Patra, Pātra: 24 definitions
Patra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
The Danseuse, or Actress (pātra).—It is understood that the Danseuse (nartakī) should be very lovely, young, with full round breasts, self-confident, charming, agreeable, dexterous in handling the critical passages, skilled in steps and rhythms, quite at home on the stage, expert in posing hands and body, graceful in gesture, with wide-open eyes, able to follow song and instruments and rhythm, adorned with costly jewels, with a charming lotus-face, neither very stout nor very thin, nor very tall nor very short.
Disqualifications of a Danseuse.—The Danseuse (veśya) should be rejected, whose eyes are (pale) like a flower, whose hair is scanty, whose lips are thick, or breasts pendant, who is very stout or very thin, or very tall or very short, who is humpbacked, or has not a good voice.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Pātra (पात्र, “actor”).—Qualities of an actor (pātra);—Intelligence, strength, physical beauty, knowledge of time and tempo, appreciation of the psychological states (bhāva) and the sentiments (rasa), proper age, curiosity, acquisition of knowledge and arts, their retention, vocal music prompted by dance, suppression of stage-fright, and enthusiasm, will be the requisite qualities of an actor (pātra).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Pātra (पात्र, ‘bowl’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Pātra (Bowl) - In the hands of a Rishi or the Buddha it symbolizes the begging bowl and the idea of generosity. In the hands of the wrathful deities it is a skull bowl filled with blood which symbolizes the achievement of higher states of consciousness through the elimination of the lower mind and notion of self.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Pātra (पात्र) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “copper vessel” and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature, such as the Rasaśāstra (Medicinal Alchemy).
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Patra (पत्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “cinnamon tree”, a species of aromatic tree from the Lauraceae (laurel) family of flowering plants. It is also known as Tējapattā in the Hindi language. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Cinnamommum tamala (synonyms: Cinnamomum albiflorum, Cinnamomum cassia) and is commonly known in English as “Indian bay leaf”, “Malabar leaf” or “Indian bark” among many others.
2) Pātra (पात्र, “container”) is the Sanskrit word for a synonym of Āḍhaka, which is a weight unit used throughout Ayurvedic literature. It equals about 2.56 kilograms.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Patra (पत्र) refers to the “leaves” of a tree or plant, as mentioned in a list of seven synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Patra] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Patra (पत्र) refers to “leaf” (part of a plant) and represents a type of vegetable (śāka) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Śāka-prakaraṇa deals with all types of vegetables. Here vegetables are classified into different plant parts [like leaf ( patra), etc.]. Each of these classification have so many varieties. This prakaraṇa is devoted to explain these varieties and their properties in detail.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Patra (पत्र) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Ebern.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning patra] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Pātra (पात्र) refers to “one who deserves”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15.—“[...] the word pātra (one who deserves) means one who protects the giver from downfall. The word Gāyatrī means that which saves the reciter from downfall. Only a person of purified soul can save others, just as only a rich man can donate anything to others. A man of no means cannot give anything to others in this world. Only he who has purified himself by means of Gāyatrī Japa can be called a pure Brahmin. He alone deserves the position of presiding over all holy rites, Dāna Japa, Homa, Pūjā etc. He alone can save others. Any hungry man or woman deserves charitable gifts of cooked food”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Patra (पत्र).—(likhitam) written message sent by Rukmiṇī to Kṛṣṇa; text of the letter.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 36 [1 and 2]; 37-43.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
Pātra (पात्र, “circumstance”) refers to one of the six factors through which positive ethical precepts (regarding Dharma) are conditioned. The discerning student is required to distinguish between grades of vidhi or to compare their levels of authority or applicability. The primary distinction is derived from their motivation and goals, thus producing the concepts of puruṣārtha and kratvārtha.
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Patra (पत्र) refers to 1) a “leaf”, 2) a “challenge” (in ‘patraṃ dadāti’, to challenge to a controversy, same as ‘patrālambanaṃ karoti’), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 7.93; 10.82; 14.66.—Patras refers to “challenges delivered by scholars in writing to rival Paṇḍitas”. [...] It will be seen that Patras or Patrālambas were often delivered at royal courts where disputations of rival Paṇḍitas usually took place. [...] Strictly speaking, patra is a written declaration delivered to a rival asserting one’s own superiority over him hence “to give a patra” means “challenge”.— Cf. Vidyādhara in his gloss on 7.93.
The word [patra] occurs more than once in the Naiṣadha, and both meanings “leaf” and “challenge” are employed, e.g. in 7.93; in 10.82; in 14.66 (the expression means “to challenge”, hence “to surpass”). The expression is extremely rare in the earlier poets. It is used in Bṛhatkathāmañjarī 9.1.664; in Moharājaparājaya 3.57; and in Abhayadeva’s Jayantavijaya 1.52. Cf. also Tilakamañjarī.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Patra (पत्र, “leaf”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Patra and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)
Pātra indicated an officer of the ministerial rank.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Patra.—(CITD), a letter or document; a note; a written paper or deed. (LP), a bond. Cf. tāmra-patra. Note: patra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Pātra.—(IE 8-3; EI 28, 29; BL), a minister; cf. Mahāpuro- hita-ṭhakkura, Paṇḍita, Upādhyāya, Karaṇa-kāyastha, etc., men- tioned as Pātra probably meaning ‘a courtier.’ See Ekapātra and Mahāpātra. Note: pātra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Pātra.—probably, a document (patra). See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 169. (EI 9), a donee. Cf. Pātrapati. Note: pātra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
patra (पत्र).—n (S) A letter, note, epistle: also a written paper or deed. 2 A leaf. 3 A petal of a flower. 4 A leaf of a book. 5 Any thin sheet or plate of metal. 6 Applied sometimes to metal-foil. 7 patra in the general sense of Letter, writing, bill, deed, is assumed into composition with a multitude of words quite regardlessly of elegance or of purity; as ābarūpatra, kamajyāstapatra, karārapatra, kumaka- patra, gāhaṇapatra, jāmīnapatra, ṭharāvapatra, dākhalēpatra, pāha- ṇīpatra, bhalāvaṇapatra, mukhatyārapatra, lāvaṇīpatra, vakīla- patra, vasūlabākīpatra, vārīsapatra, śiphārīsapatra, śētavāra- patra &c. Of such only the best established or those demanding explanation appear in order. All however are fast acquiring classical repute, and others are daily rising into being. patradarśanīṃ At sight of the letter; immediately on receipt. patradvārā By means of a letter; through epistolary communication.
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patrā (पत्रा).—m (patra) A thin plate, leaf, or sheet (of metal &c.)
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pātra (पात्र).—n (S) A vessel in general; a plate, dish, basin, bowl, cup, jug, mug, jar. 2 A receptacle literally, as a socket, cup, stand, pedestal, base: also a recipient or subject figuratively (as of gifts, blessings, curses): a mine, an ocean, a fund &c. in figurative senses (as of virtues, excellencies, vices). 3 The channel or bed of a river. 4 S In the drama. A disguise, a part, an assumed character. 5 In comp. Worthy, deserving, fit, eligible, suitable, i. e. the proper vessel or recipient of, the object of. In this sense of OBJECT the following valuable words, as they will not, nor will any similar, occur in order, should be well studied. Ex. praśaṃsāpātra, nindāpātra, kṣamāpātra, dayāpātra, kṣōbhapātra, dānapātra, prītipātra, mōhapātra. pātra nācaviṇēṃ To make dishes dance; to live prodigally and riotously. pātrānta rākha kālaviṇēṃ (To mingle ashes with one's bread.) To mar or damage the livelihood or subsistence of. pātrāvarūna uṭhaviṇēṃ To deprive (a person) of his means of living. pātrīṃ basaṇēṃ To sit down to the dishes; to sit at meat. pātrēṃ pujaṇēṃ To offer but little food on the dishes. pātrēṃ vāḍhaṇēṃ To lay the dishes for a meal. Hence fig. To set in order and preparation for; to lay out the apparatus and make all ready.
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pātrā (पात्रा).—f (pātra S) A dancing girl; a courtesan or prostitute.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
patra (पत्र).—n A letter, note, epistle. A written paper or deed. A leaf. A petal of a flower. A leaf of a book. Any thin sheet or plate of metal. Appli- ed sometimes to metal-foil. In comp. generally Letter writing, bill, deed, as ābarupatra karārapatra &c.
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patrā (पत्रा).—m A thin plate, leaf, or sheet (of metal &c.).
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pātra (पात्र).—n A vessel. Dish. Bowl. A rece- ptacle. A recipient. The channel or bed of a river. A disguise, an assumed character. In comp. Worthy, deserv- ing. pātrānta rākha kālavaṇēṃ To mar or damage the livelihood or subsistence of. pātrāvarūna uṭhaviṇēṃ To deprive (a person) of his means of living. pātrīṃ basaṇēṃ To sit down to the dishes; to sit at meal. pātrēṃ pujaṇēṃ To offer but little food on the dishes. pātrēṃ vāḍhaṇēṃ To lay the dishes for a meal. Fig. To set in order and preparation for; to lay out the appa- ratus and make all ready.
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pātrā (पात्रा).—f pātra n A dancing girl; a courtesan or prostitute.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A leaf (of a tree); पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति (patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyaṃ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati) Bg.9.26; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् (dhatte bharaṃ kusumapatraphalāvalīnām) Bv.1. 94.
2) The leaf of a flower, lotus &c.; नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया (nīlotpalapatradhārayā) Ś.1.18.
3) A leaf for writing upon, a paper, a leaf written upon; सुरवरतरुशाखा लेखनी पत्रमुर्वी (suravarataruśākhā lekhanī patramurvī) Mahimna 32. पत्रमारोप्य दीयताम् (patramāropya dīyatām) Ś.6. 'commit to writing', V.2.14.
4) A letter, document; विवादेऽन्विष्यते पत्रं पत्राभावे तु साक्षिणः (vivāde'nviṣyate patraṃ patrābhāve tu sākṣiṇaḥ) Pt.1.43.
5) A challenge; आत्मनः पूजाख्यात्यर्थं गुणोत्कर्ष- प्रतिपादको लेखो यद्विपक्षोपरि दीयते तत्पत्रम् (ātmanaḥ pūjākhyātyarthaṃ guṇotkarṣa- pratipādako lekho yadvipakṣopari dīyate tatpatram) N.7.93; विद्याधर (vidyādhara) com.
6) Any thin leaf or plate of metal, a goldleaf.
7) The wing of a bird, a pinion, feather of an arrow; यावद्वा मक्षिकायाः पत्रम् (yāvadvā makṣikāyāḥ patram) Bṛ. Up.3.3.2; R.2.31; सद्यः प्रवालोद्गमचारुपत्रे नीते समाप्तिं नवचूतबाणे (sadyaḥ pravālodgamacārupatre nīte samāptiṃ navacūtabāṇe) Ku.3.27.
8) A vehicle in general (car, horse, camel &c.); दिशः पपात पत्रेण वेगनिष्कम्पकेतुना (diśaḥ papāta patreṇa veganiṣkampaketunā) R.15.84; N.3.16; Mb.12. 67.25; Śi.12.2.
9) Painting the person (particularly the face) with musk, sandal-juice or other fragrant substances; रचय कुचयोः पत्रं चित्रं कुरुष्व कपोलयोः (racaya kucayoḥ patraṃ citraṃ kuruṣva kapolayoḥ) Gīt.12; R.13.55.
1) The blade of a sword, knife &c.
11) A knife, dagger.
Derivable forms: patram (पत्रम्).
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Pātra (पात्र).—[pāti rakṣatyādheyaṃ, pibatyanena vā pā-ṣṭran Tv.]
1) A drinking-vessel, cup, jar.
2) A vessel or pot in general; पात्रे निधायार्घ्यम् (pātre nidhāyārghyam) R.5.2,12; any sacrificial vessel or utensil.
3) A receptacle of any kind, recipient; दैन्यस्य पात्रतामेति (dainyasya pātratāmeti) Pt.2.11.
4) A reservoir.
5) A fit or worthy person, a person fit or worthy to receive gifts; वित्तस्य पात्रे व्ययः (vittasya pātre vyayaḥ) Bh.2.82; अदेशकाले यद् दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते (adeśakāle yad dānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate) Bg.17.22; Y.1.21; R.11.86.
6) An actor, a dramatis persona; तत् प्रतिपात्रमाधीयतां यत्नः (tat pratipātramādhīyatāṃ yatnaḥ) Ś.1; उच्यतां पात्रवर्गः (ucyatāṃ pātravargaḥ) V.1. dramatis personae.
7) A king's minister.
8) The channel or bed of a river. सुरस्रवन्त्या इव पात्रमागतम् (surasravantyā iva pātramāgatam) N.16.11;15.86.
9) Fitness, propriety.
1) An order, command.
11) A leaf.
-traḥ 1 A kind of measure (āḍhaka).
2) A preservative from sin.
-trī 1 A vessel, plate, dish; भुञ्जन्ते रुक्मपात्रीभिर्यत्राहं परिचारिका (bhuñjante rukmapātrībhiryatrāhaṃ paricārikā) Mb.3.3. 13;233.49.
2) A small furnace.
3) Name of Durgā.
Derivable forms: pātram (पात्रम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Pātra (पात्र).—regularly nt., (1) with masc. forms, in Sanskrit meaning bowl: caturi pātrāṃ, acc. pl., Lalitavistara 185.8 (verse); tenemi pātrāś (acc. pl.) caturaḥ…dadanti 385.7 (verse; in prec. line pātrāṇi); (2) = Sanskrit yāna-pātra, ship (compare Eng. vessel in same meaning; not recorded elsewhere), in siddha-pātra, with successful ship (after a voyage): Mahāvastu iii.287.8; 288.15; 298.17; v.l. each time siddha-yānapātra, which is read in text with both mss. iii.286.17.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Patra (पत्र) or Pattra.—n.
(-traṃ) 1. A leaf. 2. A vehicle in general; as a car, a horse, a camel, &c. 3. The wing of a bird. 4. The feather of an arrow. 5. The leaf of the Laurus cassia. 6. The leaf of a book. 7. Gold leaf, &c. any thin sheet or plate of metal. 8. A letter. 9. The blade of a weapon. 10. Painting the person as a decoration. 11. A knife, a dagger. 12. The leaf of a flower. nf. (-traṃ-trī) A letter, any written document or address. E. pat to go, ṣṭran aff. and one ta rejected; also sometimes pattra .
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(-traṃ) A preservative from sin, a preserver, a saviour. E. pāt, and tra who or what saves.
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(-traḥ-trī-traṃ) A vessel in general, a plate, a cup, a jar, &c. n.
(-traṃ) 1. A sacrificial vase or vessel, comprising various forms of cups, plates, spoons, ladles, &c. so used. 2. The channel of a river, or its course between the near and opposite bank. 3. A king’s counsellor or minister. 4. Propriety, fitness. 5. A leaf. 6. The persons of a drama. 7. An order, a command. 8. The body. 9. A fit or competent person. 10. A measure of one Arhaka or of eight Seers. 11. A receptacle of any kind, what holds or supports. f. (-trī) A small or portable furnace. E. pā to proserve or retain, aff. tran.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+90): Patra-samaya, Patrabala, Patrabandha, Patrabhanga, Patrabhangi, Patrabheda, Patrabhrit, Patrabhuta, Patracarana, Patracaya, Patracayana, Patracharana, Patradaraka, Patradarshanim, Patradharana, Patradhya, Patragandula, Patragarbha, Patraghana, Patragupta.
Ends with (+414): Abhayapatra, Abhijnanapatra, Abhishekapatra, Abrupatra, Acara-patra, Acara-sthiti-patra, Acchinnapatra, Achchhinnapatra, Adharapatra, Adhi-patra, Adhvaryupatra, Adityapatra, Ahpatra, Ailapatra, Ajanmamsurabhipatra, Ajanmasurabhipatra, Ajinapatra, Ajitapatra, Ajnapatra, Ajyapatra.
Full-text (+643): Patrasamskara, Pancapatra, Patrina, Supatra, Tamrapatra, Surabhipatra, Satpatra, Varnapatra, Kshudrapatra, Ambupatra, Apatrikarana, Gandhapatra, Dvipatra, Patrasamcara, Patramelana, Karapatra, Patralambana, Patrabhrit, Bhikshapatra, Pitripatra.
Search found 57 books and stories containing Patra, Pātra, Patrā, Pātrā; (plurals include: Patras, Pātras, Patrās, Pātrās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Appendix 1.5: The 108 Qualities of the Pañcaparameṣṭhins < [Appendices]
Part 12: Sermon on the four gatis: animal-births < [Chapter IV - Padmaprabhacaritra]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara (by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati)
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 1, brāhmaṇa 2 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 3, brāhmaṇa 5 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 2, brāhmaṇa 3 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Haritala (orpiment) < [Chapter XII - Uparasa (13): Haritala (orpiment)]
Part 2 - Purification of haritala < [Chapter XII - Uparasa (13): Haritala (orpiment)]
Part 3 - Incineration of haritala < [Chapter XII - Uparasa (13): Haritala (orpiment)]