Pushpa, Puṣpa, Puṣpā: 33 definitions
Pushpa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Puṣpa and Puṣpā can be transliterated into English as Puspa or Pushpa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Puṣpa (पुष्प):—Son of Hiraṇyanābha (son of Vidhṛti). He had a son named Dhruvasandhi. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.12.5)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—A serpent born of the family of Kaśyapa. (Śloka 13, Chapter 103, Udyoga Parva).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Puṣpa (पुष्प, “flowers”) refers to “offering of flowers” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services (upacāra) as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. The sixteen types of service are [for example, offering of flowers (puṣpa)] [...] Or he shall perform all the sixteen rites in the phallic emblem of human, saintly or godly origin, or in one naturally risen up (svayambhū) or in one of very extraordinary nature installed duly”.
Puṣpa or Puṣpasamarpaṇa (flower offerings) is also mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] flower (puṣpa) offerings shall be made with the mantra ‘Namaḥ Pāryāya’ etc. Bilva leaves shall be offered with the mantra ‘Namaḥ Parṇāya’ etc.”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—The son of Hiraṇyanābha and father of Dhruvasandhi.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 209.
Puṣpa (पुष्प) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.101.13/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Puṣpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Puṣpa (पुष्प, “flowers”):—One of the five preliminary oblations (upacāra) to be offered during the worship of Gaṇeśa, Durgā, Śiva and Viṣṇu, according to the Durgāpūjātattva.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Puṣpa (पुष्प) or Puṣpatantra refers to one of the thirty-three Dakṣiṇatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Puṣpa-tantra belonging to the Dakṣiṇa class.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Puṣpa (पुष्प) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “flower” or “blossom” and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita or the Carakasaṃhita.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
1) Puṣpa (पुष्प) or Puṣpavarga is another name for Karvīrādi: the tenth chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Puṣpa-varga].
2) Puṣpa (पुष्प) refers to a “flower”, as mentioned in a list of eight synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) verse 33.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Puṣpa (पुष्प) refers to “flower” (part of a plant) and represents a type of vegetable (śāka) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Śāka-prakaraṇa deals with all types of vegetables. Here vegetables are classified into different plant parts [like flower (puṣpa), etc.]. Each of these classification have so many varieties. This prakaraṇa is devoted to explain these varieties and their properties in detail.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
1) Puṣpa (पुष्प):—Flower
2) [puṣpam] Flowers
3) [puṣpam] '(1)menstural discharge. (2) Ovum (Periodic discharge). Periodic discharge of blood and mucus from the uterus (2) The female reproductive or germ cell''
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Puṣpa (पुष्प, “sweet words”) refers to ‘sweet words’ of gallantry. Puṣpa represents one of the thirteen pratimukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Pratimukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the progressing part (pratimukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).
2) Puṣpa (पुष्प) refers to one of the four kinds of vyañjana (indication), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Vyañjana represents one of the four classes of dhātu (stroke), which relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “puṣpa is one stroke with the little finger and the thumb”.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—One of the twelve elements of the ‘progression segment’ (pratimukhasandhi);—(Description:) Mentioning some favourable peculiarity is called Sweet Words (puṣpa, lit. flower).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Puṣpa (पुष्प) or Kusuma refers to “fragrant flowers” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Puṣpa].
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Puṣpa (पुष्प) refers to “flowers” and represents one of the articles offered during Maṅgalārati, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Before each article is offered, purify the right hand [with a drop of water from the pañca-pātra], and then purify the article [viz., puṣpa]. Chant the mūla-mantra for the deity and then offer the article.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja
Puṣpa (पुष्प) refers to “offering flowers”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—Next [after akṣata] the devotee offers carefully selected fresh flowers (puṣpa) and leaves of the season (ṛtukālodbhava), which are usually kept in a special container (puṣpa-bhājana). There are elaborate rules for the use of certain flowers in the worship of particular deities. Durvā grass—liked by elephants—should be given to Ganapati but not to Devī, tulaśi to Viṣṇu but not to Ganapati, bilva leaves are to be offered to Śiva but not to Sūrya. Certain stories from the Puranic literature try to give reasons for these rules. Thus Mudgala-Purāṇa 5.31 explains the enmity between tulasi and Ganapati as leading to the prohibition of tulasi leaves in Ganapati’s worship. In kāmya-pūjās worship with certain flowers is believed to lead to certain desired results.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Puṣpa (पुष्प) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Puṣpa).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Puṣpa (पुष्प, “flower”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Puṣpa and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Puṣpa (पुष्प) is the name of an ancient king from Śvetapura, according to chapter 3.7 [suvidhinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, “[...] In the evening on the sixth day of the black half of Mārga (the moon being) in Mūla, together with a thousand kings the Lord became a mendicant accompanied by a two days’ fast. On the next day the Supreme Lord broke his fast with rice-pudding in the house of King Puṣpa in the city Śvetapura. The gods made the five things, the rain of treasure, etc., and King Puṣpa made a jeweled platform on the place of the Master’s feet. With an extraordinary body, free from affection, free from worldly interest, enduring trials, the Lord of the World wandered for four months as an (unenlightened) ascetic”
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—Gupta inscription No. 1 mentions a city named Puṣpa where Samudragupta enjoyed playfully while he was young. Apparently, the city was the Gupta capital. Also see Pāṭaliputra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Puṣpa.—(IE 8-8), a coin having the shape or sign of flower. Cf. a-harītaka-śāka-puṣpa-grahaṇa (IE 8-5), flowers which the villagers (probably, the florists) were obliged to supply to the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officials. Note: puṣpa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
puṣpa (पुष्प).—n (S) A flower. 2 The menses, vulgo flowers. 3 A disease of the eyes, albugo. 4 The uterus at large or the ovarium. See under phūla. puṣpa ṭhēvaṇēṃ To cast blame upon.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
puṣpa (पुष्प).—n A flower. The menses. A disease of the eyes, albugo.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—[puṣp vikāśe-ac]
1) A flower, blossom; पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति (patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyaṃ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati) Bg.9.26.
2) The menstrual discharge; as in पुष्पवती (puṣpavatī) q. v.
3) A topaz (puṣparāga); Rām.2.94.6.
4) A disease of the eyes (albugo).
5) The car or vehicle of Kubera; see पुष्पक (puṣpaka).
6) Gallantry, politeness (in love language).
7) Expanding, blooming, blossoming (said to be m. in this sense).
Derivable forms: puṣpam (पुष्पम्).
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Puṣpā (पुष्पा).—Name of the town Champā, the modern Bhāgalpur.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—m., (1) as common noun, flower (regularly nt.): puṣpāṃ = °pān, acc. pl., Lalitavistara 92.16; (2) name of a plurality of former Buddhas, puṣpa-nāmaka or the like, numbering 300: Mahāvastu i.46.3, but 3 crores, 58.4; 61.13; name of an individual former Buddha, iii.239.7—8, 432.12; oc- curs also as v.l. for Puṣya (1), q.v., in mss. and some edd.; (3) name of a future Buddha (compare Puṣya 2): Mahāvastu ii.355.12 = iii.279.17; (4) name of a king: Puṣpa-nāmo (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 625.22 (possibly means with a name containing the etement puṣpa, and may even refer to more than one king).
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Puṣpā (पुष्पा).—name of a goddess or yoginī: Sādhanamālā 157.12 etc.; 324.6.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṣpaṃ) 1. A flower in general. 2. The menses. 3. Expansion, expanding. 4. The vehicle or car of Kuvera. 5. A disease of the eyes, specks on the eye, albugo. 6. A topaz. 7. Gallantry, politeness, (in erotic poetry.) f.
(-ṣpā) The capital of Karna, or Bhagalpur. m.
(-ṣpaḥ) Blossoming, blooming, expanding. E. puṣpa to flower, &c. ac aff.
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(-ṣpā) The district of Bhagalpur or the name of its capital champa.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—[puṣ + pa], I. n. 1. A flower, [Nala] 13, 3. 2. The menses, Mārk. P. 51, 42. 3. The vehicle or car of Kuvera. 4. A disease of the eyes, albugo. 5. A topaz, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 94, 6 (cf. puṣpa-rāga). Ii. m. A proper name. Iii. f. pā, The capital of Karṇa.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Puṣpa (पुष्प).—[neuter] bloom, flower (adj. —° [feminine] ā or ī); [masculine] topaz, a man’s name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Puṣpa (पुष्प):—[from puṣ] n. (for puṣka?) a flower, blossom (ifc. f(ā). , in names of plants oftener f(ī). ; cf. [Pāṇini 4-1, 64], [vArttika] 1), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] the menstrual flux, [Suśruta]
3) [v.s. ...] a [particular] disease of the eye, albugo, [Suśruta]
4) [v.s. ...] a spot on the nails and teeth, [Caraka]
5) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) gallantry, politeness, declaration of love, [Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Pratāparudrīya]
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a Sāman, [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana]
7) [v.s. ...] of a book, [Divyāvadāna]
8) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] the vehicle of Kubera, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] blooming, expanding, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] m. a topaz, [Rāmāyaṇa]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]
13) [v.s. ...] of a son of Ślīṣṭi, [Harivaṃśa]
14) [v.s. ...] of a son of Śaṅkha, [ib.] ([Calcutta edition] puṣya)
15) [v.s. ...] of a Bodhi-sattva (?), [Lalita-vistara]
16) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
17) [v.s. ...] of a book ([probably] = puṣpa-sūtra), [Divyāvadāna]
18) Puṣpā (पुष्पा):—[from puṣpa > puṣ] f. Name of the town Campā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Puṣpa (पुष्प):—(ṣpaṃ) 1. n. A flower in general; menses; expansion; albugo; car of Kuvera. f. (ṣpā) Bhāgalpur.
2) hāsā (sā) 1. f. A woman during the time of menstruation.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
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1) e) [Sāhityadarpana 361.] (tam) vākpuṣpairārcayat (so ist zu lesen) [Kathāsaritsāgara 72, 395. 99, 38.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) n. — a) Blüthe , Blume. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā bei Pflanzennamen häufiger ī — b) Menstrualblut , les fleurs. — c) eine best. Krankheit des Auges , albugo [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 1,745,11.] — d) ein Fleck auf den Nägeln und Zähnen [Carakasaṃhitā 5,1.] — e) Galanterie , Artigkeit , Liebeserklärung , fleurettes. — f) Name eines Sāman. — g) *ein best. Parfum. — h) *Kubera’s Wagen. — i) *das Aufblühen. —
2) m. — a) Topas [Rāmāyaṇa 2,94,6] — b) Nomen proprium — α) eines Schlangendämons. — β) verschiedener Männer. — γ) eines Berges. —
3) *f. puṣpā Beiname der Stadt Campā. — puṣpa und puṣya bisweilen verwechselt.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Puṣpa (पुष्प) [Also spelled pushp]:—(nm) a flower; menses; —[kāla] period of menses; —[kesara] stamen; ~[garbha] calix, calyx; —[patra] petal of a flower; ~[bāṇa/dhanvā/śara/sāyaka] an epithet of Cupid ([kāmadeva]); ~[maya] flowery; —[māla/—mālā] a wreath; flower garland; —[raja] stamen (of flowers); —[rāga] pollen; —[reṇu] pollen (of flowers); ~[vatī] a woman in menses; -[vṛṣṭi] a shower of flowers or flower petals; -[veṇī] a flower garland; braid studded with flowers; —[śaiyā] a bed of flowers; —[saṃbaṃdhī] floral; ~[hīna] devoid of flowers; flowerless; ~[hīnā] a barren woman.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+263): Pushpabali, Pushpabana, Pushpabanavilasa, Pushpabatuka, Pushpabhadra, Pushpabhadraka, Pushpabhajana, Pushpabhanga, Pushpabhasa, Pushpabhava, Pushpabherotsa, Pushpabhikirna, Pushpabhisheka, Pushpabhushana, Pushpabhushita, Pushpabhuti, Pushpacamara, Pushpacapa, Pushpacarana, Pushpacatvara.
Ends with (+248): Abhipushpa, Abhrapushpa, Adhahpushpa, Adyapushpa, Agastyapushpa, Agnikshamapushpa, Ahipushpa, Akalapushpa, Amarapushpa, Ambarapushpa, Anandapushpa, Andakotarapushpa, Andakotharapushpa, Angarapushpa, Antahpushpa, Anupushpa, Apurupushpa, Apushpa, Ardhapushpa, Arkapushpa.
Full-text (+797): Indrapushpa, Tikshnapushpa, Pushpalava, Madhupushpa, Tishyapushpa, Nishipushpa, Pushpalih, Pushpasara, Pushpavati, Pushpasveda, Pushpacapa, Pushpahina, Pitapushpa, Pushpastra, Pushpakasisa, Pushpanjana, Lakshmipushpa, Bhutapushpa, Sindhupushpa, Dantapushpa.
Search found 49 books and stories containing Pushpa, Puṣpa, Puspa, Puṣpā; (plurals include: Pushpas, Puṣpas, Puspas, Puṣpās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Śrī Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 11: Kuṇḍagolika < [Chapter VIII - Initiation of ṛṣabhadatta and devānandā]
Part 13: Episode of Puṣpa < [Chapter III - Mahāvīra’s first six years as an ascetic]
Part 6: Suvidhi’s initiation < [Chapter VII - Suvidhināthacaritra]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Kasisa (sulphate of iron) < [Chapter X - Uparasa (11): Kasisa (sulphate of iron)]
Part 4 - Process for creation of Dhanya-abhra (paddy mica) < [Chapter I - Uparasa (1): Abhra or Abhraka (mica)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Topaz (pushparaga) < [Chapter XXIV - Gems (14): Pushparaga (topaz)]
The Indian Buddhist Iconography (by Benoytosh Bhattachacharyya)
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)