Patra, Pātra: 45 definitions


Patra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

The Danseuse, or Actress (pātra).—It is understood that the Danseuse (nartakī) should be very lovely, young, with full round breasts, self-confident, charming, agreeable, dexterous in handling the critical passages, skilled in steps and rhythms, quite at home on the stage, expert in posing hands and body, graceful in gesture, with wide-open eyes, able to follow song and instruments and rhythm, adorned with costly jewels, with a charming lotus-face, neither very stout nor very thin, nor very tall nor very short.

Disqualifications of a Danseuse.—The Danseuse (veśya) should be rejected, whose eyes are (pale) like a flower, whose hair is scanty, whose lips are thick, or breasts pendant, who is very stout or very thin, or very tall or very short, who is humpbacked, or has not a good voice.

Source: Natya Shastra

Pātra (पात्र, “actor”).—Qualities of an actor (pātra);—Intelligence, strength, physical beauty, knowledge of time and tempo, appreciation of the psychological states (bhāva) and the sentiments (rasa), proper age, curiosity, acquisition of knowledge and arts, their retention, vocal music prompted by dance, suppression of stage-fright, and enthusiasm, will be the requisite qualities of an actor (pātra).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Pātra (पात्र, ‘bowl’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

Pātra (Bowl) - In the hands of a Rishi or the Buddha it symbolizes the begging bowl and the idea of generosity. In the hands of the wrathful deities it is a skull bowl filled with blood which symbolizes the achievement of higher states of consciousness through the elimination of the lower mind and notion of self.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Pātra (पात्र) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “copper vessel” and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature, such as the Rasaśāstra (Medicinal Alchemy).

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Patra (पत्र) refers to the “leaves” of a tree or plant, as mentioned in a list of seven synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Patra] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Patra (पत्र) refers to “leaf” (part of a plant) and represents a type of vegetable (śāka) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Śāka-prakaraṇa deals with all types of vegetables. Here vegetables are classified into different plant parts [like leaf ( patra), etc.]. Each of these classification have so many varieties. This prakaraṇa is devoted to explain these varieties and their properties in detail.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Patra (पत्र) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Ebern.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning patra] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Patra (पत्र) or “leaf” refers to one of the ten sources of plant poison, as described in the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kaśyapa states in the fourth Adhyāya that Śiva taught him that poisons are of five kinds viz. immobile, mobile, artificial, caused by planets and (arising out of) doubt. The sources of plant poison, ten in number are [viz. leaf (patra)]. The speed in which they spread too are varied (KS. XII.66):

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Patra (पत्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “cinnamon tree”, a species of aromatic tree from the Lauraceae (laurel) family of flowering plants. It is also known as Tējapattā in the Hindi language. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Cinnamommum tamala (synonyms: Cinnamomum albiflorum, Cinnamomum cassia) and is commonly known in English as “Indian bay leaf”, “Malabar leaf” or “Indian bark” among many others.

2) Pātra (पात्र, “container”) is the Sanskrit word for a synonym of Āḍhaka, which is a weight unit used throughout Ayurvedic literature. It equals about 2.56 kilograms.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Patra (पत्र):—Leaf

2) Pātra (पात्र):—1. A unit of Measurement; Synonym of one adhak = 3. 073 g of metric units 2. vessel

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Pātra (पात्र) refers to “one who deserves”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15.—“[...] the word pātra (one who deserves) means one who protects the giver from downfall. The word Gāyatrī means that which saves the reciter from downfall. Only a person of purified soul can save others, just as only a rich man can donate anything to others. A man of no means cannot give anything to others in this world. Only he who has purified himself by means of Gāyatrī Japa can be called a pure Brahmin. He alone deserves the position of presiding over all holy rites, Dāna Japa, Homa, Pūjā etc. He alone can save others. Any hungry man or woman deserves charitable gifts of cooked food”.

2) Patra (पत्र) refers to the “petals” (of a lotus), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.12.—Accordingly, after Himācala (i.e., Himālaya) brought his daughter (Pārvatī) before Śiva: “Then Śiva looked at her in the first flush of her youth. Her complexion resembled the full blown blue lotus petals [i.e., phulla-indīvara-patra-ābhā]. Her face appeared as the full moon. Her auspicious dress and features were the repositories of all graceful charms. Her neck had the shape of the conch-shell. Her eyes were wide and her ears shone exquisitely. On either side, her long-rounded arms resembling a lotus-stalk shone beautifully. [...]”.

3) Patra (पत्र) refers to “letters (of invitation)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.34 (“The Story of Anaraṇya”).—Accordingly, as Vasiṣṭha said to Himavat (Himācala): “The king Anaraṇya hailed from the race of the fourteenth Manu Indrasāvarṇi. [...] O Himavat, hundred sons were born to him and a beautiful daughter Padmā who was equal to Lakṣmī. [...] The girl entered the prime of her youth in her father’s palace. The king issued letters of invitation (patra) for the requisition of good bridegrooms. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Patra (पत्र).—(likhitam) written message sent by Rukmiṇī to Kṛṣṇa; text of the letter.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 36 [1 and 2]; 37-43.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Pātra (पात्र, “circumstance”) refers to one of the six factors through which positive ethical precepts (regarding Dharma) are conditioned. The discerning student is required to distinguish between grades of vidhi or to compare their levels of authority or applicability. The primary distinction is derived from their motivation and goals, thus producing the concepts of puruṣārtha and kratvārtha.

Mimamsa book cover
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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Patra (पत्र) refers to 1) a “leaf”, 2) a “challenge” (in ‘patraṃ dadāti’, to challenge to a controversy, same as ‘patrālambanaṃ karoti’), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 7.93; 10.82; 14.66.—Patras refers to “challenges delivered by scholars in writing to rival Paṇḍitas”. [...] It will be seen that Patras or Patrālambas were often delivered at royal courts where disputations of rival Paṇḍitas usually took place. [...] Strictly speaking, patra is a written declaration delivered to a rival asserting one’s own superiority over him hence “to give a patra” means “challenge”.— Cf. Vidyādhara in his gloss on 7.93.

The word [patra] occurs more than once in the Naiṣadha, and both meanings “leaf” and “challenge” are employed, e.g. in 7.93; in 10.82; in 14.66 (the expression means “to challenge”, hence “to surpass”). The expression is extremely rare in the earlier poets. It is used in Bṛhatkathāmañjarī 9.1.664; in Moharājaparājaya 3.57; and in Abhayadeva’s Jayantavijaya 1.52. Cf. also Tilakamañjarī.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Pātra (पात्र) refers to a “vessel”, according to Abhinava’s Tantrāloka verse 6.2-4.—Accordingly, “The places are said to be of three kinds: in the vital breath, in the body and outside (the body). The breath is five-fold in the body. (Thus, place) is of two kinds, according to whether it is outside (the body) or within (it). The external (places) are the maṇḍala, the sacrificial ground (sthaṇḍila), the (sacrificial) vessel (pātra), the rosary (akṣasūtra), the book (pustaka), the Liṅga, the skull (tūra), the cloth (paṭa), the image (made of papier-mâché) (pusta), the idol (pratimā), and the divine effigy (mūrti). Thus the outer (place) is of eleven kinds (each which are of) countless varieties. ”.

2) Pātra (पात्र) refers to a “cup”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “The auspicious Uḍumaṅgalyā in the west has six faces and eight arms and is auspicious. She is beautiful, her hair is dishevelled and she is adorned with all the ornaments. She holds an ascetic’s staff, a javelin, a cup (pātra) and double-headed drum in her right hands, (and) a skull, a bow and sword along with a severed head in the left. She sits on a ghost and, when worshipped, she destroys the enemy”.

Source: Google Books: Consecration Rituals in South Asia (Shaktism)

Pātra (पात्र) or Arghapātra refers to the “water-vessel” (for offering of water), according to the Ratnanyāsa Ritual as Described in the Devyāmata (Cf. Dīptāgama verse 20.244).—Accordingly, [synopsis of verses 1-5]—“Offering of water (argha) from the water-vessel (argha-pātra); purification of the ‘jewel-cavities’ by sprinkling the pit with the astramantra and ‘Śiva-water’; covering the pit and the surface of the brahmaśilā with cloth; placing the darbha-grass on [or around] the pit; anointing the pit and the brahmaśilā with sandal-paste 5. Having offered incense, the Ācārya accompanied by the mūrtipās should begin the ratnanyāsa by depositing a handful of gold. [...]”.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (shaktism)

Pātra (पात्र) refers to a “bowl”, according to the 17th century Kaulagajamardana (“crushing the Kaula elephant”) authored by Kāśīnātha or Kṛṣṇānandācala.—Accordingly, [as Īśvara said to Pārvatī]: “[...] [Now,] my dear, hear about the Kāpālika. He eats from a skull bowl (pātra) and is addicted to wine and flesh; he neglects the disciplines of purification and he is adorned with a bald head and Mālās; he eats from the fires of the cremation ground; he alone is a Kāpālika, he never does [the proper] repetition of Mantras, nor ascetic practices nor [follows] the rules of personal restraint. He is without such [rituals] as bathing and ceremonies for donation. [Thus,] he is proclaimed a Pāṣānḍa. [...]”

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Patra (पत्र) refers to the “plume” (of a peacock), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the solar disc should be crossed by the rainbow the princes of the land will be at war with one another. If in winter the disc be clear there will be immediate rain. If in Varṣā the colour of the sun be that of the flower Śirīṣa [i.e., śirīṣapuṣpa] there will be immediate rain; if the colour be that of the peacock’s plume [i.e., śikhin-patra-nibha] there will be no rain for twelve years to come”.

2) Patra (पत्र) refers to the “leaves of Cinnamon”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Venus also presides over simple silk, coloured silk, wollen cloth, white silk, Rodhra, Patra, Coca, nutmeg, Agaru, Vacā, Pippalī and sandal”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Pātra (पात्र) refers to the “bowl” (of one’s Guru) , according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “After this, O Śivā, hear the exposition of the Kula Conduct. After he has joined the tradition of the Siddhas, he should worship his guru as divine. The Yogin who is engaged in the worship of his guru can obtain the highest Power. The guru’s bedstead, his bedding, clothes, ornaments, sandals, parasol, antilope-skin, bowl (pātra) or anything else: if he touches any of these with his feet, he should place them on his head and recite [mantras] eight times. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Patra (पत्र) refers to the “petals (of a lotus)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“Now, at this moment, I will tell the highest-most teaching to be worshipped with this mantra, for the sake of peace from all calamities, resulting in the fruits of all Siddhis. [He worships] Deva as Tumburu in the middle of an eight petaled lotus (aṣṭan-patraaṣṭapatre kuśeśaye), in the maṇḍala, [starting] in the East, O Devī. [The Sādhaka] honors the Lord who is ten-armed, five-faced, and three eyed, with the form and faces like Sadāśiva. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Patra (पत्र) is a synonym for Vāja—a class of Yellow-eyed Hawks (known as the Pāṭalākṣa division), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the yellow-eyed division of hawks]: “As Patra, Vāja and Chada are synonymous words, all birds have a common name Vāja. Just as, though Aśvathāmā, Karṇa, Bhīṣma, Pārtha and Rukmī could all draw the bow with their left hand, Pārtha alone was called ‘the drawer of the bow, with the left hand’ for his pre-eminence, so, though all birds are Vāja (winged), the hawks specially are called Vāja”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Pātra (पात्र) refers to a “bowl”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 21).—Accordingly, “If the immoral man takes the monastic robes, these are like burning brass for him, like an iron ring around his body; his alms bowl (pātra) is like a jar (bhājana) filled with melted copper; when he takes his food, it is as if he were swallowing balls of burning iron or drinking boiling brass; the people paying homage to him with their offerings are like the guardians of hell watching over him; when he enters the monastery, it is as though he were entering the great hell; when he sits on the monastic benches, it is as if he were taking his place on a bed of burning iron”.

2) Patra (पत्र) [=pattra?] refers to a “page”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 19).—The comparison of action to a contract, a debt, is used by the Sāmmitīyas to illustrate their doctrine on the ‘non-cessation’ (avipraṇāśa) of actions; cf. Madh. vṛtti, p. 317–318: “When action arises, it engenders a non-cessation (avipraṇaśa) of itself in the series of the agent, an entity dissociated from the mind and comparable to the page on which debts (ṛṇa-pattra [ṛṇa-patra?]) are recorded. Therefore we know that the avipraṇaśa is like the page and the action giving rise to this entity called avipranaśa is like the debt. [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Patra (पत्र) or Patrasaṃdhāraṇī refers to the “(protection of) leaves” as occurring in the Heart-mantra (hṛdayamantra) taught to Vajrapāṇi, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Pātra (पात्र) refers to a “pot” (i.e., one of the attributes held in the hands of a deity), according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...]  [He (The Causal Vajra-holder)] stands in the ālīḍha posture with the feet placed on both Hara and Gaurī [He holds] (1) a vajra and (2) a bell, (3)(4) an elephant’s skin, (5) a drum, (6) a knife, (7) an axe, (8) a trident, (9) a skull staff, (10) a pot (pātra), (11) a noose, and (12) a hairless head in the left and right [hands]. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Patra (पत्र, “leaf”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Patra and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Jainism)

Pātra (पात्र) refers to a “bowl (of oil)”, according to the Līlāvatīsāra which was written by the thirteenth-century Jain poet, Jinaratna.—Accordingly, his retelling contains the phrase, [ūrdhvamuṣṭir adhodṛṣṭiḥ (3.257c)], which describes Vatsarāja at the moment before he shoots the arrow. Vatsarāja’s fist is raised up above his head because he must point the bow up to a target above himself, and his gaze is directed down because he must sight the target by gazing at its reflection in a bowl of oil (taila-pātra) on the ground. A doll called Rādhā is the target and she is placed in the middle of a rotating wheel which is suspended atop a high pillar. One can infer that the “piercing is upward” because Vatsarāja's arrow strikes her from below.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Pātra indicated an officer of the ministerial rank.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Patra.—(CITD), a letter or document; a note; a written paper or deed. (LP), a bond. Cf. tāmra-patra. Note: patra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pātra.—(IE 8-3; EI 28, 29; BL), a minister; cf. Mahāpuro- hita-ṭhakkura, Paṇḍita, Upādhyāya, Karaṇa-kāyastha, etc., men- tioned as Pātra probably meaning ‘a courtier.’ See Ekapātra and Mahāpātra. Note: pātra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pātra.—probably, a document (patra). See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 169. (EI 9), a donee. Cf. Pātrapati. Note: pātra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Mandala Texts: Parzo: Wood Carving

Patra (པ་ཏྲ་) or Parzo refers to the Bhutanese tradition of wood carving.—The patra carving is seen the production of books, images, artchitectual designs, furniture and many other wooden artefacts. Professional carvers known as parps (སྤརཔ་) usually practice the trade of carving on wood for various purposes. It is one of the 13 arts and crafts, which were promoted by the state since the 17th century. [...] The wood which are used for carving include blue pine, walnut, cypress, maple and champ and a wide range of knives and chisels are used by the carver. Soft wood such as blue pine is preferred by carvers for easy carving but the hard woods such as champ and walnut are more durable.

Wood carvings (patra) are an important part of a traditional Bhutanese architectural designs. Pillars in the temples and dzongs and railings for a balcony often have intricate carvings either made in them or attached to them. Texts in Lantsha script are often carved on temple structures and many motifs and symbols are carved on the pillars and beams. The main pillars in the temples and dzongs are heavily laden with carvings showing many auspicious symbols and designs. Even for a fairly simple building, the traditional window structures always contain pema (པདྨ་) and chotse (ཆོས་བརྩེགས་) designs, and the zhu (གཞུ་) and tshegye (ཚེ་རྒྱས་) structures, which are manually carved by the carpentars.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Patra in India is the name of a plant defined with Cinnamomum iners in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cinnamomum iners Wall. (among others).

2) Patra is also identified with Cinnamomum tamala It has the synonym Cinnamomum tamala T. Nees & Eberm. (etc.).

3) Patra is also identified with Cinnamomum verum It has the synonym Camphora mauritiana Lukman. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië (1826)
· Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club (1892)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië (1826)
· Handbuch der medicinisch-pharmaceutischen Botanik (1831)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Patra, for example health benefits, pregnancy safety, side effects, diet and recipes, chemical composition, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

patra (पत्र).—n (S) A letter, note, epistle: also a written paper or deed. 2 A leaf. 3 A petal of a flower. 4 A leaf of a book. 5 Any thin sheet or plate of metal. 6 Applied sometimes to metal-foil. 7 patra in the general sense of Letter, writing, bill, deed, is assumed into composition with a multitude of words quite regardlessly of elegance or of purity; as ābarūpatra, kamajyāstapatra, karārapatra, kumaka- patra, gāhaṇapatra, jāmīnapatra, ṭharāvapatra, dākhalēpatra, pāha- ṇīpatra, bhalāvaṇapatra, mukhatyārapatra, lāvaṇīpatra, vakīla- patra, vasūlabākīpatra, vārīsapatra, śiphārīsapatra, śētavāra- patra &c. Of such only the best established or those demanding explanation appear in order. All however are fast acquiring classical repute, and others are daily rising into being. patradarśanīṃ At sight of the letter; immediately on receipt. patradvārā By means of a letter; through epistolary communication.

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patrā (पत्रा).—m (patra) A thin plate, leaf, or sheet (of metal &c.)

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pātra (पात्र).—n (S) A vessel in general; a plate, dish, basin, bowl, cup, jug, mug, jar. 2 A receptacle literally, as a socket, cup, stand, pedestal, base: also a recipient or subject figuratively (as of gifts, blessings, curses): a mine, an ocean, a fund &c. in figurative senses (as of virtues, excellencies, vices). 3 The channel or bed of a river. 4 S In the drama. A disguise, a part, an assumed character. 5 In comp. Worthy, deserving, fit, eligible, suitable, i. e. the proper vessel or recipient of, the object of. In this sense of OBJECT the following valuable words, as they will not, nor will any similar, occur in order, should be well studied. Ex. praśaṃsāpātra, nindāpātra, kṣamāpātra, dayāpātra, kṣōbhapātra, dānapātra, prītipātra, mōhapātra. pātra nācaviṇēṃ To make dishes dance; to live prodigally and riotously. pātrānta rākha kālaviṇēṃ (To mingle ashes with one's bread.) To mar or damage the livelihood or subsistence of. pātrāvarūna uṭhaviṇēṃ To deprive (a person) of his means of living. pātrīṃ basaṇēṃ To sit down to the dishes; to sit at meat. pātrēṃ pujaṇēṃ To offer but little food on the dishes. pātrēṃ vāḍhaṇēṃ To lay the dishes for a meal. Hence fig. To set in order and preparation for; to lay out the apparatus and make all ready.

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pātrā (पात्रा).—f (pātra S) A dancing girl; a courtesan or prostitute.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

patra (पत्र).—n A letter, note, epistle. A written paper or deed. A leaf. A petal of a flower. A leaf of a book. Any thin sheet or plate of metal. Appli- ed sometimes to metal-foil. In comp. generally Letter writing, bill, deed, as ābarupatra karārapatra &c.

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patrā (पत्रा).—m A thin plate, leaf, or sheet (of metal &c.).

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pātra (पात्र).—n A vessel. Dish. Bowl. A rece- ptacle. A recipient. The channel or bed of a river. A disguise, an assumed character. In comp. Worthy, deserv- ing. pātrānta rākha kālavaṇēṃ To mar or damage the livelihood or subsistence of. pātrāvarūna uṭhaviṇēṃ To deprive (a person) of his means of living. pātrīṃ basaṇēṃ To sit down to the dishes; to sit at meal. pātrēṃ pujaṇēṃ To offer but little food on the dishes. pātrēṃ vāḍhaṇēṃ To lay the dishes for a meal. Fig. To set in order and preparation for; to lay out the appa- ratus and make all ready.

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pātrā (पात्रा).—f pātra n A dancing girl; a courtesan or prostitute.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Patra (पत्र).—[pat-ṣṭran]

1) A leaf (of a tree); पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति (patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyaṃ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 9.26; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् (dhatte bharaṃ kusumapatraphalāvalīnām) Bv.1. 94.

2) The leaf of a flower, lotus &c.; नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया (nīlotpalapatradhārayā) Ś.1.18.

3) A leaf for writing upon, a paper, a leaf written upon; सुरवरतरुशाखा लेखनी पत्रमुर्वी (suravarataruśākhā lekhanī patramurvī) Mahimna 32. पत्रमारोप्य दीयताम् (patramāropya dīyatām) Ś.6. 'commit to writing', V.2.14.

4) A letter, document; विवादेऽन्विष्यते पत्रं पत्राभावे तु साक्षिणः (vivāde'nviṣyate patraṃ patrābhāve tu sākṣiṇaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.43.

5) A challenge; आत्मनः पूजाख्यात्यर्थं गुणोत्कर्ष- प्रतिपादको लेखो यद्विपक्षोपरि दीयते तत्पत्रम् (ātmanaḥ pūjākhyātyarthaṃ guṇotkarṣa- pratipādako lekho yadvipakṣopari dīyate tatpatram) N.7.93; विद्याधर (vidyādhara) com.

6) Any thin leaf or plate of metal, a goldleaf.

7) The wing of a bird, a pinion, feather of an arrow; यावद्वा मक्षिकायाः पत्रम् (yāvadvā makṣikāyāḥ patram) Bṛ. Up.3.3.2; R.2.31; सद्यः प्रवालोद्गमचारुपत्रे नीते समाप्तिं नवचूतबाणे (sadyaḥ pravālodgamacārupatre nīte samāptiṃ navacūtabāṇe) Kumārasambhava 3.27.

8) A vehicle in general (car, horse, camel &c.); दिशः पपात पत्रेण वेगनिष्कम्पकेतुना (diśaḥ papāta patreṇa veganiṣkampaketunā) R.15.84; N.3.16; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12. 67.25; Śiśupālavadha 12.2.

9) Painting the person (particularly the face) with musk, sandal-juice or other fragrant substances; रचय कुचयोः पत्रं चित्रं कुरुष्व कपोलयोः (racaya kucayoḥ patraṃ citraṃ kuruṣva kapolayoḥ) Gītagovinda 12; R.13.55.

1) The blade of a sword, knife &c.

11) A knife, dagger.

Derivable forms: patram (पत्रम्).

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Pātra (पात्र).—[pāti rakṣatyādheyaṃ, pibatyanena vā pā-ṣṭran Tv.]

1) A drinking-vessel, cup, jar.

2) A vessel or pot in general; पात्रे निधायार्घ्यम् (pātre nidhāyārghyam) R.5.2,12; any sacrificial vessel or utensil.

3) A receptacle of any kind, recipient; दैन्यस्य पात्रतामेति (dainyasya pātratāmeti) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.11.

4) A reservoir.

5) A fit or worthy person, a person fit or worthy to receive gifts; वित्तस्य पात्रे व्ययः (vittasya pātre vyayaḥ) Bhartṛhari 2.82; अदेशकाले यद् दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते (adeśakāle yad dānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 17.22; Y.1.21; R.11.86.

6) An actor, a dramatis persona; तत् प्रतिपात्रमाधीयतां यत्नः (tat pratipātramādhīyatāṃ yatnaḥ) Ś.1; उच्यतां पात्रवर्गः (ucyatāṃ pātravargaḥ) V.1. dramatis personae.

7) A king's minister.

8) The channel or bed of a river. सुरस्रवन्त्या इव पात्रमागतम् (surasravantyā iva pātramāgatam) N.16.11;15.86.

9) Fitness, propriety.

1) An order, command.

11) A leaf.

-traḥ 1 A kind of measure (āḍhaka).

2) A preservative from sin.

-trī 1 A vessel, plate, dish; भुञ्जन्ते रुक्मपात्रीभिर्यत्राहं परिचारिका (bhuñjante rukmapātrībhiryatrāhaṃ paricārikā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.3. 13;233.49.

2) A small furnace.

3) Name of Durgā.

Derivable forms: pātram (पात्रम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pātra (पात्र).—regularly nt., (1) with masc. forms, in Sanskrit meaning bowl: caturi pātrāṃ, acc. pl., Lalitavistara 185.8 (verse); tenemi pātrāś (acc. pl.) caturaḥ…dadanti 385.7 (verse; in prec. line pātrāṇi); (2) = Sanskrit yāna-pātra, ship (compare Eng. vessel in same meaning; not recorded elsewhere), in siddha-pātra, with successful ship (after a voyage): Mahāvastu iii.287.8; 288.15; 298.17; v.l. each time siddha-yānapātra, which is read in text with both mss. iii.286.17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patra (पत्र) or Pattra.—n.

(-traṃ) 1. A leaf. 2. A vehicle in general; as a car, a horse, a camel, &c. 3. The wing of a bird. 4. The feather of an arrow. 5. The leaf of the Laurus cassia. 6. The leaf of a book. 7. Gold leaf, &c. any thin sheet or plate of metal. 8. A letter. 9. The blade of a weapon. 10. Painting the person as a decoration. 11. A knife, a dagger. 12. The leaf of a flower. nf. (-traṃ-trī) A letter, any written document or address. E. pat to go, ṣṭran aff. and one ta rejected; also sometimes pattra .

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Pātra (पात्र).—n.

(-traṃ) A preservative from sin, a preserver, a saviour. E. pāt, and tra who or what saves.

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Pātra (पात्र).—mfn.

(-traḥ-trī-traṃ) A vessel in general, a plate, a cup, a jar, &c. n.

(-traṃ) 1. A sacrificial vase or vessel, comprising various forms of cups, plates, spoons, ladles, &c. so used. 2. The channel of a river, or its course between the near and opposite bank. 3. A king’s counsellor or minister. 4. Propriety, fitness. 5. A leaf. 6. The persons of a drama. 7. An order, a command. 8. The body. 9. A fit or competent person. 10. A measure of one Arhaka or of eight Seers. 11. A receptacle of any kind, what holds or supports. f. (-trī) A small or portable furnace. E. to proserve or retain, aff. tran.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patra (पत्र).—[pat + ra], n. (perhaps pat + tra, but cf. [Old High German.] fedara; [Anglo-Saxon.] feher; and for ). 1. The wing of a bird. 2. The feather of an arrow, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 35, 87. 3. A vehicle in general, as a horse, a camel, a car, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 219. 4. A leaf, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 49. 5. The leaf of the Laurus cassia(?). 6. A leaf prepared for writing on, paper, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 81, 2. 7. A letter. [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 90, 8. 8. A document, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 451. 9. A thin piece of metal, [Suśruta] 2, 74, 21. 10. Lines and signs painted in the faces by means of musk and other fragrant substances, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 13, 55.

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Pātra (पात्र).—[pā + tra], I. n. 1. A vessel in general, a plate, a cup, etc., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 116. 2. A receptacle, Kām. Nītis. 5, 90. 3. The bed of a river, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 73, 2 Gorr. 4. A person worthy of receiving gifts, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 80. 5. A king’s counsellor or minister, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 304. 6. The persons of a drama, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 3, 9. Ii. f. trī. 1. A vessel, a plate, Mahābhārata 1, 7215. 2. A name of Durgā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pātra (पात्र).—[neuter] instrument of drinking, cup, bowl, vessel, dish, utensil or receptacle i.[grammar], [figuratively] a (worthy) recipient, a person worthy of or fit for ([genetive], [locative] or —°), a master in ([genetive]); an actor or a part in a play; a cert. measure of capacity. —[masculine] a king’s counsellor or minister; [feminine] pātrī (pātrī) vessel, pot, dish.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pātra (पात्र):—[from ] 1a n. (ifc. f(ā). ) a drinking-vessel, goblet, bowl, cup, dish, pot, plate, utensil etc., any vessel or receptacle, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a meal (as placed on a dish), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] the channel of a river, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kādambarī]

4) [v.s. ...] (met.) a capable or competent person, an adept in, master of ([genitive case]), any one worthy of or fit for or abounding in ([genitive case] [locative case], [infinitive mood] or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] an actor or an actor’s part or character in a play, [Kālidāsa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] a leaf, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. pattra)

7) [v.s. ...] propriety, fitness, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] an order, command, [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] m. or n. a measure of capacity (= 1 Āḍhaka), [Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; ???]

10) [v.s. ...] m. a king’s counsellor or minister, [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Pañcarātra]

11) [from ] 2. pātra n. (?), [Ṛg-veda i, 121, 1.]

12) 1b 2 See √1. and √3. .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Patra (पत्र):—(traṃ) 1. n. A leaf, a sheet; a wing; a vehicle. (traṃ trī) A letter.

2) Pātra (पात्र):—[(traḥ-trī-traṃ)] 1. m. n. 3. f. A vessel in general. n. A sacrificial ves- sel; a leaf; a channel; a minister; fitness; a fit subject; an order; the body; a measure; a receptacle. f. A small furnace.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Patra (पत्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Patta, Pattala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Patra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Patra in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a plank; harrow; —[kara dena] to devastate, tospell ruination; to demolish; to raze to the ground; —[pherana] to devastate, to raze to the ground;—[baithana] (business etc.) to crash, to be undone/ruined; —[hona] to be ruined/undone..—patra (पटरा) is alternatively transliterated as Paṭarā.

2) Patra (पत्र):—(nm) a letter; paper; note; leaf; ~[ka] leaflet, handbill, plate; ~[dala] lamina; -[puṣya] token honorarium; token of hospitality; ~[vāhaka] bearer of a letter; -[vyavahāra] correspondence, exchange of letters, etc; -[saṃgraha] collection of letters.

3) Patrā (पत्रा):—(nm) an altmanac.

4) Pātra (पात्र):—(nm) utensil; pot; vessel, container; character (in a play, drama, etc.); a deserving person; hence [pātrī] (nf); —, [] worthy/deserving of; eligible (for); ~[tā/tva] state of deserving; worthiness; eligibility; -[nirdhāraṇa] casting (in a play etc.); -[varga/-sūcī] cast (in a play etc.); [pātrīya] pertaining to a [pātra].

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Patra (ಪತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a leaf of a plant.

2) [noun] a leaf of the tree Aegle marniclos (beal tree).

3) [noun] a leaf of a palm tree, used to write on.

4) [noun] a petal of a flower.

5) [noun] the dried flower bud of a tropical tree, Syzygium aromaticum, of the myrtle family, used whole or ground as a spice; clove.

6) [noun] a written message addressed to someone.

7) [noun] a page of a book.

8) [noun] anything written, that contains information or is relied upon to record or prove something; a document.

9) [noun] a daily newspaper.

10) [noun] a metal plate or board.

11) [noun] a bird (in gen.) 11) the wing of a bird.

12) [noun] feathers attached to the rear end of an arrow.

13) [noun] a vehicle, as a horse, camel, cart, chariot, etc.

14) [noun] a horse yoked to a chariot or cart.

15) [noun] a sword.

16) [noun] the blade of a sword.

17) [noun] a cutting tool with a series of sharp teeth; a saw.

18) [noun] an enemy; a foe.

19) [noun] fire.

20) [noun] a mountain.

21) [noun] a figure painted by women on their bodies with different dyes.

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Pātra (ಪಾತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a small, open container for drinking liquids; a cup.

2) [noun] any kitchen vessel.

3) [noun] any vessel used in worship or sacrifice.

4) [noun] the passage of a stream or river.

5) [noun] a narrow, long groove made in the ground by a plough; a furrow.

6) [noun] a small water vessel; a boat.

7) [noun] position; rank; standing; status.

8) [noun] that which has an important position, rank, standing etc.

9) [noun] a man of good status.

10) [noun] a man who is considered eligible from religious point of view to receive a gift.

11) [noun] a part or character as in a novel, drama etc.

12) [noun] person appointed by the head of a government to take charge of administration of some department; a minister.

13) [noun] a man who acts in plays, movies, etc.; an actor.

14) [noun] a successive group of rhythmical steps or bodily motions or both, usu. executed to music; dance.

15) [noun] a female dancer.

16) [noun] a female dancer assigned to a temple, and who often engages herself in harlotry.

17) [noun] a taking part in an action, movement, programme, etc.; a function or office assumed by someone; a role; participation.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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