Samsthana, Saṃsthāna: 13 definitions


Samsthana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samsthana in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—A region in India mentioned in the Purāṇas. Armies from this region protected Bhīṣma during the great war. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 51).

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. ) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Saṃsthāna) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samsthana in Samkhya glossary
Source: Dignāga’s Critical Issues against the Sāṃkhya Definition of Perception (s)

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान, “arrangement”).—The Yuktidīpikā, the most significant commentary of Sāṃkhya, rejects adopting saṃsthāna to mean “form” by insisting that saṃsthāna is not employed to mean the state of having form (rūpatva). Other commentaries use the term saṃsthāna in the sense of “arrangement” rather than “form.” Even if the meaning of saṃsthāna connotes “form”, we can understand that saṃsthāna connotes “the form by means of arrangement” in such cases because the meaning of “arrangement” takes precedence over that of “form”.

Sāṃkhya commentary aapplied the term saṃsthāna to the theory of the three qualities (triguṇa) in the sense of “arrangement” rather than “form”. Even if it seems that “form” is employed as the meaning of saṃsthāna sometimes, the “form” is subject to “arrangement” of the three qualities in all respects.

context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samsthana in Buddhism glossary
Source: Dignāga’s Critical Issues against the Sāṃkhya Definition of Perception

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—Dignāga’s criticism assumes that Sāṃkhya explains dissimilarity of the objects necessary for perception by the form (saṃsthāna) of the three qualities (triguṇa). [...] The question arises as to why Dignāga adopted “form” more specifically to mean saṃsthāna. We can find the reason within the Buddhist tradition of argument in this regard.

According to the Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣya, Vaibhāṣika asserts that saṃsthāna and varṇa (color) are real separately, while Sautrāntika refutes this. In this argument, Dignāga takes up criticism of the Sāṃkhya theory of perception by employing the same reasoning as that of the Sautrāntika’s refutation of Vaibhāṣika. [...] The Sāṃkhya realism explains why the constant single cause and its results are regarded as the same on the basis of the three qualities (triguṇa), and demonstrates the diversity of the results by saṃsthāna of the three qualities. When this Sāṃkhya idea has been targeted by Buddhist criticism, it seems plausible that critics recall the assertion of Vaibhāṣika first, since it intends to interpret some Buddhist doctrines

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samsthana in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान, “shape”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.24.—“Sound (śabda), union (bandha), fineness (saukṣmya), grossness (sthaulya), shape (saṃsthāna), division (bheda), darkness (tamas or andhakāra), image (chāya or chāyā), warm light (sunshine) (ātapa) and cool light (moonlight) (udyota) also (are forms of matter)”.

How many types of shape (saṃsthāna) are there? It is of two types namely that which can be defined and the other which cannot be defined.What is meant by shape that can be defined? Shapes like triangle, circular, rectangular etc which can be defined. What is meant by shapes which cannot be defined? Shapes, like those of clouds, which keep on changing and impossible to be described /defined.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान) refers to “structure karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by structure (saṃsthāna) body-making (nāma) karma? The karmas rise of which causes the structure of the body accomplished are called structure body-making karma.

The structure (saṃsthāna) body-making karma is of six types namely:

  1. perfectly symmetrical body (samacaturasra),
  2. the upper part symmetrical alone (nyagrodhaparimaṃdala),
  3. the lower part alone symmetrical (svāti),
  4. dwarf (vāmana),
  5. hunchbacked body (kubjaka),
  6. deformed body (huṇḍaka). 
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samsthana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—n (S) A royal city or town. 2 A town or place favored by the occasional manifestations of any god, by the residence there of saints and sages, of learned doctors &c.: also a town appointed for the residence and made over for the maintenance of a god, saint &c.: also a seat of the occurrence or existence of any event or being considered as demanding religious commemoration, observance, veneration &c. 3 Revenue applied to the support of such places.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—n A royal city or town.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samsthana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—1 A collection, heap, quantity.

2) The aggregation of primary atoms.

3) Configuration, position; आकृतिरवयवसंस्थानविशेषः (ākṛtiravayavasaṃsthānaviśeṣaḥ).

4) Form, figure, appearance, shape; स्त्रीसंस्थानं चाप्सरस्तीर्थमारादुत्क्षिप्यैनां ज्योतिरेकं जगाम (strīsaṃsthānaṃ cāpsarastīrthamārādutkṣipyaināṃ jyotirekaṃ jagāma) Ś.5.3; Ms.9.261; काचित् पुरुषवत् कृत्वा गतिं संस्था- नमेव च (kācit puruṣavat kṛtvā gatiṃ saṃsthā- nameva ca) Bu. Ch.4.42; Dk.2.3.

5) Construction, formation; यस्यावयवसंस्थानैः कल्पितो लोकविस्तरः (yasyāvayavasaṃsthānaiḥ kalpito lokavistaraḥ) Bhāg.1.3.3.

6) Vicinity.

7) Common place of abode.

8) Situation, position.

9) Any place or station.

1) A place where four roads meet; संस्थानेषु च सर्वेषु पुरेषु नगरेषु च (saṃsthāneṣu ca sarveṣu pureṣu nagareṣu ca) Mb.12.69. 7.

11) A mark, sign, characteristic sign.

12) Death.

13) The business of upkeeping the Government; व्यवहारसंस्थानम् (vyavahārasaṃsthānam) Kau. A.2.7.

14) A part, division; षट्पदं नवसंस्थानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः (ṣaṭpadaṃ navasaṃsthānaṃ niveśaṃ cakrire dvijāḥ) Mb.14.64.1. (v. l.).

15) Beauty, splendour.

16) The system of disease. -a. Immovable (sthāvara); विज्ञातश्चासि लोकेषु त्रिषु संस्थानचारिषु (vijñātaścāsi lokeṣu triṣu saṃsthānacāriṣu) Mb.3.217.13. (com. saṃsthānacāriṣu sthāvarajaṅgameṣu).

Derivable forms: saṃsthānam (संस्थानम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Like, resembling. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Form, figure, shape. 2. Death, dying. 3. Fabrication, construction. 4. A place where four roads meet. 5. Any place. 6. A mark, a spot, a sign. 7. A heap, a quantity. 8. Primary formation, the aggrigation of the primitive atoms. 9. A vicinity, a neighbourhood, a common place of abode. 10. Configuration. 11. Position, (in Vedanta philosophy.) E. sam before ṣṭhā to stay or stand, aff. lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—i. e. sam-sthā + ana, n. 1. A heap, a quantity. 2. The aggregation of the primitive atoms. 3. Position, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 17; form, figure, shape, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 126. 4. Fabrication, construction. 5. A vicinity. 6. Standing, being, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 90 (but cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 59). 7. A common place of abode. 8. A place where four roads meet, an open place(?), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 65, 32, Seramp. 9. Any place, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 371; a station, 9, 261. 10. A mark, a spot, a sign. 11. Death.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃsthāna (संस्थान).—[neuter] standing, staying or abiding in ([locative]); standing firm, duration, continuance; existence, being, life; dwelling-place, abode; public place in a city; shape, form, appearance; nature, character; conclusion, end.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃsthāna (संस्थान):—[=saṃ-sthāna] [from saṃ-sthā] mfn. standing together, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

2) [v.s. ...] like, resembling, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] applied to Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] m. ([plural]) Name of a people, [ib.]

5) [v.s. ...] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) staying or abiding in ([compound]), [Hitopadeśa] (cf. dūra-s)

6) [v.s. ...] n. standing still or firm (in a battle), [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

7) [v.s. ...] being, existence, life, [Mahābhārata; Śaṃkarācārya; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] abiding by, strict adherence or obedience to ([compound]), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

9) [v.s. ...] abode, dwelling-place, habitation, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] a public place (in a town), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] shape, form, appearance (often with rūpa), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] beauty, splendour, [Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] the symptom of a disease, [Suśruta]

14) [v.s. ...] nature, state, condition, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

15) [v.s. ...] an aggregate, whole, totality, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] termination, conclusion, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]

17) [v.s. ...] end, death, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] formation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] vicinity, neighbourhood, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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