The Skanda Purana

by G. V. Tagare | 1950 | 1,763,776 words

This page describes Different Families and Groups in Dharmaranya which is chapter 39 of the English translation of the Skanda Purana, the largest of the eighteen Mahapuranas, preserving the ancient Indian society and Hindu traditions in an encyclopedic format, detailling on topics such as dharma (virtous lifestyle), cosmogony (creation of the universe), mythology (itihasa), genealogy (vamsha) etc. This is the thirty-ninth chapter of the Dharmaranya-khanda of the Brahma-khanda of the Skanda Purana.

Chapter 39 - Different Families and Groups in Dharmāraṇya

Brahmā said:

1-2. Listen, dear son, I shall state the greatest secret. These great Cāturvidya Brāhmaṇas are mentioned as Brahmavids (‘knowers of Brahman’). Regularly they studied their respective branches of Vedas and performed rituals with Vaṣaṭkāra and Svadhākāra. They were obedient to Rāma and acted according to his behests. They were extremely devoted to Hanumān.

3-5. Once upon a time, Devas came to Brahmā. They were desirous of seeing the Brāhmaṇas and they went there with Brahmā and Viṣṇu as their leaders.

On seeing the Devas arrived, they moved forth from their respective places. Offering Arghya, Pādya and Madhuparka, the Brāhmaṇas worshipped the Devas with Brahmā as (their) leader. Seated in front of Brahmā, they recited the Vedas.

6-9. They recited the Saṃhitā by the Pada, Krama and Ghana method of recitation. The Ṛgveda Saṃhitā consisting of the Ṛk Mantras was recited in a high pitch.

They recited the Sāman verses, different kinds of Stotras, Śāstras, Yājyas, Puronuvākyas (Introductory verses and hymns) and the Mantras as follows:[1] that followed by four letters viz. yajāmahe, and by the four letters namely astu śrauṣaṭ, by the two letters yaja, five letters ve yajāmahe, two letters vauṣaṭ. These constitute Yajña. He who repeats these, along with knowledge thereof, attains the status of Brahman. It is the truth; it is the truth that I speak. All those Brāhmaṇas were engaged in the Vedic chant with concentration of mind.

10. In the courtyards, the deer used to scratch their (matted) hairs. The Brāhmaṇas repeated Vedamātā (Gāyatrī) in accordance with the injunction.

11-13. The young ones of the deer used to eat Darbha grass held forth by them in their hands. On seeing the hermitage of those householders free from enmity, the Devas became satisfied very much and spoke to each other: “Now (it seems to be) Tretāyuga. All of them are devoted to Dharma (righteousness). What can the sinful, so-called wicked Kali, do?” All those three (gods) called the Cāturvidyas and said:

14. “We shall give due share to you and to the Traividyas for the purpose of livelihood. Maintain it as before.”

15-17. The Vaṇiks mentioned before were thirty-six thousand in number. The Traividyas numbered three thousand and the Cāturvidyas are said to be fifteen thousand.

They helped one another and had their own livelihood. The Traividyas had three shares and the Atrins had four. They came to the abodes of the merchants everyday and shared with one another the fees for the priestly rites as laid down by Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva.

18-20. There was no inter-marriage between Cāturvidyas and Traividyas. (The details of) the Cāturvidyas and the Traividyas have been declared by me.

Due to their receiving of three shares they are Traividyas and the Atrins had four shares. This differentiation (in the share) of the castes was created by Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. Those Brāhmaṇas became satisfied and bowed down to those excellent Suras. After assigning the means of livelihood, the Devas went back to their respective abodes.

21. The Brāhmaṇas, Cāturvidyas and Traividyas, together were residents of fifty-five villages.

22-24. There are fifteen Gotras of the Cāturvidyas, viz. Bhāradvāja, Vatsa, Kauśika, Kuśa, Śāṇḍilya, Kaśyapa, Gautama, Chādana, Jātūkarṇya, Kunta, Vaśiṣṭha, Dhāraṇa, Ātreya, Māṇḍila and Laugākṣa. I shall mention in due order the names of their own (original) native places.

25-33. They are[2] Sītāpura, Śrīkṣetra, Magoḍī, Jyeṭhaloja, Śeratha, Chede, Tālī, Vanoḍī, Govyandalī, Kaṇṭācoṣalī, Koheca, Candana, Thalagrāma, Soha, Hāthañja, Kapaḍavāṇaka, Vrajanhori, Vanoḍī, Phīṇā, Vagola, Dṛṇa, Thalajā, Cāraṇa, Siddhā, Bhālaja, Mahovī, Āīyā, Malīā, Godharī, Āmata, Vāṭhasuhālī, Māṇajā, Sānadīyā, Ānandīyā, Pāṭaḍīa, Ṭīkolīya, Gaṃbhī, Dhaṇiā, Mātrā, Nātamorā, Valolā, Rāntyajā, Rūpolā, Bodhaṇī, Chatroṭā, Aluevā, Vāsataḍīā, Jāṣāsaṇā, Gotīyā, Caraṇīyā, Dudhīyā, Hālolā, Vaiholā, Asālā, Nālaḍā, Deholo, Sauhāsīyā and Saṃhālīyā. These are the fifty-five villages in due order, given by Rāma to the Brāhmaṇas duly.

34. Henceforth I shall tell the Gotrajas of these villages. So also the Pravaras will be mentioned in due form.

35. After knowing the Gotradevī (the deity of the Gotra) and the Pravara, the Svasthāna (native place) is known. The Brāhmaṇas are the residents of Svasthāna.

Nārada said:

36. How is Gotra known? How is Kula known? How is the deity known? Explain that correctly.

Brahmā said:

37. Sītāpura is the first one. There are two Pravaras: Kuśa and Vatsa. They have been narrated to you by me.

38. Śrīkṣetra is the second. There are three Gotras: Chāndanasa, Vatsa and Kuśa—the third Gotra.

39. The third village is Mudgala. Kuśa and Bhāradvāja (are the Pravaras), Śoholī is the fourth. Kuśa is the Pravara.

40. Jyeṣṭhalā is the fifth. Vatsa and Kuśa are glorified (as Pravarās). Śreyasthāna is the sixth (and has) Bhāradvāja and Kuśa (as Pravaras).

41. Dantalī is the sevenṃ. Bhāradvāja and Kuśa (are the Parvaras). Vaṭasthāna is the eighth. Understand this, O excellent son.

42. There are three Gotras there—Kuśa, Kutsa and Bhāradvāja. Rājñaḥ Pura is the ninth with Bhāradvāja as the Pravara.

43. Kṛṣṇavāṭa is the tenth with Kuśa as Pravara. Dahaloḍa is the eleventh with Vatsa as Pravara.

44. Cekhali is the twelfth with Pauka and Kuśa as Pravaras.

45. Cāñcodakhe and Deholoḍī have Atri, Vatsa and Kutsa too as Pravaras. Of Bhāradvājikoṇā (the Pravaras are) Bhāradvāja, Golandṛṇa and Āśaku.

46. In the two, viz. Thala and Tyajā, Kuśa and Dhāraṇa (are the Pravaras). Naraṇasiddhā is Svasthāna of which Kutsa is glorified as the Gotra.

47-48. Bhālajā has Kutsa and Vatsa (as Pravara). Mohovī, Ākuśa, and Īyāślīā have Śāṇḍila. So also Godharī Pātra and Ānandīya have two Pravaras viz. Bhāradvāja and Śāṇḍila. Pāṭadīā has Kuśa as Pravara.

49. Vāṃsaḍīā and Jāsvā and Kautsmaṇā as Pravara have Vatsa, Ātreya; and Akuśa and Gautama (are) of Gītā.

50. Caraṇīā has Bhāradvāja. Dudhīā has Dhārāṇasā. Sonnā has Māṇḍilya.

51. Vailola has Huśa. Asālā has Kuśa (and) Dhāraṇā is the second.

52. Nālolā, Vatsadhāraṇīyā and Delolā have Kutsa. Sohāsīyā has Bhāradvāja, Kuśa and Vatsa.

5 3. Suhālīā is spoken of having Vatsa. The Gotras and Svasthānas have been mentioned in due order.

54-55. Those who are mentioned as Śītavāḍiyas have Kuśa and Vatsa as Pravara, Viśvāmitra and Devarāta and the third Dala. Bhārgava, Cyāvana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jamadagni are the Sages. Vacā, Ardaśeṣā and Vutalā are glorified as Gotra deities.

Thus (ends information about) the first Gotra.[3]

56-58. Śrīkṣetra is mentioned as the second. There are two Gotras—Chādanasa and Vatsa. The Devīs—goddesses are two. Āṅgirasa, Aṃbarīṣa, Yauvanāśva, Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jamadagni are the Sages. The female deity is mentioned as Bhaṭṭārikā and the second one is Śepalā.

Listen to them (the characteristics of those born of this family), O excellent one among sages.

59. They are irascible but of good conduct. They are devoted to the rites as mentioned in Śrutis and Smṛtis. They are engaged in the five Yajñas and they have permanent relationship. All of them are excellent kings; they are conversant with (treatment of) wounds and are born of sacrifice.

Thus (ends) the second Gotra.

60. The third one is Magoḍoā. There are two Gotras: Bhāradvāja and Kutsa. The Devīs are two.

61. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja are the three Pravaras. Viśvāmitra and Devarāta are the Sages.

62-63. Śeṣalā, Budhalā and Ādhāraśānti are mentioned as deities. The Brāhmaṇas born in this village are truthful in speech. They are observers of the rite of worshipping Brāhmaṇas. They are devoted to different kinds of Yajñas. All are devoted to different kinds of Yajñas. All the Brāhmaṇas born in this village are leading sages.

Thus (ends) the third Gotra.

64-66. The fourth is Śīholiyā village. There are two Gotras: Viśvāmitra and Devarāta and the third is Audala. The deity is Cacāī. She is glorified as the deity of the Gotra. All those born in this Gotra are weak and given to worrying. The Brāhmaṇas, O excellent king, are liars and greedy. But they are excellent Brāhmaṇas well-versed in all scriptures.

Thus the fourth Sthāna.

67-71. Jyeṣṭhalojā is the fifth Svasthāna that is glorified. Two Pravaras, viz. Vatsaśīya and Kutsaśīya are declared (for this place). Āvarivṛvāpra,[4] Yauvanāśva, Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Āpana, Aurva and Jamadagni are the Sages (?).

Cacāī is the deity of Vatsagotra and Śāntā is born of Kutsa Gotra. With these three and five (Sages) the Brāhmaṇas are of the nature of Brahman.

They are quiescent and have control over their sense-organs. Their conduct is good. They are endowed with wealth and sons. They are devoid of the study of the Vedas but are experts in all types of works. Handsome in form, they follow the mores and conduct of Śiṣṭas (good people). They are well established in all types of pious rituals. The Brāhmaṇas born here offer water (in plenty); they are engaged in the pious activity of making gifts.

Thus (ends) the fifth Sthāna.

72-75. Those born in Śerathā villages have two Paravaras—Kuśa and Bhāradvāja. There are two deities. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta, the third Audala, Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja are the Sages. Kamalā, the great Lakṣmī, is the deity. The second deity is Yakṣiṇī.

Those born in this Gotra are scholars engaged in rites laid down in Śrutis and Smṛtis. They regularly engage themselves in the study of the Vedas. They are ascetics and suppressors of enemies (within and without). They engage themselves in performing Yajñas for self and on behalf of others. All those Brāhmaṇas mentioned by me are devoted to all Brāhmaṇical rituals.

Thus (ends) the sixth Sthāna.

76. The people of Dantālī have Bhāradvāja, Kutsa, Śāya, Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja(?) as the Sages.

77-78. Yakṣiṇī is mentioned as the deity. So also (is) Karmalā. The Brāhmaṇas born in this Gotra are splendid and wealthy. They dress well and adorn themselves with ornaments. They have great devotion to Brāhmaṇas. All of them are ready to feed Brāhmaṇas and are devoted to religious rites.

Thus (ends) the seventh Sthāna.

79. Those born in the Vaḍodrīya family are known to have four Pravaras, viz. Kuśa, Kutsa, Vatsa and Bhāradvāja.

80-85. I shall mention their Pravaras(?) and Gotras in due order. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala.

Āṅgirasa, Aṃbarīṣa and the third Yauvanāśva. Bhārgava, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jamadagni. So also Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja.

Karmalā, Kṣemalā, Dhārabhaṭṭārikā and the fourth Kṣemalā(?) are mentioned as the Gotra mothers in due order.

Those born in this Gotra are always engaged in performing the rite of Pañcayajña. They are greedy and hot-tempered and prolific in progeny. They are engaged in the rites of holy ablution, offering gifts etc. They have always control over their sense-organs (?). They dig (and construct) thousands of wells, tanks and lakes. Ready to take up vows and observances, they are aware of what is good. They are fools devoid of Vedic study.

Thus (ends) the eighth Sthāna.

86-89. In the village named Godaṇīya, there are two Gotras: Vatsa Gotra is the first and Bhāradvāja is the second. Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva, and Purodhasa are the Sages. Śiharī should be known as the first (deity) and the second Yakṣiṇī. The Brāhmaṇas born of this Gotra are richly endowed with wealth and grain. They tend to be angry but are devoid of covetousness. They are vindictive and crooked. O king, they are mentioned by me as given to violence and covetous of wealth.

Thus the ninth Sthāna.

90-92. The Brāhmaṇas in the village Kaṇṭavāḍīā are born of Kuśa Gotra. I shall mention its Pravara. Listen, you excellent king. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and Udala—these three are declared (as Sages). Cacāī is mentioned as the deity. Listen, you excellent king. With delighted and concentrated minds they perform sacrifices. The Brāhmaṇas are experts in all scriptures. They are truthful in speech.

Thus the tenth Sthāna.

93-97. People of Vekhalo (Vekhala?) are mentioned by me as born of Kutsa family. They have three Pravaras. Listen, you excellent king. The three (Pravaras) viz. Viśvāmitra, Devarāja (? Devarāta) and Audala are remembered. Cacāī is remembered as their deity protecting the family. The Brāhmaṇas are noble-souled, possessing Sattva and endowed with good qualities. They are ascetics, Yogins and masters of the Vedas and Vedāṅgas (ancillaries to the Vedas). They are good people, observers of traditional code of conduct, engrossed in devotion to Viṣṇu. They regularly perform Sandhyā prayers and holy ablution. They eagerly feed the Brāhmaṇas. These are mentioned by me as belonging to this family. You listen hereafter.

Thus (ends) the eleventh Sthāna.

98-101. Those of Dehaloḍīā are mentioned as having Kutsa Pravara. Āṅgirasa, Āṃbarīṣa and the third Yuvanāśva. Śrīśeṣadurbalā is declared by me as the Gotra deity. Those who are born in Kutsa family are of good conduct and truthful in speech. They regularly study the Vedas. They see only weak points and loopholes of others. They are hot-tempered and devoid of inconstancy, haters and crooked (in attitude). Aggressively violent these born of Kutsa are covetous of wealth.

Thus (ends) the twelfth Sthāna.

102-107. In Koha, the Brāhmaṇas are said to have three Gotras, viz. Bhāradvāja, Vatsa and the third Kuśa also. I shall mention the Pravaras also in the order of the Gotras. (They are) Bhārgava, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jamadagni. The Pravaras of the third Gotra Kuśa are three, viz. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala. Yakṣiṇī is mentioned as the first (deity) and the second is Śīhurī. Cacāī is mentioned as the third. These are the deities of the Gotra in due order.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this Gotra are scholars engaged in the rites laid down in Śruti and Smṛtis. They regularly study the Vedas. They are ascetics suppressing (their) enemies. Hot-tempered, greedy and wicked, they are engaged in performing Yajñas for themselves as well as on other’s behalf. All of them are mentioned by me as excellent Brāhmaṇas devoted to Brāhmaṇical rituals.

Thus (ends) the thirteenth Sthāna.

108-111. Those who are born in Cāndaṇakheḍa are of Bhāradvāja Gotra. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and the third Bhāradvāja are the Sages. Yakṣiṇī has been mentioned as the deity here by the intelligent Vyāsa.

Those who are born as Bhāradvāja Brāhmaṇas have the form of Brahman. They are calm. They have control over their sense-organs. They are of good moral conduct. They are possessed of wealth and sons. The Brāhmaṇas in Dharmāraṇya are excellent and are experts in the sacrificial ritual. All of them are devoted to their preceptors and they bring glory to their family.

Thus (ends) the fourteenth Sthāna.

112-114. Those born in Thala village hail from Bhāradvāja family. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and the third Bhāradvāja (are the Sages).

The Brāhmaṇas who are born in this Gotra are splendid and wealthy. They bedeck themselves in good garments and ornaments and are devout respecters of Brāhmaṇas. All of them enthusiastically feed Brāhmaṇas and are highly religious. The protectress named Yakṣiṇī has been spoken of by me as the Gotra deity.

Thus (ends) the fifteenth Sthāna.

115-119. Those who are born in Moūtrī are mentioned (as belonging to) two Gotras, Bhāradvāja and Kaśyapa. The two deities Cāmuṇḍā and Yakṣiṇī have been glorified as deity here. Kaśyapa, Avatsāra and the third Naidhruva. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and the third Bhāradvāja (these are the Sages).

(The Brāhmaṇas here) utter pleasing words; they are highly efficient and always devoted to their preceptors. They always have good prestige and they are engaged in activities beneficial to all living beings. The Brāhmaṇas of Kaśyapa Gotra perform great Yajñas. They perform Yajñas on behalf of all others and they are remembered as great Yājñikas.

Thus (ends) the sixteenth Sthāna.

120-122. Those born in Hāthījaṇa are of Vatsa and Bhāradvāja Gotras. Jñānajā and Yakṣiṇī have been glorified as the deities of the Gotra. Those born in this Gotra are always engaged in Pañcayajña. They are covetous and fiery-tempered. They have ample progeny. They are learned. They are engaged in holy ablution, offering gifts and other rites. They are devout worshippers of Viṣṇu. They habitually take to vows and observances. Devoid of Vedic study, they are fools—innocent of good qualities and wisdom.

Thus (ends) the seventeenth Sthāna.

123-127. The Brāhmaṇas born in Kapaḍvāṇa have Bhāradvāja and Kuśa as Gotras. Yakṣiṇī and the second one Cacāī are mentioned as the deities. Āṅgirasa, Bārhapatya and the third Bhāradvāja; Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala (these are the Sages).

Those who are born in this Gotra are speakers of truth. They excel in vows and observances. They have subdued their sense-organs. They are handsome with splendid countenances. They take very little food. They are ever engaged in work and are conversant with Purāṇas. They are devoted to offering great gifts. Never hating any, they are still covetous. They are engaged in the study of the Vedas. They are far-sighted and prudent, highly lustrous but are deluded by the great Māyā.

Thus (ends) the eighteenth Sthāna.

128-131. The Brāhmaṇas of Janhorī are mentioned as having Kuśa as Pravara. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala (are the Sages). Tāraṇī of great Māyā is glorified as the Gotra deity.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family, O king, are unbearable. Huge in body and tall in height. They are highly arrogant, distressful in appearance and black-complexioned. They are experts in all scriptures. Voracious in eating, they are wealthy and clever, devoid of hatred and sinful activities. Deformed, these Brāhmaṇas dress and adorn themselves well. They discuss Brahman, the Absolute.

Thus (ends) the nineteenth Sthāna.

132-136. To those who are born in Vanoḍī the Gotras are three in number. Kuśa and Kutsa are Pravaras; the third is Bhāradvāja. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala. Āṅgirasa, Āṃbarīṣa and the third Yuvanāśva. So also Āṅgīrasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja (as Sages).

Śeṣalā is mentioned as the first Gotra deity, Śāntā is the second and the third Dhāraśānti. These are the Gotra-deities in due order.

Those who are born in this Gotra are weak and feeble-minded. The Brāhmaṇas speak falsehood. They are greedy, O excellent king. Experts in all scriptures, these Brāhmaṇas are the most excellent ones among the knowers of Brahman.

Thus (ends) the twentieth Sthāna.

137-140. The Sthāna Kīṇāvācanaka is the twenty-first. The splendid Brāhmaṇas, the leading Brāhmaṇas are mentioned to belonging to Bhāradvāja gotra. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja are so (the Sages). Goddess Yakṣiṇī is glorified as the Gotra deity.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are wealthy and brilliant. Dressing and adorning themselves, they are devoted to Brāhmaṇas. All of them eagerly feed Brāhmaṇas and all are righteous.

Thus (ends) the twenty-first Sthāna.

141-144. The excellent Brāhmaṇas who are born in the Sthāna Govindaṇā belong to Kuśa Gotra. They have three Pravaras: Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and Audala. The great goddess Cacāī is glorified as the Gotra deity.

The Brāhmaṇas who are born in this family perform sacrifices with delighted and concentrated mind. Experts in all scriptures, they are devotees of Brāhmaṇas and are the most excellent ones among the knowers of Brahman.

Thus (ends) the twenty-second Sthāna.

145-149. Of the Brāhmaṇas born in Thalatyāja, there are two Gotras in which they are established. Dhāraṇa and Saṅkuśa are the two Gotras.

Agastya, Dārḍhyacyuta and Rathyavāhana; Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala are the Sages. Chatrajā is mentioned as the (first) deity and the second one is Thalajā.

Those Brāhmaṇas who are born in the Dhāraṇa Gotra have three Pravaras. They are friendly to Brāhmaṇas and the most excellent ones among the knowers of Brahman. They are Sāttvika in nature and have good qualities. Those who are born in their family are devoted to virtuous rites. Wealthy, pursuing knowledge steadfastly, they are engaged in penance, Yajña and other rituals. This is mentioned as the twenty-third Sthāna of the Brāhmaṇas of Moḍhaka caste.

Thus (ends) the twenty-third Sthāna.

150-153. Those Brāhmaṇas who are called Vāraṇasiddhas are the foremost among persons of wisdom. The Brāhmaṇas of this Gotra (family) are speakers of truth and of accomplished vows and observances. They have conquered their sense-organs. They are handsome-looking and of splendid countenance. They take only very little food. They are ever endeavouring. They are conversant with the Purāṇas and devoted to the offering of great gifts. They never hate others and are not covetous. They are devoted to the study of the Vedas, are far-sighted and highly brilliant but deluded by the great Māyā. This is mentioned as the twenty-fourth Sthāna. It is considered to be the greatest.

Thus (ends) the twenty-fourth Sthāna.

154-158. The Brāhmaṇas born in Bhāla are said to be truthful in speech. There are two Gotras: Vatsa and Kuśa. I shall mention their Pravaras, viz. five and three. Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jamadagnī; Āṅgirasa, Āmbarīṣa and the third Yauvanāśva. Śāntā and Śeṣalā are the two deities here.

Persons born in this family are of good conduct and truthful in speech. They have various complexions but they are calm. Devoid of wealth, they wear dirty clothes. Proud and inconstant, they are steady in the Vedas and scriptural studies. The twenty-fifth Svasthāna of Moḍha class has been mentioned.

Thus (ends) the twenty-fifth Sthāna.

159-163. Those Brāhmaṇas belonging to Mahovīā are the foremost among the knowers of Brahman. They have only one Gotra named Kuśa and it is sacred. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala (are the Sages). Goddess Cavāī (?Cacāī) is established here as the protectress.

Those who are born in this Gotra are speakers of truth. They have conquered their sense-organs. Handsome in appearance and splendid-countenanced, they are truthful in observances and vows. They take very little food. They are kind and sympathetic. They are engaged in activities conducive to the welfare of all living beings. The twenty-sixth centre (Svasthāna) of the propounders of Brahman has been mentioned. They have been praised by Rāma and his younger brother.

Thus (ends) the twenty-sixth Sthāna.

164. I shall now describe the twenty-seventh Svasthāna, viz. Tiyāśrīyā. Brāhmaṇas who are born here are masters of the Vedas.

165-166. Here the Gotra is Śāṇḍilya (of the Brāhmaṇas) as mentioned by excellent Vedic scholars. They have five Pravaras. Jñānajā is the deity here. Kāśyapa, Avatsāra, Śāṇḍilya, Asita and the fifth one Devala—these are the Pravaras in due order. Goddess Jñānajā is mentioned as the deity of the Sthāna.

167-169. Those Brāhmaṇas who are born in this family are brilliant like the sun. They are cool like the moon. AH these are well-established in Dharmāraṇya. O great king, they are of good conduct and devoted to the study of the Vedas and scriptural texts. They are performers of Yajñas and of auspicious conduct. They are devoted to truth and cleanliness. They are conversant with piety, habituated to offer gifts, pure and always enthusiastic, close adherents of penance and study of the Vedas. They are devoted to justice and righteousness. This is the twenty-seventh Sthāna as (is) described by the excellent knowers of the Vedas.

Thus (ends) the twenty-seventh Sthāna.

170-175. Brāhmaṇas of great knowledge and wisdom were born in Godharī. I shall mention in due order their three Gotras. The first one is Dhāraṇasa; the second is Jātūkarṇa and the third is Kauśika. This is in due order.

Those who are born of Dhāraṇasa Gotra have three Pravaras—Agasti, Dāḍhacyuta and one named Idhmavāhana.

Vasiṣṭha, Ātreya and the third one Jātūkarṇa (are the Pravaras of the second Gotra while that of the third are:) Viśvāmitra, Mādhucchandasa, and the third Aghamarṣaṇa. The extremely powerful Māleyā, the second one Yakṣiṇī and the third one Mahāyogī—these are glorified as the deities of the Gotra.

The Brāhmaṇas who are born in this family are truthful in utterance. Devoid of inconstancy, performing great Yajñas, they abide by the injunctions in the Vedas.

Thus (ends) twenty-eighth Sthāna.

176-183. Of those who are born in Vāṭastrahāla, there are three Gotras. Dhāraṇa should be known as the first; the second is called Vatsa and the third is named Kutsa. The Gotra deities (are mentioned later).

The first one is Dhāraṇagotra with three Pravaras: Agasti, Dārḍhācyuta and Idhmavāhana.

The second Gotra named Vatsa has five Pravaras: Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jamadagni.

The third Gotra named Kutsa has three Pravaras. Aṅgirasa, Āṃbarīṣa and the third, Yauvanāśva.

Goddess Chatrajā, the second Śeṣalā and goddess Jñānajā are the deities of the Gotras in due order.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this Gotra are truthful in speech; they have conquered their sense-organs. They are handsome; they take only very little food; they are devoted to offering great gifts. They never hate; they are covetous and devoted to the study of the Veda. Far-sighted, highly brilliant, highly enthusiastic, they are truthful in speech.

Thus (ends) the twenty-ninth Sthāna.

184-189. Māṇajā is a great Sthāna. There are two Gotras. Śāṇḍilya and Kuśa are mentioned as the two Gotras. Kaśyapa, Avatsāra, Śāṇḍilya, Asita and the fifth one Devala: all these are of a single Gotra. Jñānajā is said to be the deity here.

The second Gotra, Kuśa, has three Pravaras: Viśvāmitra, Devarāja (? Devarāta) and the third one Audala. Jñānadā is glorified as the second deity of this place.

Those who are born in this Gotra are weak and feeble-minded. Speakers of falsehood, these Brāhmaṇas are greedy, O excellent king. They are efficient in all scriptures. The Brāhmaṇas are the most excellent among Brāhmaṇas.

Thus (ends) the thirtieth Sthāna.

190-193. Sāṇadā is a great Sthāna; it is considered very holy. The Brāhmaṇas staying there belong to Kuśa Pravara and are known to be pure and purifying. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala (are the Sages). The great goddess Jñanadā is glorified as the Gotra-deity. Those who are born in this Gotra are feeble and wretched in their minds. The Brāhmaṇas are liars, O excellent king; and they are very greedy. The Brāhmaṇas are efficient in all scriptures and are the foremost among the knowers of Brahman.

Thus (ends) thirty-first Sthāna.[5]

194-198. In the Ānandīyā Sthāna there are two Gotras, one is named Bhāradvāja and Śāṇḍilya is the second. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and the third Bhāradvāja (are the Sages). The goddess Cacāī is glorified as the Gotra-deity. Kāśyapa, Avatsāra, Śāṇḍilya, Asita and the fifth one Devala constitute the Pravaras (of Śāṇḍilya?) in the order. Goddess Jñānajā is mentioned as the Gotra-deity.

Those who are born in this family are pure in mind and non-covetous. They are satisfied with what is acquired casually. The Brāhmaṇas are the foremost among those who know Brahman.

Thus (ends) the thirty-second Sthāna.

199-201. Pāṭaḍīyā is glorified as a great pure Sthāna. They (Brāhmaṇas hereof) belong to Kuśa Gotra with three Pravaras: Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala.

Those who are born in this Gotra are devoted to the Vedas and scriptural texts. The Brāhmaṇas are proud and cheerful and carry on activities along the path of justice.

Thus (ends) thirty-third Sthāna.

202-204. Ṭīkoliyā is a great Sthāna with Kuśa as the Gotra (of the Brāhmaṇas thereof). Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala (are the Sages). Goddess Cacāī is glorified as the Gotra-deity. The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are devoted to Śruti and Smṛti. Sickly, greedy and wicked, they are engaged in performing Yajña for themselves as well as on behalf of others. All the Moḍhas (Brāhmaṇas of Moḍha Community) have been mentioned by me as devoted to the rituals of Brāhmaṇas.

Thus (ends) thirty-fourth Sthāna.

205-207. Gamīdhāṇīya is the greatest Sthāna mentioned as the thirty-fifth one. Dhāraṇasa is the Gotra and the goddess is Mahābalā. (The Sages:) Agasti, Dārḍhācyuta and Idhmavāhana are their names. The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are devoted to Brahman, non-covetous, highly intelligent and strict adherents of Vedic injunctions.

Thus (ends) the thirty-fifth Sthāna.

208-210. Mātrā is the greatest Sthāna sanctifying all living beings; the sacred Kuśa Gotra is firmly established here. Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third one Audala(?) The great goddess Jñānadā is the sole protectress of all the worlds.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are devoted to Devas. They have Svādhyāya and Vaṣaṭkāra and they are the sponsors of Vedic and scriptural activities.

Thus (ends) the thirty-sixth Sthāna.

211-213. Nātamorā is a great Sthāna. It is sacred and extremely auspicious. The Gotra is Kuśa with the three Pravaras: Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Audala. Goddess Jñānajā is glorified as the Gotra-deity (presiding goddess of the Gotra). The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are the foremost among the knowers of Brahman. They are efficient in piety, of truthful speech and devoted to observance of holy vows and offering of gifts.

Thus (ends) the thirty-seventh Sthāna.

214-216. Balolā is a great Sthāna, sanctifying and extremely miraculous. Kuśa as Gotra has been mentioned with the three Pravaras as have been mentioned before. Mānadā is the goddess here.

In this family, the ancestors are said to have been created by Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. The Brāhmaṇas utter falsehood, O excellent king; and they are greedy. The Brāhmaṇas are experts in all learnings; they are excellent Brāhmaṇas.

Thus (ends) the thirty-eighth Sthāna.

217-219. Rājyajā is a great Sthāna with Laugākṣa as the Pravara (? Gotra). The three Pravaras are Kāśyapa, Avatsāra and Vāsiṣṭha. Yoginī Bhadrā is glorified as the Gotra deity.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are devoted to Vedas. They always observe the rites of daily ablution, daily Homa and daily offering of gifts. Always engaged in virtuous deeds, they are devoted to Nitya (usual) and Naimitta (special, occasional) rituals.

Thus (ends) the thirty-ninth Sthāna.

220-225. Rupolā is the greatest Sthāna, sanctifying and extremely meritorious. Here there are three Gotras and three deities. Kutsa and Vatsa are the first two and the third is Bhāradvāja; Āṅgirasa, Āṃbarīṣa and the third Yauvanāśva; Bhṛgu, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jagadagni (? Jamadagni); Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and Bhāradvāja (are the Sages). Goddess Kṣemalā, Dhārabhaṭṭārikā and the third Kṣemalā (?) are mentioned as Gotra-mothers in due order.

Those born in this family are always engaged in Pañcayajñas, are hot-tempered and greedy. They are prolific in progeny, engaged in holy ablution, offering of gifts etc. They have conquered their sense-organs. They have dug (constructed) thousands of wells, tanks and lakes.

Thus (ends) the fortieth Sthāna.

226-229. Bodhaṇī is the greatest Sthāna, sanctifying and destructive of sins. Kuśa and Kauśika are the two Gotras. Viśvāmitra is the first, then Devarāta and Dala (Audala?). So also Viśvāmitra, Aghamarṣaṇa and Kauśika (are the Sages). Yakṣiṇī is the first Gotra-deity and Tāraṇī is the second.

Those who are born in this family are feeble and wretched in their minds. Untruthful in speech, the Brāhmaṇas, O excellent king, are greedy. The Brāhmaṇas are experts in all learnings and most excellent among Brāhmaṇas.

Thus (ends) the forty-first Sthāna.

230-232. Chatroṭā is the greatest Sthāna, the sole one adored in all the worlds. Kuśa Gotra is said to be the Gotra (of the Brāhmaṇas thereof) and there are three Pravaras: Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Dala (?Audala). Goddess Cacāī is glorified as the Gotra-deity here.

Those who are born in this family are devoted to Vedic and scriptural texts. Those Brāhmaṇas are of high prosperity and adherents of the path of justice.

Thus (ends) the forty-second Sthāna.

233-236. The next Sthāna is Khala. It is the forty-third one. The Brāhmaṇas born of Vatsa Gotra pursue agricultural avocation. Jñānajā is the goddess of the Gotra. There are five Pravaras: Bhārgava, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jāmadagnya.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family render great service to the Vedic fire. They are dedicated to the study of the Vedas; they are ascetics suppressing their enemies. Hot-tempered, greedy, they are delighted in engaging themselves in Yajña for themselves as well as on behalf of others. They are overwhelmed with compassion for all living beings and they help others.

Thus (ends) the forty-third Sthāna.

237-239. In the Vāsantaḍī village, it is said that the Gotra of the Brāhmaṇas is Kuśa; Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and Audala (are the Pravaras). Goddess Cacāī is glorified as the Gotra-deity.

Those who are born in this family are, as mentioned before, devoted to Brahman. Of helpful nature to others, they act according to the wishes of others. They are averse to other men’s wealth and property. They are the exponents of the great path.

Thus (ends) the forty-fourth Sthāna.

240-243. Hereafter it is said that the Saṃsthāna is Jākhāsaṇa. The Gotra is named Vātsya; Śīhurī is the Gotra deity. As revealed (told) to you by me, the Pravaras are five: Bhārgava, Cyavana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Purodhas.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are easy-going and pursuers of happiness. The Brāhmaṇas are stout, well-informed and engaged in all (religious) activities. All of them have faith in Dharma (Virtue) alone. They are the persons solely honoured in all the worlds. They are clever in understanding the meanings of the Vedic and scriptural texts. They are engaged in performing Yajñas personally for themselves as well as on behalf of others. Handsome and pot-bellied, they are well-behaved and far-sighted. Śīhurī has been glorified as the family deity here.

Thus (ends) the forty-fifth Sthāna.

244-247. The forty-sixth Sthāna has been declared as that of Maṭas (Moḍhas?). Its name is Gotīā. Here the Gotra is Kuśa. There are three Pravaras (of this Gotra viz.): Viśvāmitra the first, Devarātaka the second, and Audala the third. Yakṣiṇī, the destroyer of Rākṣasas, is the deity here.

The Brāhmaṇas who are born here are devoted to Brahman. Their minds and activities centre round Dharma. They are efficient in Dharmaśāstra texts.

Thus (ends) the forty-sixth Sthāna.

248-251. That which is called Varalīyā is glorified as the forty-seventh Saṃsthāna. It is considered extremely sanctifying. Bhāradvāja is the Gotra (of Brāhmaṇas hereof) and Pravaras (as before). Goddess Yakṣiṇī is glorified as the family-deity. Āṅgirasa, Bārhaspatya and the third Bhāradvāja[6] (are the Pravaras).

The Brāhmaṇas who are born in this family are of sanctified form. Sinners become absolved of sins by the mere words of these Brāhmaṇas as though with water.

Thus (ends) the forty-seventh Sthāna.

252-256. The great Sthāna named Dudhīyā has two Gotras, namely Dhāraṇasa and Āṅgirasaka. Agasti, Dārḍhācyuta and Idhmavāhana are the names of Pravaras of the first Gotra. Chatrāī is the great goddess. Listen to the second (list of) Pravaras: Āṅgirasa, Āṃbarīṣa and the third Yauvanāśva. Jñānadā and Śeṣalā are the bestowers of knowledge to all embodied beings.

O king, the Brāhmaṇas born in this family are unbearable. They are tall and have huge bodies. They are highly arrogant and full of pride. They are awe-inspiring in appearance and black in complexion. They are experts in all scriptural learnings. Voracious in eating, they are wealthy and clever, devoid of hatred and sins.

Thus (ends) the forty-eighth Sthāna.

257-260. I shall explain the Svasthāna well-known as Hāsolāsa. The Gotra here is Śāṇḍilya with five Pravaras, viz. Bhārgava, Cyayana, Āpnavāna, Aurva and Jāmadagnya. Yakṣiṇī, the sanctifying goddess who destroys sins, is the deity here.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family have stout bodies. They are pot-bellied. Their ears hang loose. These great Brāhmaṇas have long hands. Free from ailments, they are always devoted to Devas and vow of truthfulness.

Thus (ends) the forty-ninth Sthāna.

261-263. The Saṃsthāna named Vaihāla is the fiftieth one. The Gotra is Kuśa and the deity is Mahābalā here.

The Brāhmaṇas born in this family are wicked and of crooked gait (way of life). They are wealthy and established in acts of righteousness. They are masters of the Vedas and Vedāṅgas. They are engaged in offering gifts as well as enjoying pleasures. All of them are well-inclined towards the Vedic activities.

Thus (ends) the fiftieth Sthāna.

264-265. Asālā is the great Sthāna with two Pravaras (Gotras), Kuśa and Dhāraṇa. The Pravaras in order are Viśvāmitra, Devarāta and the third Devala (rather Audala). Goddess Jñānajā is glorified as the Gotra-deity.[7]

Thus (ends) the fifty-first Sthāna.

266-268. The great Sthāna Nālolā is the fifty-second (Sthāna). Vatsa Gotra is well-known; the second is Dhāraṇasa. The Pravaras are as mentioned before. The goddess is also as mentioned before.

Those who are born in this family are considered extremely sanctifying. Of what avail is a verbose description? All the Brāhmaṇas here are very good people. All of them are pure, noble-souled ones. All have good family tradition.

Thus (ends) the fifty-second Sthāna.

269-270. O destroyer of enemies, Dehola is a great Sthāna of Brāhmaṇas. The Brāhmaṇas thereof are born of Kuśa family, O excellent one among men. The Pravaras are as mentioned before. The deity also has been previously mentioned by me. Brāhmaṇas born in that family possess the qualities mentioned before.

Thus (ends) the fifty-third Sthāna.

271-272. The city of Sohāsīyā is the next Sthāna. There are (Brāhmaṇas of) three Gotras—Bhāradvaja, Khyāta (?) and Vatsa. Yakṣiṇī, Jñānajā and Siholī are the deities in due order. The test of (i.e. the characteristics of) this family is the same as mentioned before, O excellent king.

Thus (ends) the fifty-fourth Sthāna.

273-275. I shall describe unto you the fifty-fifth Sthāna now. This Sthāna is known by the name Saṃhāliyā. It was granted formerly by Rāma. The Brāhmaṇas have great spiritual splendour and belong to Kutsa Gotra. They are always devoted to their duty and engaged in ritualistic duties. Āṅgirasa, Āṃbarīṣa and the next Yauvanāśva (are the Pravaras). Śāntā is the deity here. She is the giver of peace in the rites of Śānti type.

Thus (ends) the fifty-fifth Sthāna.

276. Thus, O scorcher of enemies, the Gotras, the Sthānas and the Pravaras of the Brāhmaṇas have been recounted.

277. Henceforth I shall mention the Svasthānas of the Traividyas. They will be mentioned by me in due order, O scorcher of enemies.

278-282. The first Sthāna is Śīlā; Maṇḍorā is the second; Evaḍī is the third; Gundarāṇā, the fourth; Kalyāṇiyā, the fifth; Degāmā, the sixth; Nāyakapurā, the seventh; Ḍalīā, the eighth; Kaḍovyā, the ninth; Kohāṭoyā, the tenth; Haraḍīyā, the eleventh; Bhadukīyā, the twelfth; Saṃprāṇāvā, Kandarāvā and Vāsarovā, the thirteenth; Śaraṇḍāvā, the fourteenth; Lolāsaṇa, the fifteenth; Vārolā, the sixteenth; and the seventeenth one as mentioned by me is Nāgalapurā.

Brahmā said:

283-285. The Cāturvidya Brāhmaṇas who did not come (at first) came afterwards. Those excellent Brāhmaṇas made their charming residence there. They, numbering twenty-four, approached Hanumān for the purpose of obtaining the letter of authority of Rāma; they returned again. Due to their fault, all of them were displaced and ousted from their Sthānas. After the lapse of some time, they became antagonistic (to one another).

286-291b. They had different codes of conduct, languages and mode of clothing. Out of fifteen thousand Brāhmaṇas, there were some who were engaged in agricultural activities; some were devoted to Yajñas; some became wrestlers; and some chanters of the Vedas. Some pursued the study of Āyurveda (Medical Science); some became the performers of Yajña on behalf of washermen. Some regularly had their ablutions and prayers during the Sandhyās; some performed Yajñas on behalf of those who ferment indigo. Some were engaged in (Yācana seems to be a misprint for Yājana) performing Yajñas on behalf of thread-makers; and others of weavers etc. There is no doubt about this that at the advent of Kali, Brāhmaṇas will become fallen and depraved.

When Kali sets in, O king, there shall be division in the castes among Śūdras. They also shall be of depraved conduct and subject to the restrictions of castes. They will become abandoned by their own people in regard to eating together and raiment. They will never have contact, as none will marry their daughter.

291c-294a. O king, the Vaiśyas (Merchants) will become oil merchants in Kali Age. Some will be artisans while others will be dealers in rice; some will resort to Princes while others will be dependent on various castes. When it is the advent of Kali, many merchants will be depraved and fallen. Their codes of conduct will be separate, so too will be their relatives. Some of them took their residence in Sītāpura. Some settled at various places on the banks of Sābhramatī river.

294b-300. Those who went away from Sītāpura at first due to fear, those who had settled in Śrīkṣetra on the northern bank of Sābhramatī, went back to Sītāpura, when the Sthāna Sukhavāsaka was given to them for residence. On their return they were given the fifty-five villages by Rāma. In them were made the residences of the Moḍha Brāhmaṇas. Those Brāhmaṇas who were excluded from the assignment of means of livelihood, came and settled in Dharmāraṇya. They said, “We have nothing to do with the avocation of the merchants or the assignment of work in the village. But residence here appeals to us.” On being told thus, the excellent Traividya Brāhmaṇas permitted those Cāturvidya Brāhmaṇas to live in their villages.

The excellent Cāturvidya Brāhmaṇas looked after their own activities and were engaged in agricultural operations. They began to take out cows for grazing not far from Dharmāraṇya.

301-305. Many of those Brāhmaṇa boys became cowherds. The Cāturvidya children tended cows. In order to feed them, young maidens and child-widows brought them food and drink and entertained them. After a lapse of some time, O king, they began to love one another. The cowherds lovingly enjoyed the Brāhmaṇa girls and maidens. All of them were found out to be pregnant by the excellent Brāhmaṇas. They were rebuked and expelled from their houses on account of this sinful action. The children born illegitimately were variously called Kātībha, Golakas[8] and Dhenujas all over the earth.

306-309. Those Brāhmaṇas excluded from the assignment of means of livelihood, began begging for alms everyday. More may be heard, O king. Some among the Traividya Brāhmaṇas were lepers, some lame, some dull, some deaf, some one-eyed, some hunch-backed and some unable to speak. These people who could not get girls as brides came to the Cāturvidyas. Tempting them with a lot of money, their daughters were taken as brides. O king, the sons born out of these (forced marriages) became known all over the earth as Tridalajas.

310. These Brāhmaṇas born of these inter-caste relations and alliances, somehow continued to make their means of livelihood. Further more, O king, may be heard about these Traividya Brāhmaṇas.

311-313. All the Brāhmaṇas colluded together and offered the village given by Rāma for collection of taxes. They gave up half and preserved half. Those greedy Brāhmaṇas thought that this was an acquisition. Those who were in the Mahāsthāna (? highly placed) became surprised. One Brāhmaṇa among them who was extremely angry spoke these words:

The Brāhmaṇa said:

314-318. These people speak a lot of lies because they are excessively greedy. You are covetous and that will lead to the annihilation of your sons and grandsons. Poison is not the real poison. Brāhmaṇical property is (the real) poison. Poison can kill one alone, but Brāhmaṇical property kills sons and grandsons.

When the sons, wives, houses etc. are burnt on account of (ill-gotten) Brāhmaṇical property, they themselves cannot stand steady because they are assailed by what is called Brahmasva.

One who always dishonestly takes away from Brāhmaṇical property, never hopes to get heavenly pleasures.

Even if a Varāṭikā (cowrie) is to be taken away from Brāhmaṇas, the said thief falls in hell for three (successive) generations. The water libation offered by him is never accepted by the Manes (ancestors).

319-320. In the dark fortnight, they never accept his balls of rice and libations. He never gets progeny. If at all he gets, it does not survive. If somehow it survives, it shall be fallen and degraded into bad conduct.

The eleven Brāhmaṇas said:

321. O Brāhmaṇas, no lie has been uttered by us. Why do you find fault with us? Without (commitment of) a fault, harsh words are not proper.

322-326. On hearing this the merchant who bought over the village was called and asked by the Brāhmaṇas.

In frankness, he admitted to the Brāhmaṇas that the tax was offered by the merchants.

On knowing that (the property has been halved), the Brāhmaṇa boys became angry. The eleven Brāhmaṇas were excluded from the means of livelihood. They came to be known all over the three worlds as Ekādaśasamā Jñāti (Mere Eleven Kins). No one else has any alliance with them; no marriage relations at all. These Ekādaśasamas live outside the village. Thus there arose different castes and communities among Moḍha Brāhmaṇas in accordance with the turn of events in Kali Age and change of virtue or piety (Dharma).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Some terms herein are symbolic. The first term Caturakṣara implies ‘yajāmahe’. The second term Caturakṣara indicates the four syllables: astu śrauṣaṭ, Pañcākṣara the five-syllabled: ye yajāmahe, and dvyakṣara implies two syllables ‘yaja’ and ‘vauṣaṭ’, the last consonant -ṭ- not being a syllable.

These sentences are to be uttered by the Adhvaryu Priest in the course of performance of a sacrifice. Thus the line states: “They recited the Mantras followed by the four letters yajāmahe, also Mantras followed by the four letters ‘astu vauṣaṭ’, by two letters viz. ‘yaja’, by five syllables ‘ye yajāmahe’ and by two syllables ‘vauṣaṭ’.

[2]:

The original editor states that the list is not grammatically correct. He printed it as per MS before him.

[3]:

Though not supported in the text, the editor thinks that ‘Moheraka’ should have been mentioned as the first Sthāna.

[4]:

Probably Avari—Vṛvāprā (?) are two separate names. If so taken, the number eight (“three and five”) mentioned in the next verse (69b) becomes meaningful.

[5]:

Here the qualities of Brāhmaṇas of thirtieth and thirty-first Sthānas being the same, the same verses are repeated.

[6]:

This line (v 250a) should have followed v 249a and 249b should have been 250.

[7]:

No mention of the characteristics of Brāhmaṇas hereof is found.

[8]:

The editor notes: Hence some Golakas call themselves of (belonging to) the Govardhana caste.

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