Shabda, Śabda: 46 definitions


Shabda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śabda can be transliterated into English as Sabda or Shabda, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “noise”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] At the same time, several phenomena of evil portent forboding misery and distress happened, when the son of Varāṅgī was born making the gods miserable. O dear, the phenomena of three varieties indicating great calamity and terrifying the worlds occurred in the sky, heaven and earth. I shall narrate them. With a terrifying noise [i.e., mahā-śabda], thunderbolts fell along with comets; shooting meteors rose up, making the world miserable. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śabda (शब्द).—The guṇa of ākāśa; swallowed by Bhūta and others.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 17.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) is one of the additional guṇas (‘qualities’) added by Praśastapāda, on top of the seventeen guṇas in the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)

Śabda (शब्द).—The Vaiśeṣikas initially did not accept the “verbal testimony” (śabda) as an independent source of valid knowledge. They included verbal testimony with anumāna. Śrīdhara opines that there is no natural relation between word and its object, i.e., the meaning of the words is but conventional in origin. It is an anumāna because the meaning is understood only through coherence, as smoka indicates fire in the hill. But later on they accepted the Naiyāyika’s view on the validity of verbal testimony.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “by making a side-long glance, bending the hand sideways and putting a hand near the ear, one should represent the sound (śabda)”.

Source: Natya Shastra

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses;— By making a side-long glance, bending the hand sideways and putting a hand near the ear, one should represent the sound (śabda).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Śabda (शब्द, “verbal testimony”).—According to Jaimini, Knowledge of Dharma can be obtained only by Verbal Testimony (śabda /āgama = Veda) in other words through the medium of language. Mīmāṃsā affirms that verbal testimony (śabda) is the only means of Right Knowledge that can be used to know the nature of the invisible effects of action, and that all other means of Right Knowledge are necessary only to refute opponents.

Mimamsa book cover
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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Śabda (शब्द) or Śabdāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Dīptāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Śabda Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Dīpta-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) (or rāva, resonance) is of ten kinds according to Jayaratha (author of the 13th century commentary Tantrālokaviveka on Abhinavagupta’s Tantrāloka).—Jayaratha cites the Brahmayāmala passage giving this order of the ten sounds (the term used is śabda):

  1. the sound cinī,
  2. the sound ciñcinī,
  3. the sounds of a cricket (cīravākī),
  4. the sounds of a conch- shell (śaṅkhaśabda),
  5. the sounds of a stick-zither (tantrīghoṣa),
  6. the sounds of a flute/wind in hollow bamboo (vaṃśarāva),
  7. the sounds of cymbals (kāṃsyatāla),
  8. the sounds of a thundercloud (meghaśabda),
  9. the sounds of a forest-fire (dāvanirghoṣa),
  10. the sounds of a kettle-drum (dundubhisvana).

An identical list of ten sounds is also found in the Kubjikāmata, where they are derived from Unstruck Resonance (anāhatā). The Yogin is advised to reject the first nine and cultivate only the liberating tenth.  Another very similar list is also found in an anonymous quotation in Rāghavabhaṭṭa’s Padārthādarśā commentary on the Śāradātilaka. Related are also the ten sounds taught in the Haṃsopaniṣad. The Yogin is again instructed to reject the first nine sounds and practise only the tenth.

The Dīkṣottara uses the term śabda instead of dhvani. The Resonance is correlated with the three main channels of subtle yogic physiognomy. The left channel, known as iḍā, resonates with the ciñcinī sound, the right channel, called piṅgalā with the sound of a cricket (cīra) and the central suṣumnā channel reverberates like a bell. When the bell-like resonance in the central channel dies down the Yogin attains the silent, liberated state of Śiva.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (vyakarana)

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “words that are made of syllables” according to Pāṇini (7th century BCE) in his works Aṣṭādhyāyī dealing with vyākaraṇa (grammar): the science of analysis of sentences and words. Indian grammar analyzes language as a structure of five levels. The third level is of śabda, words that are made of syllables. As in Yāska, in Pāṇini’s grammar also, all words belong to four classes: nāma (substantive, i.e., nouns and adjectives), ākhyāta (verbs), upasarga (prefixes), nipata (indeclinables).

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Śabda (शब्द, “word”) refers to “verbal testimony” and represents the fourth and last of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”), according to Gautama’s 2nd-century Nyāyasūtra (verse 1.1.3). Śabda is accepted by the Nyāya, as a pramāṇa. According to Gautama verbal testimony is an instruction of a reliable person. He defines it as āptopadeśa. It means a communication from or assertion of a āptapuruṣa. The reliability of a person making a statement is a condition ensuring the validity of the knowledge derived in this way. Navya-Naiyāyikas used the term vākya in the sense of the word upadeśa. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines śabda as the statement of a person who is a reliable person (āpta). He also says that an āpta is one who speaks the truth about anything and who is truthfull. By this definition, it is clear that the basic character of śabda-pramāṇa is a sentence used by a trustworthy person.

2) Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) or Śabdaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to Praśastapāda and all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—According to the Bhāṭṭa school of Mīmāṃsā, śabda (sound) is a substance (dravya). But the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas do not conform to this view. They regard śabda as a quality (guṇa); it is a special quality of ether. For establishing śabda as a quality Viśvanātha has forwarded an inference. The inference ‘sound is a quality, since it possesses a generic attribute which is not perceptible to the eye, but is perceptible to an external organ, like touch’. Proves that sound is not a substance but a quality.

Defining śabda (sound) Annaṃbhaṭṭa says that sound is a quality which is apprehended by the organ of hearing. Śivāditya adds the term śabdatvasāmānyayogi (possessing the generic attribute of śabdatva) with the afore mentioned definition. Annaṃbhaṭṭa also points out that the word guṇa is added in the definition to avoid the defect of ativyāpti in śabdatva (soundness). The word śrotra is added to avoid the defect of ativyāpti in rūpa (colour).

In addition to this two fold sounds Annaṃbhaṭṭa has given another threefold division of sounds. Nyāyabodhinī also follows this. This division is done on the basis of how sound is produced. Hence, sound can be:—

  1. saṃyogaja (born of conjunction),
  2. vibhāgaja (born of disjunction),
  3. śabdaja (born of sound).

When there is a contact of the stick with the drum, the first kind of sound (saṃyogaja) is produced. When a bamboo is split, a sound is produced. This is vibhāgaja sound. The last variety is śabdaja which is found in all subsequent sounds

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “sound;word”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Śabda (शब्द) refers to:—Sound vibration; words. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Śabda (शब्द):—The finest and subtle source of proto-element of Akash mahabhuta,

2) [śabdaḥ] Word: an aggregate of letters

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “restlessness (in the head)” and is a symptom of a (venemous) bite caused by the Ugra rats, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—[Cf. ugrasya mūrdhni śabdaḥ syāt kṣīṇatārocakau jvaraḥ]

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) or Śabdabrahman refers to one of the two types of Brahman to be meditated upon, according to the Maitryupaniṣad.—Accordingly, “Verily there are two Brahmans to be meditated upon: sound (śabda) and non-sound (aśabda). Now non-sound is revealed only by sound. Now, in this case the Sound-Brahman is OṂ. Ascending by it, one comes to an end in non-sound... This is immortality... As a spider mounting up by means of his thread (tantu) obtains free space, thus, assuredly, indeed, does that meditator, mounting up by means of OṂ, obtain independence (svātantrya).... Passing beyond this variously characterized Sound-Brahman, men disappear into the supreme, the non-sound, the unmanifest Brahman”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Śabda (शब्द) refers to a “word”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] My mind does not strive after the divine state, just as a woman giving birth never craves enjoyment. Having gained perfect devotion to you it sings like a peacock who has heard the sound of the rain clouds. There is no place where you do not reside; there is no voice in which you are not expressed. There is no word (śabda) in which you are not heard; there is no thing in which you do not shine. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “(hearing) a sound”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] [The officiant] should carefully prognosticate the extraneous thing [underground] by observing [a creature] step over a cord, seeing [an auspicious or inauspicious thing], announcing a [creature’s] name, or hearing [an auspicious or inauspicious sound] (śabda-saṃśrāva). If [a creature] steps over [a cord] or is seen, or if one [hears] a cry of [a creature] or announce a [creature’s] name, then [the officiant] should prognosticate the extraneous thing [related to] that creature according to the stepping over and other [omens]. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “grammarians”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Mercury also presides over painters, grammarians (śabda), mathematicians, physicians, sculptors, spies, jugglers, infants, poets, rogues, tale-bearers, black-magicians, messengers, eunuchs, buffoons, sorcerers and conjurers; over sentinels, dancers and dancing masters; over ghee, gingelly and other oils; over seeds, over bitter flavour, over observers of religious ceremonies, over chemists and mules”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Gitashastra (science of music)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (gita)

Śabda (शब्द) (or Nāda) refers to “sound” and represents the “soul of vocal Music”, according to the Saṃgītaratnākara.—In ancient time, the ṛṣis have the power to realise the existence of natural forces and united themselves with the natural powers. In Vedic time the sages used to believe the natural elements such as Agni, Indra, Varuṇa etc. as their gods and eulogized them with some stutis i.e., prayers. The stutis are basically the Ṛgvedic mantras which are composed with tune and melody in the Sāmaveda to worship the deities. In the Saṃgītaratnākara also, it is said that deities are pleased with the vocal Music. So, it can be said that the Vedic mantras are the foremost form of vocal music.

context information

Gitashastra (गीतशास्त्र, gītaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of Music (gita or samgita), which is traditionally divided in Vocal music, Instrumental music and Dance (under the jurisdiction of music). The different elements and technical terms are explained in a wide range of (often Sanskrit) literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Śabda (शब्द, “verbal testimony”) means relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts. Hiriyanna explains Sabda-pramana as a concept which means reliable expert testimony.

Śabda is defined as the statement of a trustworthy person (āptavākya), and consists in understanding its meaning. It can be of two types,

  1. Vaidika (Vedic), which are the words of the four sacred Vedas, and are described as the Word of God, having been composed by God,
  2. and Laukika, or words and writings of trustworthy human beings.

Vaidika testimony is preferred as the infallible word of God, and Laukika testimony must by its nature be questioned and overruled by more trustworthy knowledge if such becomes available.

Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia

Śabda (sound) is the tanmatra (subtle attribute) of mahābhuta (primal element) ākasa (space). And through śabda one tries to turn his vision inwards from ākasa to daharākāsa, through chanting the mantra, by producing sound to slowly listening the anāhata sound without producing it. Eventually when mantra yoga is achieved, one achieves laya yoga also, since his consciousness is directed to daharākāsa where his devata resides.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Google Books: An Illustrated History of the Mandala

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) refers to one of the Seventeen Viśuddhipadas (“stations of purity”) and is associated with the deity Śabdavajra, according to the Prajñāpāramitānayasūtra: an ancient Buddhist Tantric text recited daily in the Japanese Shingon sect which is closely related to the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha.—The visualization of the seventeen-deity maṇḍala, representing the deification of the seventeen Viśuddhipadas [e.g., śabda], was thought to facilitate the attainment of enlightenment through the sublimation of the defilements into the mind of enlightenment (bodhicitta).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Śabda (शब्द) refers to the “sounds” (of beings), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 22, v2).—Accordingly, “[...] Furthermore, the Bodhisattva whose knowledge of former abodes is very pure knows the languages of all the places he has taken rebirth in. Furthermore, possessing the knowledge resulting from resolution, he knows the nomenclature (nāmavidhāna?) and deliberately makes up all kinds of words (akṣara) and expressions (vāc). Furthermore, the Bodhisattva who has obtained the concentration explaining the language of beings penetrates all languages without hindrance. Finally, the Bodhisattva has himself obtained the four unhindered knowledges or he practices the four unhindered knowledges of the Buddha. This is why he knows the languages (abhilāpa) and the sounds (śabda) of beings”.

2) Śabda (शब्द) refers to “(the condemnation of) sounds” according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “why condemn sounds (śabda)? The nature of sounds is instability; once heard, they vanish. The madman (mūḍha) who does not know that sound is characterized by impermanence (anityatva), change (pariṇamatva) and disappearance (hāni), finds a futile pleasure in sounds (ghoṣa) and, when the sound has disappeared, he remembers it and is attached to it”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Śabda (शब्द) refers to the “sound (of the dharma)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “At that time, the Bodhisattva, the great being Kutūhalajāta came and sat down in this assembly, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘O Lord, thinking about where this sound [of the dharma (dharma-śabda)] is coming from, I am absolutely astonished’. The Lord said: ‘Son of good family, you should ask the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, and he will answer to you’. [...]”.

2) Śabda (शब्द) refers to “letters”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, “Then, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘[...] (64) Even though engaged with all beings, he is still free from them. He always strives to recite and read, but he transcends truth or untruth (dharmādharma) and strives for the essential nature of words and letters (śabda-akṣara-svabhāva).. [...]’”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Śabda (शब्द) refers to “sounds (of delight)”, according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “[...] Then the prophet of the Law, pure and clad in pure rainment, must recite this ‘Whirlwind’ chapter, ‘The Heart of Snakes’. Then the snakes beginning on the first day, make a rustling sound and utter sounds of delight (śabdaśabdāṃśca ramaṇīyān). [...]”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) or śabdāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., śabda). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Śabda also represents one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

Śabda also refers to one of the “six spheres” (ṣaḍviṣaya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 33).

Śabda also refers to the “five qualities” (pāñcabhautika) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 40).

Source: Google Books: Buddhist Tantra: A Philosophical Reflection and Religious Investigation

Śabda (sound). There is a great difference between the esoteric conception of sound and scientific concept of sound. The sound of physics is really the shadow of original sound. All empirical knowledge is inferential. Knowledge is nothing but the subjectivization of external objkectivity. What we subjectivise is not real object but the different waves and vibrations. We subjectivise them with the help of our sensory organs. Physics deals with this ‘shadow of sound’ and not the original sound.

Swami Pratyagātmānanda says:

“The real sounds or the sound as it is can be heard only by an absolute ear. ‘The sound as it is’ is the original sound. The sound which you, I, scientists and yogis hear is the distortion of the original form”

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Śabda (शब्द, “literal”) refers to one of the seven types of naya (standpoint), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.33.—To cognize an entity by looking at its attributes as primary and secondary depending on the intentions of the speaker or listener is called naya (standpoint/viewpoint).

What is meant by literal viewpoint? The viewpoint which discriminates between numbers, gender etc of the entity e.g. saying ‘he is a maidservant’ is wrong.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) refers to the object of śrotas (ear/hearing), which represents one of the “five sense-organs” (pañcendriya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.19. Cognition which results by hearing the object of knowledge is called sound (śabda). How many types of sound are there? There is only one type of sound but they can broadly classified as of seven types namely Do, Re, Me, far, sew, la and tee or sā, re gā , mā , pā, dhā, ni and sā in Hindi. What is form of ear sense organ? It is of the form of barley tube (jau-nalī).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Śabda (शब्द, “sound”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.24.—“Sound (śabda), union (bandha), fineness (saukṣmya), grossness (sthaulya), shape (saṃsthāna), division (bheda), darkness (tamas or andhakāra), image (chāya or chāyā), warm light (sunshine) (ātapa) and cool light (moonlight) (udyota) also (are forms of matter)”.

What is meant by sound (śabda)? The transformation of bhāṣāvargaṇās (matter particles capable of transforming into sound) as a result of colliding with matter, into sound is called sound. How many types of sound (śabda) are there? Sound is of two types namely; one which partakes of the nature of languages (bhāṣātmaka) and the other type which does not. How many types of bhāṣātmaka sound are there? It is of two types namely; expressed (akṣara) and not expressed (anakṣara).

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Śabda (शब्द) refers to the “sound (of a lion)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “When Yama is an opponent of embodied souls, all elephants, horses, men, and soldiers and the powers of mantras and medicines become useless. While any person does not hear the merciless roaring of Yama’s lion  [com.yama-siṃhaśabda—‘the sound of the lion of Yama’] , in that time he leaps about having pleasure in only [his own] power”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śabda.—same as mahā-śabda; cf. pañca-śabda (BL). Note: śabda is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śabda (शब्द).—m (S) Sound, any sound, or any voice or utterance. 2 A word. 3 In grammar. A declinable word. 4 Reproof, censure, blame. v lāga, yē, ṭhēva, lāva, āṇa. śabda ṭākaṇēṃ To speak a word (as in recommendation or intercession).

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śābda (शाब्द) [or शाब्दिक, śābdika].—a S Verbal, vocal, relating to words or to the voice. 2 Relating to sounds. 3 Nominal;--used of inflection.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śabda (शब्द).—m Sound, any voice. A word. Reproof. śabda ṭākaṇēṃ Speak a word (as in recommendation).

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śābda (शाब्द) [or śābdika, or शाब्दिक].—a Verbal, vocal. Nomi- nal-used of inflection.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śabda (शब्द).—[śabd-ghañ]

1) Sound (the object of the sense of hearing and property of ākāśa); अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः (athātmanaḥ śabdaguṇaṃ guṇajñaḥ padaṃ vimānena vigāhamānaḥ) R.13.1.

2) Sound, note (of birds; men &c.), noise in general; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः (viśvāsopagamādabhinnagatayaḥ śabdaṃ sahante mṛgāḥ) Ś.1.14; स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत् (sa śabdastumulo'bhavat) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.13; Ś.3.1; Manusmṛti 4.31; Kumārasambhava 1.45.

3) The sound of a musical instrument; वाद्यशब्दः (vādyaśabdaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2; Kumārasambhava 1.45.

4) A word, sound, significant word (for def. &c. see Mahābhārata introduction); एकः शब्दः सम्यगधीतः सम्यक् प्रयुक्तः स्वर्गे लोके कामधुग्भवति (ekaḥ śabdaḥ samyagadhītaḥ samyak prayuktaḥ svarge loke kāmadhugbhavati); so शब्दार्थौ (śabdārthau).

5) A declinable word, a noun, substantive.

6) A title, an epithet; यस्यार्थुक्तं गिरिराज- शब्दं कुर्वन्ति बालव्यजनैश्चमर्यः (yasyārthuktaṃ girirāja- śabdaṃ kurvanti bālavyajanaiścamaryaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.13; Ś.2.15; नृपेण चक्रे युवराजशब्दभाक् (nṛpeṇa cakre yuvarājaśabdabhāk) R.3.35;2.53,64;3.49;5.22;18.42; V.1.1.

7) The name, mere name as in शब्दपति (śabdapati) q. v.

3) Verbal authority (regarded by the Naiyāyikas as a Pramāṇa.

9) Grammar; Daśakumāracarita 1.1.

1) Fame; labdhaśabdena kausalye kumāreṇa dhanuṣmatā Rām.2.63.11; svargāya śabdaṃ divamātmahetordharmārthamātmaṃsthitimācakāṅkṣa Bu. Ch.2.53; (cf. also 'śabdo'kṣare yaśogītyoḥ' -haimaḥ).

11) The sacred syllable ओम् (om).

12) A technical term.

Derivable forms: śabdaḥ (शब्दः).

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Śābda (शाब्द).—a. (-bdī f.) [शब्द-अण् (śabda-aṇ)]

1) Relating to or derived from a word.

2) Relating to or depending on sound (opp. ārtha).

3) Verbal, oral.

4) Sounding, sonorous.

5) Nominal (as inflection).

-bdaḥ A philologist, grammarian.

-bdī Name of Sarasvatī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śabda (शब्द).—nt. (regularly m.; in Sanskrit nt. very rare and ‘suspicious’, [Boehtlingk]), sound: vividhāni śabdāni bahūvidhāni Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 358.14 (verse; m. forms in lines 8, 12 above); śabdam udīritam (nom.) Avadāna-śataka i.3.14 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śabda (शब्द).—m.

(-bdaḥ) 1. Sound in general, (considered as the property of Akasha.) 2. A sound, a word. 3. A declinable word, as noun, pronoun, &c., (in gram.) 4. The sound of a musical instrument. 5. Verbal authority, (considered as a “proof” by the Naiya yikas.) E. śabd to sound, aff. ghañ .

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Śābda (शाब्द).—mfn.

(-bdaḥ-bdī-bdaṃ) 1. Sonorous, sounding. 2. Nominal, (as inflection.) f. (-bdī) 1. Saraswati, goddess of speech and eloquence. 2. Relating to or derived from a word. 3. Relating to sound, (as opposed to ārtha.) E. śabda sound or a word, and aṇ attributive aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śabda (शब्द).—i. e. śap-da (vb. ), m. 1. Sound, [Pañcatantra] 129, 15; noise, [Pañcatantra] 123, 24. 2. A word, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 1. 3. Grammar, [Pañcatantra] 4, 17; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 8.

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Śābda (शाब्द).—i. e. śabda + a, I. adj. 1. Sonorous, sounding. 2. Relating to or derived from words, Bhāṣāp. 80. 3. Nominal. Ii. f. di, Sarasvatī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śabda (शब्द).—[masculine] sound, cry, noise, call, word, speech, the sacred syllable Om, name, term, title. śabdaṃ kṛ or raise the voice, call aloud; śabdena by word i.e. explicitly.

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Śābda (शाब्द).—[feminine] ī relating to sounds or words, [especially] based upon the sacred word i.e. the Veda; [masculine] philologist, grammarian.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śabda (शब्द):—[from śabd] m. (in, [Dhyānabindu-upaniṣad] also n. ifc. f(ā). perhaps connected with √3. śap cf. also 2. śap) sound, noise, voice, tone, note (śabdaṃkṛ, to utter a sound, raise the voice, cry aloud; sound is supposed to be sevenfold [Mahābhārata xii, 6858] or eight. fold [Dharmasaṃgraha 35] or tenfold [Mahābhārata xiv, 1418] ; in the Mīmāṃsā it is taught to be eternal)

2) [v.s. ...] a word (śabdena, by word, explicitly, expressly), [ib.; Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-3, 19]

3) [v.s. ...] speech, language, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] the right word, correct expression (opp. to apa-śabda), [Patañjali]

5) [v.s. ...] the sacred syllable Om, [Amṛtabindu-upaniṣad]

6) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a declinable word or a word-termination, affix, [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

7) [v.s. ...] a name, appellation, title, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (tacchabdāt, ‘because it is so-called’ [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra])

8) [v.s. ...] a technical term, [Taittirīya-prātiśākhya]

9) [v.s. ...] verbal communication or testimony, oral tradition, verbal authority or evidence (as one of the Pramāṇas q.v.), [Nyāyasūtra; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

10) Śābda (शाब्द):—mf(ī)n. ([from] śabda) sonorous, sounding, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) relating to sound (as opp. to ārtha q.v.), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

12) based on sounds, expressed in words oral, verbal, ([especially]) resting on or enjoined by sacred sound (id est. on the Veda; with brahman. n. = ‘the Veda’), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

13) nominal (as inflection), [Horace H. Wilson]

14) m. a philologist, grammarian, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

15) m. [plural] a [particular] sect, [Harṣacarita]

16) Sabda (सब्द):—m. (in a formula) = sagara, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

17) = ahaḥ, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śabda (शब्द):—(ka) śabdayati 10. a. To sound. With prep. pra, prati, and vi, to promise; explain, speak.

2) (bdaḥ) m. Sound; a word.

3) Śābda (शाब्द):—[(bdaḥ-bdī-bdaṃ) a.] Sounded; of nouns, &c. f.

() Saraswatī.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śabda (शब्द) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sadda, Saddāva.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shabda in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śabda (शब्द) [Also spelled shabd]:—(nm) a word, term; sound; ~[kāra] producing sound; creator of words; ~[koṣa/kośa] a dictionary; ~[gata] pertaining to or related with a/the word; ~[grāma] totality of sounds; -[cayana] choice of words; diction; -[citra] a word-sketch; -[jāla] jugglery of words, verbosity; -[pahelī] crossword puzzle; -[bodha] comprehension of words; -[pramāṇa] testimony; -[brahma] the Veda considered as revealed sound and word; word (sound) identified with the Supreme Being; -[bheda] part of speech; ~[bhedī] see ~[vedhī; -racanā] word-construction, word-formation; -[rūpa] the (grammatical) form of a word; -[virodha] mere vocal opposition; -[viśeṣa] a particular word/sound; ~[vīra/~śūra] (blessed) with a gift of the gab, a past master in mere talks; ~[vedhī] hitting at the sound (as an arrow), hitting at an object perceived only through the ear; -[vyutpatti] word-etymology; -[śakti] the force or signification of a word; -[śāsana] the Scienc of words; grammar; -[śāstra] lexicography; grammar; -[saṃkṣepa] abbreviation; -[saṃgraha] a glossary; -[sauṃdarya] see -[sauṣṭhava; -saukarya] facility of expression; -[sauṣṭhava] elegance of words; grace of style; ~[hīna] speechless, mute; hence ~[hīnatā] (nf); [śabdoṃ kā gorakhadhaṃdhā] a cloud of words; [śabdoṃ meṃ bāṃdhanā] to express in words.

2) Śābda (शाब्द) [Also spelled shabd]:—[[~bdī]] (a) pertaining to a word/sound; literal, verbal; vocal.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śabda (ಶಬ್ದ):—

1) [noun] a sound; noise; voice.

2) [noun] (gram.) a unit of language, consisting of one or more spoken sounds with or without prefixes, terminations etc., that functions as a principal carrier of meaning; a word.

3) [noun] the study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed including morphology, syntax, phonology and semantics; grammar.

4) [noun] the sacred syllable "ಓಂ [om]".

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Śābda (ಶಾಬ್ದ):—

1) [adjective] relating to sound.

2) [adjective] based on sounds.

3) [adjective] expressed in words; oral; verbal.

4) [adjective] sonorous; resonant.

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Śābda (ಶಾಬ್ದ):—[noun] an expert in grammar; a grammarian.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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