Samsthana, Saṃsthāna: 28 definitions
Samsthana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Sansthan.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to “repository”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.12.—Accordingly, after Himācala (i.e., Himālaya) brought his daughter (Pārvatī) before Śiva: “Then Śiva looked at her in the first flush of her youth. Her complexion resembled the full blown blue lotus petals. Her face appeared as the full moon. Her auspicious dress and features were the repositories [i.e., saṃsthāna] of all graceful charms. Her neck had the shape of the conch-shell. Her eyes were wide and her ears shone exquisitely. On either side, her long-rounded arms resembling a lotus-stalk shone beautifully. [...]”.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—A region in India mentioned in the Purāṇas. Armies from this region protected Bhīṣma during the great war. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 51).Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. ) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Saṃsthāna) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)Source: krindology.com: Dignāga’s Critical Issues against the Sāṃkhya Definition of Perception (s)
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान, “arrangement”).—The Yuktidīpikā, the most significant commentary of Sāṃkhya, rejects adopting saṃsthāna to mean “form” by insisting that saṃsthāna is not employed to mean the state of having form (rūpatva). Other commentaries use the term saṃsthāna in the sense of “arrangement” rather than “form.” Even if the meaning of saṃsthāna connotes “form”, we can understand that saṃsthāna connotes “the form by means of arrangement” in such cases because the meaning of “arrangement” takes precedence over that of “form”.
Sāṃkhya commentary aapplied the term saṃsthāna to the theory of the three qualities (triguṇa) in the sense of “arrangement” rather than “form”. Even if it seems that “form” is employed as the meaning of saṃsthāna sometimes, the “form” is subject to “arrangement” of the three qualities in all respects.
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to the “ground”, according to the Mahānayaprakāśa verse 2.1-35, while explaining the cycles of the goddesses of consciousness.—Accordingly, “First comes the exposition the nature of the transmission of the sacred seat (pīṭhakrama), having bowed to it, the supreme secret and true seed of the tradition that comes from the mouth of the most excellent teachers. The ground (saṃsthāna) of the Pīṭhakrama, pleasing to the heart (hṛdayaṅgama), will now be explained in relation to the universe of living beings and (insentient) phenomena (bhāva)”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
1) Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to the “shape” or “size” (of the earth), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must know the Earth’s revolution round the sun and its rotation round its axis; its shape, size [i.e., saṃsthāna-ādi] and the like; [...]”.
2) Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to the “shape” (of the sun and planets), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. It treats of the motions of the sun and planets; of their size, color, rays, brilliancy and shape [i.e., saṃsthāna] and changes in the same of their disappearance and re-appearance; of their courses and deviations therefrom; of their retrograde and reretrograde motions; of their conjunction with the stars and of their places among the stars and the like”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to “design” (for the construction of a dwelling), according to the Mohacūrottara (verse 4.234-243).—Accordingly, [while describing the construction of the maṭha]—“[...] One should build the dwelling for ascetics with the same measurements and a good design (susaṃsthāna), [and] performing the veneration of the site (vāstupūjā), out of a desire to attain great merit. I will now describe to you this great merit in full. The reward gained from establishing a mobile image [i.e., an ascetic] in a maṭha is the same as the reward gained from establishing a fixed image in a temple. [...]”.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers the “standing” (in a lotus), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.17-25ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Sūrya]—“Now, I explain that which consists of light [i.e., Sūrya]. [...] [The Mantrin] is to worship Deva, the eight planets, in the middle of a second lotus, the Nakṣatras in a third, and the Lokapālas in a fourth. [The Mantrin] worships the eight weapons [of the Lokapālas which] stand in a fifth lotus (padmasaṃsthāna—pañcame padmasaṃsthāne). [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to “standing in a particular pose”, according to the Ṭīkā Pot Worship [i.e., Kalaśapūjā] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Oṃ Jambhanī, Stambhanī, Mohanī, and Ākarṣaṇī, All works (are) thus a success, by your power of infatuation, Standing in an archer’s pose (ālīḍhāsana-saṃsthāna), with a beautiful flaming crown, Ālī and Kālī united, Śrī Saṃvara, the supreme being”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to “appearances”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “Then five hundred widows, having departed from the city of Rājagṛha and proceeded to the place where the Bodhisatva Gaganagañja stayed, said this to him: ‘If you fulfill the wishes of all living beings, O Good man, please return our husbands’. Immediately after that, by the magical presence of the Bodhisatva Gaganagañja, five hundred men resembling their deceased husbands in colors, distinguishing marks, and appearances (saṃsthāna), having descended from the open space, settled down in front of the Bodhisatva Gaganagañja. [...]”.Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to a “place” (whose boundaries are sealed), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān teaches the offering manual of the root-heart] “[...] Thus there will be a sealing of the boundaries for eight months. There will be no Yakṣas, Bhūtas, Rākṣasas, Pretas, Kumbhāṇḍas and Guhyakas. No one can trespass that place (saṃsthāna). [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: krindology.com: Dignāga’s Critical Issues against the Sāṃkhya Definition of Perception
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—Dignāga’s criticism assumes that Sāṃkhya explains dissimilarity of the objects necessary for perception by the form (saṃsthāna) of the three qualities (triguṇa). [...] The question arises as to why Dignāga adopted “form” more specifically to mean saṃsthāna. We can find the reason within the Buddhist tradition of argument in this regard.
According to the Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣya, Vaibhāṣika asserts that saṃsthāna and varṇa (color) are real separately, while Sautrāntika refutes this. In this argument, Dignāga takes up criticism of the Sāṃkhya theory of perception by employing the same reasoning as that of the Sautrāntika’s refutation of Vaibhāṣika. [...] The Sāṃkhya realism explains why the constant single cause and its results are regarded as the same on the basis of the three qualities (triguṇa), and demonstrates the diversity of the results by saṃsthāna of the three qualities. When this Sāṃkhya idea has been targeted by Buddhist criticism, it seems plausible that critics recall the assertion of Vaibhāṣika first, since it intends to interpret some Buddhist doctrines
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to one of the four divisions of Dharmadhyāna (“meditation on the destruction of karma”), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly: “The destruction of karma is from good meditation, and that meditation is four-fold: on ājñā, apāya, vipāka, and saṃsthāna. [...]”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान, “shape”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.24.—“Sound (śabda), union (bandha), fineness (saukṣmya), grossness (sthaulya), shape (saṃsthāna), division (bheda), darkness (tamas or andhakāra), image (chāya or chāyā), warm light (sunshine) (ātapa) and cool light (moonlight) (udyota) also (are forms of matter)”.
How many types of shape (saṃsthāna) are there? It is of two types namely that which can be defined and the other which cannot be defined.What is meant by shape that can be defined? Shapes like triangle, circular, rectangular etc which can be defined. What is meant by shapes which cannot be defined? Shapes, like those of clouds, which keep on changing and impossible to be described /defined.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to “structure karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by structure (saṃsthāna) body-making (nāma) karma? The karmas rise of which causes the structure of the body accomplished are called structure body-making karma.
The structure (saṃsthāna) body-making karma is of six types namely:
- perfectly symmetrical body (samacaturasra),
- the upper part symmetrical alone (nyagrodhaparimaṃdala),
- the lower part alone symmetrical (svāti),
- dwarf (vāmana),
- hunchbacked body (kubjaka),
- deformed body (huṇḍaka).
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to the “structure (of the universe)”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “The structure of the universe (loka-saṃsthāna—lokasaṃsthānādividhiḥ) has been described already. The universe is in the midst of non-universe space which is endless. The contemplation of the nature of the universe develops true knowledge”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—n (S) A royal city or town. 2 A town or place favored by the occasional manifestations of any god, by the residence there of saints and sages, of learned doctors &c.: also a town appointed for the residence and made over for the maintenance of a god, saint &c.: also a seat of the occurrence or existence of any event or being considered as demanding religious commemoration, observance, veneration &c. 3 Revenue applied to the support of such places.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—n A royal city or town.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—1 A collection, heap, quantity.
2) The aggregation of primary atoms.
3) Configuration, position; आकृतिरवयवसंस्थानविशेषः (ākṛtiravayavasaṃsthānaviśeṣaḥ).
4) Form, figure, appearance, shape; स्त्रीसंस्थानं चाप्सरस्तीर्थमारादुत्क्षिप्यैनां ज्योतिरेकं जगाम (strīsaṃsthānaṃ cāpsarastīrthamārādutkṣipyaināṃ jyotirekaṃ jagāma) Ś.5.3; Manusmṛti 9.261; काचित् पुरुषवत् कृत्वा गतिं संस्था- नमेव च (kācit puruṣavat kṛtvā gatiṃ saṃsthā- nameva ca) Bu. Ch.4.42; Daśakumāracarita 2.3.
5) Construction, formation; यस्यावयवसंस्थानैः कल्पितो लोकविस्तरः (yasyāvayavasaṃsthānaiḥ kalpito lokavistaraḥ) Bhāgavata 1.3.3.
7) Common place of abode.
8) Situation, position.
9) Any place or station.
1) A place where four roads meet; संस्थानेषु च सर्वेषु पुरेषु नगरेषु च (saṃsthāneṣu ca sarveṣu pureṣu nagareṣu ca) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.69. 7.
11) A mark, sign, characteristic sign.
13) The business of upkeeping the Government; व्यवहारसंस्थानम् (vyavahārasaṃsthānam) Kau. A.2.7.
14) A part, division; षट्पदं नवसंस्थानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः (ṣaṭpadaṃ navasaṃsthānaṃ niveśaṃ cakrire dvijāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.64.1. (v. l.).
15) Beauty, splendour.
16) The system of disease. -a. Immovable (sthāvara); विज्ञातश्चासि लोकेषु त्रिषु संस्थानचारिषु (vijñātaścāsi lokeṣu triṣu saṃsthānacāriṣu) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.217.13. (com. saṃsthānacāriṣu sthāvarajaṅgameṣu).
Derivable forms: saṃsthānam (संस्थानम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Like, resembling. n.
(-naṃ) 1. Form, figure, shape. 2. Death, dying. 3. Fabrication, construction. 4. A place where four roads meet. 5. Any place. 6. A mark, a spot, a sign. 7. A heap, a quantity. 8. Primary formation, the aggrigation of the primitive atoms. 9. A vicinity, a neighbourhood, a common place of abode. 10. Configuration. 11. Position, (in Vedanta philosophy.) E. sam before ṣṭhā to stay or stand, aff. lyuṭ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—i. e. sam-sthā + ana, n. 1. A heap, a quantity. 2. The aggregation of the primitive atoms. 3. Position, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—[neuter] standing, staying or abiding in ([locative]); standing firm, duration, continuance; existence, being, life; dwelling-place, abode; public place in a city; shape, form, appearance; nature, character; conclusion, end.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Saṃsthāna (संस्थान):—[=saṃ-sthāna] [from saṃ-sthā] mfn. standing together, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
2) [v.s. ...] like, resembling, [Horace H. Wilson]
3) [v.s. ...] applied to Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]
4) [v.s. ...] m. ([plural]) Name of a people, [ib.]
5) [v.s. ...] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) staying or abiding in ([compound]), [Hitopadeśa] (cf. dūra-s)
6) [v.s. ...] n. standing still or firm (in a battle), [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]
7) [v.s. ...] being, existence, life, [Mahābhārata; Śaṃkarācārya; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
8) [v.s. ...] abiding by, strict adherence or obedience to ([compound]), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]
9) [v.s. ...] abode, dwelling-place, habitation, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.
10) [v.s. ...] a public place (in a town), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
11) [v.s. ...] shape, form, appearance (often with rūpa), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
12) [v.s. ...] beauty, splendour, [Mahābhārata]
13) [v.s. ...] the symptom of a disease, [Suśruta]
14) [v.s. ...] nature, state, condition, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
15) [v.s. ...] an aggregate, whole, totality, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
16) [v.s. ...] termination, conclusion, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]
17) [v.s. ...] end, death, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] formation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] vicinity, neighbourhood, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान):—[saṃ-sthāna] (naḥ) 1. m. Form; death; fabrication, mark; heap; vicinity; place where four roads meet; spot. a. Resembling.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) [Also spelled sansthan]:—(nm) an institute.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a standing together.
2) [noun] mutual dealings; an associating or being associated; association.
3) [noun] the shape, form or configuration of anything (diff. from the material it is made of, its colour, etc.).
4) [noun] the original or natural form or shape.
5) [noun] a place; district; neighborhood; locality.
6) [noun] nearness; proximity.
7) [noun] a place where two or more roads intersect or four or more roads join.
8) [noun] a place or building where a person normally lives; a house or habitat.
9) [noun] a part of a country, which has territorial boundary, and which usu. does not have the full status of a nation; a province; a state.
10) [noun] a large city or one of the principal cities of a state.
11) [noun] a building or residence or a monk or monks; a monastery.
12) [noun] the power or authority represented by a body of people politically organised under one government to rule a state, nation, etc.
13) [noun] a set of circumstances or attributes characterising a person or thing at a given time; state or condition.
14) [noun] manner of building, constructing or organising; structure.
15) [noun] the act of dying; the end of life; death.
16) [noun] (jain.) that which gives the shape to or decides the shape of. the body of a person.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Ends with (+1): Aksharasamsthana, Anekasamsthana, Arthasamsthana, Asamsthana, Bhargavasamsthana, Caturasrasusamsthana, Dharmasamsthana, Durasamsthana, Humdasamsthana, Kacchapasamsthana, Kubjakasamsthana, Lokasamsthana, Padmasamsthana, Pratisamsthana, Samasamsthana, Saptasamsthana, Sarvasamsthana, Strisamsthana, Susamsthana, Upasamsthana.
Full-text (+42): Aksharasamsthana, Samsthanika, Arthasamsthana, Asamsthana, Durasamsthana, Samsthanacarin, Samsthanavat, Samsthanabhukti, Pratisamsthana, Samsthani, Sasthasnucarin, Samsthanaka, Samvasthana, Saptasamsthana, Samvasthapana, Samcitthana, Sarvasamsthana, Salajya, Anekasamsthana, Susamsthana.
Search found 24 books and stories containing Samsthana, Saṃsthāna, Sam-sthana, Saṃ-sthāna; (plurals include: Samsthanas, Saṃsthānas, sthanas, sthānas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 5.24 - The modes of the matter (pudgala-paryāya) < [Chapter 5 - The Non-living Substances]
Verse 8.11 - The subdivisions of physique-making or name-karma (nāma) < [Chapter 8 - Bondage of Karmas]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Tattva 4: Pāpa (sin) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Tattva 3: Puṇya (merit) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Part 15: Sermon on dharmadhyāna < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)
Verse 2.1.231 < [Chapter 1 - The Beginning of the Lord’s Manifestation and His Instructions on Kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana]
Verse 2.7.66 < [Chapter 7 - The Meeting of Gadādhara and Puṇḍarīka]
Verse 2.1.209 < [Chapter 1 - The Beginning of the Lord’s Manifestation and His Instructions on Kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana]
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
IV. Results of the Nine Notions < [Part 1 - The nine notions according to the Abhidharma]
Eighth comparison or upamāna: A shadow (chāyā) < [Bodhisattva quality 19: the ten upamānas]
I.1. Definition of generosity (dāna) < [I. Puṇyakriyāvastu consisting of generosity]
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)