuddeśaḥ) Kau. A.1.1.1.
4) An opportunity, occasion.
5) An affair, a matter; अस्मिन्नेव प्रकरणे धनंजयमुदारधीः (asminneva prakaraṇe dhanaṃjayamudāradhīḥ) (uvāca) Mb.12.26.1.
6) An introduction, prologue; वयमपि प्रकरणमारभामहे (vayamapi prakaraṇamārabhāmahe) Pratijñā 1.
8) Doing much or well.
9) A species of drama with invented or fictitious plot; as the मृच्छकटिक, मालतीमाधव, पुष्पभूषित (mṛcchakaṭika, mālatīmādhava, puṣpabhūṣita) &c. The S. D. thus defines it:-भवेत् प्रकरणे वृत्तं लौकिकं कविकल्पितं । शृङ्गारोऽङ्गी नायकस्तु विप्रोऽमात्योऽथवा वणिक् । सापायधर्मकामार्थपरो धीर- प्रशान्तकः (bhavet prakaraṇe vṛttaṃ laukikaṃ kavikalpitaṃ | śṛṅgāro'ṅgī nāyakastu vipro'mātyo'thavā vaṇik | sāpāyadharmakāmārthaparo dhīra- praśāntakaḥ) || 511.
1) Context. This is one of the six प्रमाण (pramāṇa)s helpful in properly construing a विनियोगविधि (viniyogavidhi). These प्रमाण (pramāṇa)s and their relative strength is stated by जैमिनि (jaimini) in श्रुतिलिङ्गवाक्यप्रकरणस्थानसमाख्यानां पारदौर्बल्यमर्थविप्र- कर्षात् प्रकरणाच्च ज्योतिष्टोमेनैकवाक्यता स्यात् (śrutiliṅgavākyaprakaraṇasthānasamākhyānāṃ pāradaurbalyamarthavipra- karṣāt prakaraṇācca jyotiṣṭomenaikavākyatā syāt) ŚB. on MS.1. 5.37.
Derivable forms: prakaraṇam (प्रकरणम्).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 18 books and stories containing Prakarana, Prakaraṇa or Prākaraṇa. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Preceptors of Advaita (by T. M. P. Mahadevan)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Part 3 - Literary Structure of the Drama < [Introduction, part 1]
Laghu-yoga-vasistha (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)
Vedānta-sūtras Part II (by George Thibaut)