Dhatu, aka: Dhātu; 30 Definition(s)
Dhatu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Dhātu (धातु) is the Sanskrit word for “metal”, and is often used in Rasaśāstra literature such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. It is also known by its synonym Loha (लोह).
There are three sub-groups described in the above-mentioned book:
Each sub-group has its own varieties of metals and alloys.Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Metals are divided in three subgroups i.e.
- suvarṇa / svarṇa (gold),
- rajata (silver).
- tāmra (copper),
- aśmasāra (Iron),
- nāga (lead),
- vaṅga (tin).
- sauraṣṭra / kāṃsya (bell-metal),
- rītī (brass),
- vartaloha (an alloy made of four metals).
These (nine) types are known as subtypes of Metals. Note: Metals are called as dhātus and also as lohas.Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Dhātu (धातु) refers to the “metallic products” of the mountains (śaila) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Dhātu], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Dhātu (धातु, “supporting tissues and entities”).—Dhātus are those which maintain as well as nourish the body. They are seven in number, e.g.
- Rasa (‘chyle’, ‘lymph’ or ‘plasma’),
- Rakta (‘blood’),
- Māṃsa (‘muscles’ or ‘flesh’),
- Meda (‘fat’ or ‘adipose’),
- Asthi (‘bone’),
- Majjā (‘marrow’ or ‘nervous system’),
- Śukra (‘semen’ or ‘reproductive tissue’).
They are all formed successively by their respective agnis. Generally it is held that Rasa traverses in the body through channels, as water flows in irrigating channels in the field, and its suitable portion acted upon by the respective agni at the selected site is converted into the specific Dhātu.
The final essence of all these Dhātus is known as ‘ojas’ which has characters like those of kapha and provides the power of immunity against diseases.Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
The word ‘Dhātu’ is derived from the verb ‘Dha’ which means to hold. The matters which hold the body are termed as Dhātu. In general, it is a term signifying bodily fluids and tissues.
Dhātu are of seven types viz.
- Rasa (nourishing fluid of plasma),
- Rakta (blood),
- Māṃsa (muscular tissue),
- Meda (fatty tissue),
- Asthi (bone and connective tissues),
- Majjā (bone marrow)
- and Śukra (vital substance).
There are three types of pathological changes in these Dhātu viz.
- Kṣaya (decrease),
- Vṛddhi (increase)
- and Pradoṣa (vitiation).
The Kṣaya of the one and Vṛddhi of other may be simultaneous in the same disease and in the same patient. In this condition, the Dhātu increases at one place at the cost of other.Source: Hand book of domestic medicine: Basic principles of Āyurveda
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Dhātu (धातु).—(Minerals). To understand the Purāṇic stories regarding the origin of iron, copper, tin etc. see under Irump (iron).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Dhātu (धातु).—A Marut of the III Gaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 94.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Dhātu (धातु) refers to “roots” in Sanskrit grammar, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.
2) Dhātu (धातु) relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata, vāditra), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29.
There are four major classes of dhātus defined:
- expansion (vistāra),
- production (karaṇa),
- breaking up (ābiddha),
- indication (vyañjana).
Dhātu (धातु).—In music, dhātu finds a place in three contexts—(i) the tonal and temporal dimensions in the rendering on vīṇā as well as fingering techniques, (ii) the tonal and rhythmic component of a musical composition, contradistinct from mātu, the textual component and (iii) the sections of a musical composition.Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa (nāṭya-śāstra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Dhātu (धातु).—A word which denotes action and result. The Pāṇinian dhātupāṭha includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with the secondary roots. The letter are divided into two main groups: 1. Roots derived from the roots. 2. Roots derived from the basic elements other than the roots.Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Dhātu (धातु).—A root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः (kriyāvacano dhātuḥ) or even as भाववचने धातुः (bhāvavacane dhātuḥ), a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups (l) roots derived from roots (धातुजधातवः (dhātujadhātavaḥ)) and (2) roots derived from nouns (नामधातवः (nāmadhātavaḥ)). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त (ṇijanta), (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त (sannanta), (c) intensive roots or यङन्त (yaṅanta) and यङ्लुगन्तः (yaṅlugantaḥ) while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त (kyajanta, kāmyajanta, kyaṅanta, kyaṣanta, ṇiṅanta, kvibanta) and the miscellaneous ones (प्रकीर्ण (prakīrṇa)) as derived from nouns like कण्डू (kaṇḍū)(कण्ड्वादि (kaṇḍvādi)) by 25 the application of the affix यक् (yak) or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र (satya, veda, pāśa, muṇḍa, miśra), etc. by the application of the affix णिच् (ṇic). Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix आय (āya) and ईय (īya) (ईयङ् (īyaṅ)). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave (अनुदात्त (anudātta)) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् (ṅ) added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् (yaḍ, kyaṅ) etc. as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् (ṇic) as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् (ña़़्) applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; e.g. ए (e) at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ (a) in the aorist, e.g. अकखीत् (akakhīt) cf. P. VII.2.5; इर् (ir) to signify the optional substitution of अ (a) or अङ् (aṅ) for the affix च्लि (cli) of the aorist, e.g. अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् (abhidat, abhaitsīt) ; cf. P.III. 1.57; उ (u) to signify the optional application of the augment इ (i) (इट् (iṭ)) before क्त्वा (ktvā) e.g. शमित्वा, शान्त्वा (śamitvā, śāntvā); cf. P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ (ū) to signify the optional application of the augment इ (i) (इट् (iṭ)) e.g. गोप्ता, गेीपिता (goptā, geीpitā), cf. P.VII.2.44; आ (ā) to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् (iṭ) in the case of the past pass. part. e.g. क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः (kṣviṇṇaḥ, svinnaḥ), cf. P. VII.2.16; इ (i) to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति (nindati) from निदि (nidi), cf. P. VII.1.58: ऋ (ṛ) to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व (hrasva) to the penultimate long vowel before णिच् (ṇic), e. g. अशशासत् (aśaśāsat), cf. P.VII. 4.2;लृ (lṛ) to signify the substitution of अङ् (aṅ) for च्लि (cli) in the aorist, e.g. अगमत् (agamat) cf. P. III.1.55: ओ (o) to signify the substitution of न् (n) for त् (t) of the past pass.part. e.g. लग्नः, आपीनः, सूनः, दूनः (lagnaḥ, āpīnaḥ, sūnaḥ, dūnaḥ) etc.; cf. P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु (ñi, ṭu) and डु (ḍu) are prefixed for specific purposes; cf. P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु (dhātu) is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; cf. नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् (nāma ca dhātujamāha nirukte vyākaraṇe śakaṭasya ca tokam) M. Bh. on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; cf. तत्र धातवः षोढा (tatra dhātavaḥ ṣoḍhā) (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः (paripaṭhitāḥ bhūvādayaḥ), (b) अपरिपठता आन्दोलयत्यादयः (aparipaṭhatā āndolayatyādayaḥ), (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः (paripaṭhitāparipaṭhitāḥ) (सूत्रपठिताः (sūtrapaṭhitāḥ)) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः (skuskambhastambhetyādayaḥ), (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः (pratyayadhātavaḥ sanādyantāḥ), (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः (nāmaghātavaḥ kaṇḍvādayaḥ), (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली (pratyayanāmadhātavaḥ hoḍagalbhaklī). बप्रभृतयः (baprabhṛtayaḥ); cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)
Dhātu (धातु) refers to a “verb root” as used by Yāska (9th century BCE) in his works dealing with Nirukta (etymology): the science of study of the meaning of words used in texts. Yāska takes a word and derives it from a verb root (dhātu) on the basis of its phonetic and semantic similarities. For example, the word pāka, “a cooked dish”, is made from the root √pac, ‘to cook’. He gives examples of such meanings by quoting examples of use from various works.Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (nirukta)
Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.
Dhātu (धातु) refers to “minerals”, representing materials used for the making of images (Hindu icons), as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The materials listed in the Āgamas for the making of images are wood, stone, precious gems, metals, terracotta, laterite, earth, and a combination of two or three or more of the materials specified above. The materials recommended in the śilpaśāstra for the fashioning of images are unburnt clay, burnt clay as in brick or terracotta, sudhā (a special kind of mortar/plaster), composite earth, wood, stone, metal, ivory, dhātu (mineral), pigment, and precious stones.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Dhātu is a medical term used in Ayurveda meaning "fundamental bodily principles".Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
The word Dhātu is derived from the verb Dhrī, which means to support. There are 7 Dhātus which supports the body. When Dhātus in the body of an individual become discordant then there is disease or destruction of the body. Any article which increases a particular Dhātu is also responsible for the decrease of the Dhātu of opposite Guṇa.
The term Dhātu plays both physiological and anatomical roles in the Śarīra. Dhātus are considered as Dravyas and this also gives Adhiṣṭāna for various Guṇas.
The predominant Guṇas of the seven Dhātus can be listed as below:
- Rasa: drava,
- Rakta: drava,
- Māṃsa: sthira and ślakṣṇa,
- Meda: ślakṣna and snigdha,
- Asthi: khara,
- Majja: snigdha, mṛdu,
- Śukra: snigdha, picchila and drava.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
M (Element).Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Dhātu (‘elements’), are the ultimate constituents of a whole.
The 4 physical elements (dhātu or mahā-bhūta), popularly called:
- earth, (pathavī-dhātu)
- water, (āpo-dhātu)
- fire, (tejo-dhātu)
- wind, (vāyo-dhātu)
are to be understood as the primary qualities of matter.
In Vis.M. XI, 2 the four elements are defined thus: Whatever is characterized:
- by hardness (thaddha-lakkkhana) is the earth or solid-element;
- by cohesion (ābandhana) or fluidity, the water-element;
- by heating (paripācana), the fire or heat-element;
- by strengthening or supporting (vitthambhana), the wind or motion-element.
All four are present in every material object, though in varying degrees of strength. If, for instance, the earth element predominates, the material object is called ‘solid’, etc. - For the analysis of the 4 elements, see: dhātu-vavatthāna.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
dhātu. - Analysis of the 4 e.: dhātu-vavatthāna.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Dhātu (धातु, “ingredients”) represents the internal location of one’s body presided over by twenty-four “heroes” (vīra), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra.—A list of names of such Ḍākinīs and of their internal seats told before is given, accompanied with a list of these Ḍākinīs’ husbands who are called heroes (vīra). These heroes abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body (fingernails, teeth, hair on the head and body and so on).Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Dhātu (धातु) refers to a list of 16 “ingredients” connected with sixteen great vidyās, according to the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra chapter 1 and 42.—The adhyātma-maṇḍala mainly consists of sixteen dhātus (ingredients). Dhātus are connected with sixteen great vidyās, that is, sixteen syllables which appear in the opening verse of the Vajraḍākatantra.
- ra: rakta,
- sye: gandhapatra,
- ra: gandha,
- ra: vāri,
- sa: kunduru,
- tma: nalaja,
- sa: daṃśakaraja,
- sthi: sārasāra,
- ha: girija,
- pa: tvaca,
- me: kusuma,
- mye: piśita,
- rvā: śiras,
- ni: gandhataila,
- dā: sāgaraja,
- ta: karpūra.
These dhātus of Vajraḍākatantra are also explained in chapter 17 as materials for rasāyana, “nectar of yaga for Yogins” (yogiyogāmṛta). Now they are contemplated with those syllables in one’s body.Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (I)
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)
1) Dhātu (धातु) or aṣṭādaśadhātu refers to the “eighteen elements” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 25):
- cakṣus (eye),
- śrotra (ear),
- ghrāṇa (nose),
- jihvā (tongue),
- kāya (body),
- manas (mind),
- rūpa (form),
- gandha (smell),
- śabda (sound),
- rasa (taste),
- sparśa (tangible),
- dharma (though),
- cakṣurvijñāna (eye-consciousness),
- śrotravijñāna (ear-consciousness),
- ghrāṇavijñāna (nose-consciousness),
- jihvāvijñāna (tongue-consciousness),
- kāyavijñāna (body-consciousness),
- manasvijñāna (mind-consciousness).
The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., aṣṭādaśa-dhātu). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
2) Dhātu (धातु) or ṣaḍdhātu refers to the “six elements” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 58):
- pṛthvī (earth),
- āpas (water),
- tejas (fire),
- vāyu (wind),
- ākāśa (space),
- vijñāna (consciousness).
India history and geogprahy
Dhātu.—(ML), Buddhist; corporeal relics [of the Buddha]. (IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘seven’. Cf. Dhātu-parigṛhīta, an epithet of the Buddha; probably, salvation (Select Inscriptions, p. 228). Note: dhātu is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
dhātu : (f.) an element; natural condition; a relic; root of a word; humour of the body; faculty of senses.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Dhātu, (f.) (Sk. dhātu to dadhāti, Idg. *dhē, cp. Gr. ti/qhmi, a)nά—qhma, Sk. dhāman, dhāṭr (=Lat. conditor); Goth. gadēds; Ohg. tāt, tuom (in meaning —°=dhātu, cp. E. serf-dom “condition of . . .”) tuon=E. to do; & with k-suffix Lat. facio, Gr. (e)/)qhk(a), Sk. dhāka; see also dhamma) element. Closely related to dhamma in meaning B 1b, only implying a closer relation to physical substance. As to its Gen. connotation cp. Dhs. trsl. p. 198.
— 1. a primary element, of which the usual set comprises the four paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo (earth, water, fire, wind), otherwise termed cattāro mahābhūtā(ni): D.I, 215; II, 294; III, 228; S.I, 15; II, 169 sq., 224; IV, 175, 195; A.II, 165; III, 243; Vbh.14, 72; Nett 73. See discussed at Cpd. 254 sq.—A definition of dhātu is to be found at Vism.485.—Singly or in other combinations paṭhavī° S.II, 174; tejo° S.I, 144; D.III, 227; the four plus ākāsa S.III, 227, plus viññāna S.II, 248; III, 231; see below 2 b.
— 2. (a) natural condition, property, disposition; factor, item, principle, form. In this meaning in var. combinations & applications, esp. closely related to khandha. Thus mentioned with khandha & āyatana (sensory element & element of sense-perception) as bodily or physical element, factor (see khandha B 1 d & cp. Nd2 under dhātu) Th.2, 472. As such (physical substratum) it constitutes one of the lokā or forms of being (khandha° dhātu° āyatana° Nd2 550). frequent also in combination kāma-dhātu, rūpa° arūpa° “the elements or properties of k. etc.” as preceding & conditioning bhava in the respective category (Nd2 s. v.). See under d.—As “set of conditions or state of being (-°)” in the foll.: loka° a world, of which 10 are usually mentioned (equalling 10, 000: PvA.138) S.I, 26; V, 424; Pv.II, 961; Vbh.336; PvA.138; KS.II, 101, n. 1;
(2.b) elements in sense-consciousness: referring to the 6 ajjhattikāni & 6 bāhirāni āyatanāni S.II, 140 sq. Of these sep. sota° D.I, 79; III, 38; Vbh.334; dibbasota° S.II, 121, 212; V, 265, 304; A.I, 255; III, 17, 280; V, 199; cakkhu° Vbh.71 sq.; mano° Vbh.175, 182, 301; mano-viññāṇa° Vbh.87, 89, 175, 182 sq. ‹-›
(2.c) various: aneka° A.I, 22; III, 325; V, 33; akusala° Vbh.363; avijjā° S.II, 132; ābhā° S.II, 150; ārambha° S.V, 66, 104 sq.; A.I, 4; II, 338; ṭhiti° S.II, 175; III, 231; A.III, 338; dhamma° S.II, 56; nekkhamma° S.II, 151; A.III, 447; nissāraṇiyā dhātuyo (5) D.III, 239; A.III, 245, 290. See further S.I, 134, 196; II, 153, 248 (aniccā); III, 231 (nirodha); IV, 67; A.I, 176; II, 164; IV, 385; Dhs.58, 67, 121; Nett 57, 64 sq.; ThA.20, 49, 285,
(2.d) Different sets and enumerations: as 3 under kāma°, rūpa°, arūpa A.I, 223; III, 447; Ps.I, 137; Vbh.86, 363, 404 sq.; under rūpa°, arūpa°, nirodha° It.45.—as 6 (pathavī etc.+ākāsa° & viññāṇa°): D.III, 247; A.I, 175 sq.; M.III, 31, 62, 240; Ps.I, 136; Vbh.82 sq.—as 7 (ābhā subha etc.): S.II, 150.—18: Ps.I, 101, 137; II, 230, Dhs.1333; Vbh.87 sq., 401 sq.; Vism.484 sq.
— 3. a humour or affection of the body DA.I, 253 (dhātusamatā).
— 4. the remains of the body after cremation PvA.76; a relic VvA.165 (sarīra°, bodily relic); Dāvs.V, 3 (dasana° the toothrelic).—Abl. dhātuso according to one’s nature S.II, 154 sq. (sattā sattehi saddhiṃ saṃsandanti etc.); It.70 (id.); S.III, 65.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
dhātu (धातु).—f (S and masc) Semen virile. 2 m A metal or mineral. 3 The root of a verb. 4 A principle or humor of the body; as phlegm, wind, bile. 5 A constituent part of the body, of which seven are enumerated; viz. blood, marrow, fat, flesh, bones, medullary substance, semen. 6 A primary or elementary substance; viz. earth, water, fire, air, ākāśa. 7 A property of a primary element,--odor, flavor, color, touch, and sound. dhātu phuṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To be affected with a gleet. 2 in. con. To come of age; to become adult.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dhātu (धातु).—f Semen virile; A metal or mineral. m The root of a verb. A principle or humor of the body.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Dhātu (धातु).—[dhā-ādhāre tun]
1) A constituent or essential part, an ingredient.
2) An element, primary or elementary substance, i. e. पृथिवी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु (pṛthivī, ap, tejas, vāyu) and आकाश (ākāśa); Bhāg.7.15.6.
3) A secretion, primary fluid or juice, essential ingredients of the body (which are considered to be 7:-rasāsṛṅmāṃsamedo'sthimajjāśukrāṇi dhātavaḥ, or sometimes ten if keśa, tvac and snāyu be added); Mb.3.213.1.
4) A humour or affection of the body, (i.e. vāta, pitta and kapha); यस्यात्मबुद्धिः कुणपे त्रिधातुके (yasyātmabuddhiḥ kuṇape tridhātuke) Bhāg.1.84.13.
5) A mineral, metal, metallic ore; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (nyastākṣarā dhāturasena yatra) Ku.1.7; त्वामालिख्य प्रणयकुपितां धातुरागैः शिलायाम् (tvāmālikhya praṇayakupitāṃ dhāturāgaiḥ śilāyām) Me.17; R.4.71; Ku.6.51.
6) A verbal root; भूवादयो धातवः (bhūvādayo dhātavaḥ) P.I.3.1; पश्चादध्ययनार्थस्य धातोरधिरिवाभवत् (paścādadhyayanārthasya dhātoradhirivābhavat) R.15.9.
7) The soul.
8) The Supreme Spirit; धातुप्रसादान्महिमानमात्मनः (dhātuprasādānmahimānamātmanaḥ) Kaṭha.
9) An organ of sense.
1) Any one of the properties of the five elements, i. e. रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श (rūpa, rasa, gandha, sparśa) and शब्द (śabda); तत्र तत्र हि दृश्यन्ते धातवः पाञ्चभौतिकाः । तेषां मनुष्यास्तर्केण प्रमाणानि प्रचक्षते (tatra tatra hi dṛśyante dhātavaḥ pāñcabhautikāḥ | teṣāṃ manuṣyāstarkeṇa pramāṇāni pracakṣate) Mb.6.5.11.
11) A bone.
12) A part, portion.
13) A fluid mineral of a red colour.
14) Ved. A supporter.
15) Anything to be drunk, as milk &c. -f. A milch cow.
Derivable forms: dhātuḥ (धातुः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Dhātu (धातु).—m. or f. (nt. forms occur rarely; in Sanskrit recorded only as m.; in Pali app. usually, acc. to PTSD only, f., but acc. to Childers m. and f.); in BHS most commonly m.; f. examples, ākāśadhātuṃ yaḥ sarvām SP 253.13, pṛthivīdhātuṃ ca yaḥ sarvāṃ 254.1; yattikā pṛthivīdhātu Mv i.126.12; svakāye tejodhātūye (instr.) 357.16—17; see also lokadhātu, often f. as well as m.; nt., tāni dhātūni Mv ii.93.20 (verse); in Mv iii.65.10 ff. adj. forms of all three genders, catvāro (dhātavaḥ), repeatedly, 10—12; catvāri, 11; tiṣṭhamānāvo (f. n. pl.) and bhajyamā- nīyo, 11; (= Pali id. in all mgs. except 6; in some included here, viz. 1 and 2, more or less similarly in Sanskrit; some [Page282-b+ 71] Pali mgs. etymologically explained in Vism. 485.2 ff.;) the most fundamental meaning is perhaps element, compare Lévi, Sūtrāl. i.18 note 1, ‘l’idée centrale reste toujours celle de élément primordial, original, principe’; Tibetan regularly ren- ders khams, except in cpd. dharma-dh° where it renders dbyiṅs; once (below, 6) it uses rluṅ; conscious recognition of several different mgs. in a four-pāda verse: sattvadhātu paripācayiṣyase, lokadhātu pariśodhayiṣyasi, jñānadhātum utthāpayiṣyase (meter!), āśayasya tava dhātu tādṛśaḥ Gv 484.15—16, you will completely mature the (or, a) mass of creatures, you will completely purify the world-system(s), you will raise up on high the sphere (state of mind? see below) of knowledge; such is the natural character of your disposition; (1) physical element, constituent of the material world, of which, like Pali, BHS normally recognizes (a) four, earth, water, fire, and air or wind, pṛthivī, ap, tejas, vāyu; listed Mvy 1838—41 pṛthivī-dhātuḥ etc. but given the caption catvāri mahābhūtāni 1837; and compare Śikṣ 250.14 under (b) below; in a cliché, na…karmāṇi kṛtāny upa- citāni vāhye pṛthivīdhātau vipacyante nābdhātau na tejodhātau na vāyudhātāv api tūpātteṣv (em., but prob- able), eva skandhadhātvāyataneṣu vipacyante Divy 54.5 ff.; 131.9 ff.; 141.9 ff.; (with slight alterations 191.16;) 311.18 ff.; 504.19 ff.; 581.29 ff.; 584.16 ff.; Av i.74.4 ff., (the effects of) deeds done do not mature in the four external physical elements, but in the skandha, dhātu (sense 4, q.v.), and āyatana (q.v.); iha dhātu-bhūta (so divide) caturo… viśoṣitā me bhavasamudrā LV 373.13(—14; verse), here I have dried up the four ‘oceans’ of existence (there are four oceans in normal Hindu geography, surrounding the earth) which consist of (-bhūta) the (four) elements; catvāro… dhātavaḥ Mv iii.65.10; caturo dhātava LV 284.5 (verse; Foucaux renders directions, claiming support of Tibetan, but Tibetan khams, the regular rendering of dhātu); abdhātuṃ pratyāpibanti SP 122.5 (pratically simply water); tejo- dhātu, see this separately; pṛthivīdhātu Mv i.126.12; SP 254.1; but also (b) again as in Pali, not five as in Sanskrit but six, the above four plus ākāśa (as in Sanskrit; note ākāśa- dhātu alone SP 253.13; 342.11) and also vijñāna (Pali viññāṇa), listed Dharmas 58 as ṣaḍ dhātavaḥ; important is Śikṣ 244.11 ff. (similarly Bcṭ 326.24 ff.): ṣaḍdhātur ayaṃ …puruṣaḥ…katame ṣaṭ? tad yathā: pṛthivīdhātur abdh° tejodh° vāyudh° ākāśadh° vijñānadh° ca…ṣaḍ imāni…sparśāyatanāni (see āyatana 5)…cakṣuḥ sparśāyatanaṃ rūpāṇāṃ darśanāya, (and so) śrotraṃ… ghrāṇaṃ…jihvā…kāya(ḥ) sparśāyatanaṃ spraṣṭavyā- nāṃ sparśanāya, manaḥ spa° dharmāṇāṃ vijñānāya… (245.1 ff.) adhyātmikaḥ pṛthivīdhātuḥ, which is whatever is hard in the body, as hair, nails, teeth, etc.; (245.4) bāhyaḥ pṛthivīdhātuḥ is whatever is hard in the outside world. Similarly with abdhātu 246.16 ff.; tejodhātu 248.2 ff.; vāyudhātu 248.11—249.3; ākāśadhātu 249.3 ff., in the body of man, is such things as the mouth, throat, etc. (empty space, we would say); in the outside world, what is hollow and empty (as a hole in the ground); vijñānadhātu 250.5 ff., (line 7) ṣaḍindriyādhipateyā (see ādhipateya) ṣaḍviṣayā- rambaṇā (read °baṇa-, in accord with line 5 cakṣurindriyā- dhipateyā rūpārambaṇaprativijñaptiḥ; see ārambaṇa 3) viṣayavijñaptir ayam ucyate vijñānadhātuḥ (this is only adhyātmika; there is no external vijñāna); in 250.14 ff. it is made clear that the sparśāyatanāni, i.e. the sensory organs or powers (244.15 ff.), are constituted by equili- brtum or tranquillity (prasāda 2, q.v.) of the four physical elements (a, above, here called mahābhūtāni, as in Mvy 1837): katamac cakṣurāyatanam? yac caturṇāṃ mahā- bhūtānāṃ prasādaḥ, tad yathā, pṛthivīdhātor abdhātos tejodhātor vāyudhātor yāvat, etc.; these four only make up the several senses; ākāśa, emptiness, cannot be involved, and vijñāna (six-fold) is what results from the operation of each sense on its appropriate objects; (2) element in the body exclusively and specifically (aside from 1 above [Page283-a+ 71] which applies to the body but also to all the external world), pretty much as in Sanskrit (BR s.v. dhātu 3), but I have found no numerical listing of them in BHS (in Sanskrit various numbers occur, rarely 3 = the 3 doṣa, wind, gall, phlegm; but regularly 7, sometimes 5 or 10), main con- stituent of the body: in Suv 179.5 six (ṣaḍdhātu-kauśalya, see below, end, note*); abhiṣyaṇṇā vātātapā saṃvṛttā Mv iii.143.16, compare abhiṣyaṇṇehi dhātūhi 144.6; 153.11; 154.8, see s.vv. abhiṣyaṇṇa and vātātapa, excessive or over- exuberant bodily humors (a cause of disease; Pali uses abhi(s)- sanna of the dosa, Sanskrit doṣa, [three] bodily humors); dhātu- vaiṣamyāc ca glānaḥ Divy 191.28, sick from an upset con- dition of the humors; tvaṃ vaidya (n. sg.; so divide) dhātu- kuśalas LV 184.21 (verse), thou, a physician skilled in the humors or bodily elements; kaccid dhātavaḥ pratikurvanti SP 429.4, I hope your bodily humors (or elements) are acting properly?; (3) the 18 dhātu, psycho-physical constituent elements of the personality in relation to the outside world (Pali id.), are the 12 āyatana (i.e. the 6 senses plus 6 sense-objects, see s.v. 5) plus the 6 corresponding sensory perceptions, vijñāna; listed Mvy 2040—58, cakṣur-dhātuḥ, rūpa-dhātuḥ, cakṣur-vijñāna-dhātuḥ, and so with śrotra (śabda), ghrāṇa (gandha), jihvā (rasa), kāya (spraṣṭavya), mano (dharma); same in abbreviated form (with sparśa for spraṣṭavya) Dharmas 25; aṣṭādaśa dhātavaś LV 372.7; see also varṇa-dhātu; (4) constituent element of the mind, ‘heart’, or character, and so by extension (psychic) char- acter, nature, natural disposition; as element of the citta, Av ii.140.13 ff., śamatha-vipaśyanā-paribhāvitam…(14) āryaśrāvakasya cittaṃ dhātuśo (compare Pali dhātuso in quite similar sense, SN ii.154.19 ff., referring to dhātu 153.23 ff.; note avijjā-dhātu 153.29) vimucyate. tatra sthavira katame dhātavaḥ? yaś ca…(141.1) prahāṇa-dhātur yaś ca virāga-dhātur yaś ca nirodha-dhātuḥ, kasya nu…pra- hāṇāt (2) prahāṇadhātur ity ucyate?…(3) sarvasaṃskā- rāṇāṃ…prahāṇāt prahāṇadhātur ity ucyate, and so identically with virāga and nirodha; in this sense I under- stand nānādhātu-jñāna-balam Mvy 123 (one of the 10 balāni of a Buddha), and (also one of the 10 balāni) nānādhātukaṃ (-ka Bhvr.; = °dhātuṃ) lokaṃ vidanti Mv i.159.14; nānādhātum imaṃ lokam anuvartanti paṇ- ḍitāḥ (= Tathāgatāḥ) Mv i.90.17; Pali similarly has anekadhātu and nānādhātu as eps. of loka, and knowledge of them as one of the 10 balāni, e.g. MN i.70.9—10, where comm. ii.29.20 ff. is uncertain, cakkhudhātu-ādīhi (see 3 above) kāmadhātu-ādīhi (see 5 below) vā dhātūhi bahu- dhātuṃ…lokaṃ ti khandhāyatanadhātu-lokaṃ (see be- low); but DN ii.282.25 ff. seems to prove that the meaning is different, anekadhātu nānādhātu kho…loko…, yaṃ yad eva sattā dhātuṃ abhinivisanti, taṃ tad eva thāmasā …abhinivissa voharanti: idam eva saccaṃ moghaṃ aññaṃ ti; tasmā na sabbe…ekantavādā ekantasīlā ekantachandā ekanta-ajjhosānā ti (here, dhātu is surely something like nature, disposition, as comm. says, ajjhāsaya, iii.737.18); similarly, nānādhimuktānāṃ sattvānāṃ nānā- dhātv-āśayānām āśayaṃ viditvā SP 41.3; 71.8, knowing the disposition of creatures who vary in interests and who vary in character and disposition; CPD s.v. anekadhātu (as ep. of loka) is not quite clear, saying with many elements, or natural conditions (or dispositions); confirmation of this interpretation may be found in a cliché, (bhagavāṃs teṣāṃ, or the like)…āśayānuśayaṃ (see anuśaya) dhā- tuṃ prakṛtiṃ ca jñātvā (evidently disposition, character, or state of mind) Divy 46.23; 47.9—10; 48.12—13; 49.11—12; (in 209.12 cpd. āśayānuśayadhātuprakṛtiṃ ca, in view of ca probably to be read °dhātuṃ;) 462.9—10; 463.18—19, etc.; Av i.64.12—13; also āśayasya tava dhātu tādṛśaḥ Gv 484.16, above, and possibly jñāna-dhātu in the same line, but here sphere (5, below) may be meant; here also, it seems, must be included dhātu, state of mind, psychic characteristic, when used parallel (or in composition) with [Page283-b+ 71] skandha and āyatana (where, if sense 3 were intended, āyatana would be included in dhātu so that tautology would result), as: te skandhā tāni dhātūni tāni āyatanāni ca, ātmānaṃ ca adhikṛtya bhagavān tam (mss. etam; Senart's em. leaves the meter still bad) arthaṃ vyākare (v.l. °ret) Mv ii.93.20—21 (verses); na skandha-āyatana- dhātu (read as one dvandva cpd., as suggested by Tibetan phuṅ po skye mched khams rnams, the last syllable being the plural suffix, put after the third noun only, saṅs rgyas yin mi smra) vademi Buddhaṃ LV 420.17 (verse), I do not say that the skandha, sense-organs and their objects, and states of mind are Buddha; skandhadhātvāyataneṣu Divy 54.5 ff. etc. (see 1a, above), roughly, in the mental (not gross-physical) constitution; in LV 177.5 (verse) read, skandhāyatanāni dhātavaḥ, with citation of the line Śikṣ 240.5, as required by meter and supported by Tibetan (Lefm. skandhadhātvāyatanāni dhātavaḥ); (5) sphere, region, world, state of existence (Pali id.); so in lokadhātu, q.v.; sometimes dhātu alone appears to be short for loka-dhātu, world(-region): ratnāvatī nāma dhātv aika (read ekā?) yatrāsau bhagavān vaset Mmk 139.1 (verse, bad meter); evam aśeṣata dharmata dhātuṃ sarv’ adhimucyami pūrṇa jinebhiḥ Bhad 3, thus completely according to what is right I devote myself to the world(-region) that is all full of Buddhas (wrongly Leumann); three states of existence, kāma-dh°, rūpa-dh° (qq.v.), and ārūpya- (q.v.) dh° (all in Pali); nirvāṇa-dhātu (Pali nibbāna°, usually with adj. anupā- disesa), the sphere or state, condition, of nirvāṇa, usually with adj. anupadhiśeṣa, SP 21.9; 411.5; Kv 18.19 (text arūpaviśeṣe, read anupadhiśeṣe, nirvāṇadhātau), or niru- padhiśeṣa, Divy 22.9; 242.16; 394.8; asadṛśa nirvāṇa- dhātu-saukhyam Sukh 9.1 (verse); see also dharma-dhātu, sphere of religion; jñānadhātum utthāpayiṣyase Gv 484.16 (above), you will raise up on high the sphere (? possibly state of mind, meaning 4) of knowledge; (6) from this last, world, sphere, develops the meaning mass, abundance, large quantity (not recorded in Pali nor recognized by Lévi, Sūtrāl. i.18 note 1), chiefly in comp. with sattva: tvayā Mañjuśrīḥ kiyān sattvadhātur vinītaḥ SP 261.8, how large a quantity of creatures have you, Māhārāṣṭrī, trained (religiously)? (so both Burnouf and Kern; no other interpretation seems possible); dūrapraṇaṣṭaṃ sattvadhātuṃ viditvā SP 187.1 (Burnouf, la réunion des êtres; Kern creatures, adopting a v.l. sattvān which is not recorded in either ed.); (yathā- bhinimantritasya) sattvadhātoḥ paripākakālam LV 180.4 (Tibetan khams = dhātoḥ); vyavasthāpitaḥ sattvadhātuḥ LV 351.9 (see s.v. dharmadhātu; note that Tibetan renders dhātu by dbyiṅs after dharma-, but by khams after sattva-); na tv eva śakyaṃ gaṇayituṃ sarvasattvadhātū (v.l. °tuṃ) daśasu diśāsu…Mv ii.295.11; yāvanti buddhakṣetrasmiṃ sattvadhātu (so mss., evidently pl.; Senart °tū) acintiyā 352.12; sattvadhātavaḥ parimokṣitāḥ Kv 13.24; sattva- dhātu- (in comp.) 15.5; °tu paripācayiṣyase Gv 484.15 (verse, above); na ca sattvadhātuṃ parityajanti Gv 471.23; rarely with any other word than sattva, śiśire hi yathā himadhātu mahān (a great mass of snow) tṛṇagulmavanau- ṣadhi-ojaharo (one cpd. word) LV 175.3 (verse), cited Śikṣ 206.1; here Foucaux translates wind, claiming support of Tibetan rluṅ, which does indeed primarily mean wind, but is also used of the bodily humors, which is one of the mgs. of dhātu (2, above); Foucaux's meaning could only be right if we em. to vāyu (or vāta), but Śikṣ confirms dhātu, which cannot possibly mean wind in the ordinary natural sense; it seems that Tibetan misunderstood the passage and used a word which is a synonym of khams (= dhātu) in one of its senses, but does not fit here; (7) (orig. elemental bodily substance, 2 above; hence) relics, bodily remains (after death; = Pali id.), sg. or pl.: (buddhānāṃ) dhā- tustūpāḥ SP 7.3; 340.12, relic-stūpas; dhātu SP 99.1 (sg.); 324.1 (pl.); jina-dhātuṣu 341.2; (yaś ca parinirvṛtasya, v.l. adds tathāgatasya,) sarṣapaphalamātram api dhātum [Page284-a+ 71] (so read) satkareyā Mv ii.362.15; lokanāthasya dhātuṣu Mv ii.367.3; dhātu-vibhāgaṃ kṛtvā Divy 90.9, division, distribution of the relics; śarīra-dhātūn Divy 368.27, °tuṃ 380.19; dhātu-pratyaṃśaṃ dattvā 380.20; dhātavaḥ 381.2; dhātu, sg., Suv 13.6 ff.; dhātu- (in comp.) RP 6.9; dhātū- nām 57.3; see also dhātu-vigraha and (dhātv-) avaro- paṇa. — [Note*: on the medical use of dhātu, see No- bel, JAOS Supplement 11 to Vol. 71 No. 3, 1951; on Suv 179.5 (above; 2) esp. p. 8.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-tuḥ) 1. A principle or humour of the body, as phlegm, wind, and bile. 2. Any constituent part of the body, as blood, flesh, &c. 3. A primary or elementary substance, viz. earth, water, fire, air and Akasa or atmosphere. 4. The property of a primary element viz. ordour, flavour, colour, touch, and sound. 5. An organ of sense. 6. A mineral, a fossil. 7. A metal. 8. A grammatical root; in Sanskrit this radical performs no other office, and cannot be used as a word without undergoing some change. E. dhā to possess, to contain, (life, substance, &c.) tun aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 500 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Dharmadhātu (धर्मधातु).—(1) m. (compare Pali dhamma-dhātu), sphere of religion; regularly rend...
Saptadhātu (सप्तधातु).—m. (-tuḥ) The seven parts of the body, or chyle, blood, flesh, adeps, ma...
Raktadhātu (रक्तधातु).—m. (-tuḥ) 1. Red chalk or red orpiment. “gairike.” 2. Copper. E. rakta, ...
Lokadhātu refers to: constituent or unit of the Universe, “world-element”; a world, sphere; a...
Rasadhātu (रसधातु).—n. (-tu) Quicksilver. E. rasa fluid, and dhātu metal.
Rūpadhātu (रूपधातु).—m. (= Pali id.), the world (sphere, region) of form, in which dwell the rū...
Paṭhavīdhātu refers to: the earth element (see above) D. I, 215; II, 294; III, 228, 247; M. ...
Vāyodhātu refers to: the wind element, wind as one of the four great elements, wind as a genera...
Aṣṭadhātu (अष्टधातु).—n. (-tu) The eight metals collectively, as gold, silver, copper, tin, lea...
Sitadhātu (सितधातु).—m. (-tuḥ) 1. Chalk. 2. Silver. E. sita white, and dhātu a mineral.
Kāmadhātu (कामधातु).—m. (= Pali id.), the world (region, sphere) of desire, including all state...
Dhātukathā:—Name of 3rd book of the Abhidhamma Vism.96. --- OR --- Dhātukathā refers to: N...
The seven Dhātvāgnis act upon the respecive dhātus by which each dhātu is broken in three pa...
Dhātugarbha (धातुगर्भ).—(compare dhātu, 7; = Pali °gabbha, Chil-ders; not in PTSD), ‘containing...
Manodhātu refers to: element of apprehension, the ideational faculty (cp. Dhs. trsl. 129, 2p. 1...
Search found 99 books and stories containing Dhatu, Dhātu; (plurals include: Dhatus, Dhātus). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 7 - Growth and Disease < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 8 - Vāyu, Pitta and Kapha < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 6 - Foetal Development < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Abhidhamma in Daily Life (by Ashin Janakabhivamsa) (by Ashin Janakabhivamsa)
Part 1 - The Four Fundamental Elements < [Chapter 10 - Rupa (matter)]
Part 10 - How Rupa Is Caused By Kamma < [Chapter 10 - Rupa (matter)]
Guide to Tipitaka (by U Ko Lay)
Part III - Dhatukatha Pali < [Chapter X - Abhidhamma Pitaka]
Part I - The Dhammasangani Pali < [Chapter X - Abhidhamma Pitaka]
(b) Nidana Vagga Samyutta Pali < [Chapter VI - Samyutta Nikaya]
Patthana Dhamma (by Htoo Naing)
Abhidharmakośa (by Vasubandhu)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)