Shila, Śilā, Silā, Sīla, Śila, Śīla: 46 definitions
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Shila means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śilā and Śila and Śīla can be transliterated into English as Sila or Shila, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Sheel.
Images (photo gallery)
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Śilā (शिला).—Daughter of Dharmarṣi. She was wedded by Marīci maharṣi. For some reason the maharṣi cursed her and she was transformed into a stone in the Gayā temple. (Vāyu Purāṇa, 108).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Śila (शिल).—One of Danu's sons.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 5.
2a) Śilā (शिला).—A river from the Vindhyas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 28.
2b) The stone placed on the head of Gayāsura under the orders of Brahmā.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 45.
2c) Dharmavratā, the daughter of Dharma and Viśvarūpa married Marīci; when she was once serving her husband in sleep Brahmā came there and she honoured him leaving her husband; the latter awoke and cursed her to become a stone as she did not do the duty of a wife properly; she became furious and cursed her husband and herself performed severe austerities in the midst of a blazing fire; pleased with her, Viṣṇu asked her to take a few boons adding that her husband's curse could not be changed; she then requested that she might live in the shape of a stone at Gayā tīrtha on which all Devas should reside; the request was granted.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 107. (whole); 108. 2; 109. 33, 46, 51; 112. 30 and 41.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Chapter Nineteen of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
Śīla (शील, “good conduct”).—The Kakṣapuṭatantra 19.32 insists that abandoning religious deeds such as bhakti (devotion) and śīla (good conduct) results in oneʼs death. This can be considered an ethical sign of death.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Śilā (शिला) refers to “arsenic”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] [Using the mantra] ‘oṃ namo vāyupathacāriṇe amitagatiparākramāya vimale kulu kulu svāhā’, [and taking] arsenic (śilā), gold [and?] a mineral, …, ground up with pig fat/marrow, over which one has recited [the navātman] 1000 times, he should smear [the mixture] on his feet/legs, while once again reciting the navātman: he will travel 200 yojanās unwearied!”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Śilā (शिला) refers to “stones” according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Śilā], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Śīla (शील):—[śīlaḥ] Character: natural or acquired way of living or acting,Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Śilā (शिला) (lit. “one who is powerful like a stone”) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images
Śilā (शिला) refers to “icons made with stone”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Vaiṣṇava Āgamas prescribe different materials for different types of icons installed in the temple. [...] Marīci and Bhṛgu state that the dhruva icons of Viṣṇu are made of processed earth (mṛd) with brick (iṣṭakā), wood (dāru), stone (śilā) and metal (loha) every succeeding one being superior to the one preceding in sequential order.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Śilā (शिला) refers to “stone § 2.10.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Śilā (शिला) refers to a “stone”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The Stone (śilā) is where the goddess assumed the form of a Liṅga on the Island of the Moon. It is the Mountain of the Moon, the Triple Peak Mountain—Trikūṭa. We have seen that this is the Triangle at the End of the Twelve, which in later sources is sometimes identified with the sacred seat of the Moon—thus implying that the entire Triangle with all the seats is worshipped as Candrapīṭha.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)
Śilā (शिला) refers to a “rock”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “He who tries to master his mind by means of self-established yoga deludedly chews a rock (śilā) and, thirsty, drinks the sky”.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Shila (or Shaligram) refers to a Vaishnava (Hindu) aniconic representation of Vishnu, in the form of a spherical, usually black-coloured Ammonoid fossil found in the sacred river Gandaki. They are more often referred to as Shilas, with Shila being the shortened version. The word Shila translates simply to 'stone' and Shaligram is a less well-known name of Vishnu.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsVirtue, morality. The quality of ethical and moral purity that prevents one from falling away from the eightfold path. Also, the training precepts that restrain one from performing unskillful actions. Sila is the second theme in the gradual training (see anupubbi katha), one of the ten paramis, the second of the seven treasures (see dhana), and the first of the three grounds for meritorious actionSource: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
N Morality, virtue, conduct, good behaviour, attitude.
Main foundation of all kinds of practices of dhamma. Without training into sila, it is not possible to progress on this path.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and volition (cetana) manifested in speech or bodily action (s. karma). It is the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice, and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhā) that form the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), i.e. morality, concentration and wisdom.
Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations in the Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist in the mere not committing of evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly conscious and intentional restraint from the bad actions in question and corresponds to the simultaneously arising volition.
Morality of the 8-fold Path, namely, right speech, right action and right livelihood, is called 'genuine or natural morality' pakatisīla), as distinguished from the external rules for monks or laymen, the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññatti-sīla, q.v.), which, as such, is karmically neutral.
"What now is karmically wholesome morality (kusala-sīla)? It is the wholesome bodily action (kāya-kamma, s. karma), wholesome verbal action (vacī-kamma, s. karma), and also the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality"
(M. 78). Cf. magga, 3-5.
For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, s. sikkhāpada. Further cf. cāritta- and vāritta-sīla.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
s. sīla.Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
morality; Sila is not only abstaining from what should not be done, it is also observing what should be done, we can observe moral precepts which are the foundation of wholesome conduct.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Śīla (शील) refers to “discipline” or “morality” and is called innate goodness according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXI). Accordingly, “wholeheartedly following the good path (kuśalamārga) without allowing any faults (pramada) is what is called Śīla”.
Śīla is of three kinds:
- hīnaśīla – By means of “lower morality”, one is reborn among humans (manuṣya);
- madhyaśīla – By “middling morality”, one is reborn among the six classes of gods of the desire realm (kāmadhātudeva);
- praṇītaśīla – By “superior morality”, one is reborn among the pure gods (śuddhāvāsadeva) of the form realm (rūpadhātu) and the formless realm (ārūpyadhātu).
Even though the moral man has no weapons (āyudha), wicked people do not attack him. Morality is a treasure (vitta) that cannot be lost; it is a parent (jñāti) who does not abandon you even after death; it is an adornment (ālaṃkāra) that surpasses the seven jewels (saptaratna). This is why morality must be guarded as if one were defending the life of the body (kāyajīvita) or as if one were watching over a precious object. The immoral man endures ten thousand sufferings; he is like the poor man who broke his vase and lost his wealth, This is why pure discipline must be observed.
2) Śīla (शील, “morality”) refers to one of ten constituents (dravya) of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “these thirty-seven auxiliaries (bodhipākṣika) have ten things (dravya) as roots (mūla). Morality (śila) constitutes: a. right speech (samyagvak); b. right action (samyakkarmānta); c. right livelihood (samyagājīva)”.Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
1) Śīla (शील) refers to “morality”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Son of good family, how does the recollection of morality (śīlānusmṛti) of Bodhisattva becomes like open space? What we called ‘morality (śīla)’ is unconditioned, unsullied, no wishful thinking, effortless. It accomplishes vows, fulfils the vows, and has the character of being beyond information. Since it is established by concentration, it is not established in the object of thought. Since it is the root of insight, it is without essential characteristic of discursive thinking. Since it is the outcome of liberation, it is not distinguished by duality. [...]”.
2) Śilā (शिला) (Tibetan: man śel) refers to a “crystal” (a type of jewel or precious stone, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly: “[...] Then the Bodhisattva Ratnavyūha said to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘Son of good family, please pour down rain of all kinds of jewels from the sky’. Immediately after his words, the great rain of immeasurable, incalculable amount of jewels, equal to Mount Sumeru in size, with various kinds of names and colors, poured down from ten directions. To wit, [...] conch shell, crystal (śilā), red coral, sapphire, Guṇākara gem, calm light gem, [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Śilā (शिला) refers to a “rock” and represents one of the items held in the left hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, śilā]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)
Śilā (शिला) refers to the “wood” (to be used for the construction of a caitya), according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [vanayātrā in chapter 5]—“When the wood [to be used for the construction of a monastery] or the stones (śilā) [to be used for the construction of a caitya] are brought into the city, [the Ācārya] should send a message [that these materials are being brought into the city] to the king or the citizens. He should make people with joyful minds whose bodies quiver with excitement carry [these materials]”.Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Śīla (शील) (Cf. Pañcaśīla) refers to the “precepts”, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).—The moral conduct (śīla) Buddhists follow are the Pañcaśīla, "Five Precepts", for the laity, Aṣhṭaśīla, "Eight Precepts", for nuns and novice monks, and Daśaśīla, "Ten Precepts", for fully ordained monks.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
1) Śīla (शील, “virtue”) or śīlapāramitā represents the second of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 17). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., ṣaṣ-pāramitā and śīla). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Śīla forms, besides a part of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā), also a part of the “ten perfections” (daśa-pāramitā) and the “five super-mundane components” (lokottara-skandha).
Śila or Śīlānusmṛti refers to one of the “six recollections” (anusmṛti) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 54).
2) Śīla (शील, “virtue”) or Triśīla refers to the “three kinds of virtue” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 106):
- sambhāra-śīla (meritorious virtue),
- kuśalasaṅgrāha-śīla (the virtue of holding to wholesome deeds),
- sattvārthakriyā-śīla (the virtue of seeking the welfare of beings).
virtuous conduct of body and speech. Sila is also known as Precepts.Source: Shambala Publications: General
Shīla (śīla) Skt. (Pali, sīla), “obligations, precepts”; refers to the ethical guidelines that in Buddhism determine the behavior of monks, nuns, and laypersons and that constitute the precondition for any progress on the path of awakening.
The ten shīlas for monks, nuns and novices are:
- refraining from killing,
- not taking what is not given,
- refraining from prohibited sexual activity,
- refraining from unjust speech,
- abstaining from intoxicating drinks,
- abstaining from solid food after noon,
- avoiding music, dance, plays, and other entertainments,
- abstaining from the use of perfumes and ornamental jewelry,
- refraining from sleeping in high, soft beds,
- refraining from contact with money and other valuables.
The first five shīlas apply also to Buddhist laypersons, who on certain days observe the first eight.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Śīla (शील) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śīla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Śīla (शील) refers to “good conduct” and represents one of the four divisions of dharma, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Dharma is so-called from supporting creatures who have fallen into a bad condition of existence. It is fourfold with the divisions of liberality (dāna), good conduct (śīla), penance (tapas), and state of mind (bhāva)”.
Good conduct is defined as the rejection of sinful activities. It is twofold:
- partial (deśavirati),
- total (sarvavirati).
Śilā (शिला) refers to “stone”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “On a flat piece of wood (dāru-paṭṭa) or stone, on the ground or on sandy soil, the wise [person] should adopt a stable posture for the accomplishment of absorption. Thus, sitting cross-legged, sitting half cross-legged, thunderbolt, hero posture and the previously mentioned pleasant and lotus [postures] as well as abandonment of the body is highly thought of. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śilā.—(IA 23), [an inscription on] stone. Note: śilā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
1) Sila in India is the name of a plant defined with Vitex peduncularis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Vitex peduncularis f. juv. roxburghiana (C.B. Clarke) Moldenke (among others).
2) Sila in Indonesia is also identified with Celastrus paniculatus It has the synonym Euonymus euphlebiphyllus Hayata (etc.).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Fl. Japan., ed. 2 (1931)
· Icones plantarum formosanarum nec non et contributiones ad floram formosanam. (1915)
· Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis
· J. Cytol. Genet. (1984)
· A Numerical List of Dried Specimens (1752)
· Species Plantarum.
If you are looking for specific details regarding Sila, for example pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, extract dosage, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
silā : (f.) a stone. || sīla (nt.) nature; habit; moral practice; code of morality.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Silā, (f.) (cp. Sk. śilā) a stone, rock Vin. I, 28; S. IV, 312 sq.; Vin 445; DA. I, 154; J. V, 68; Vism. 230 (in comparison); VbhA. 64 (var. kinds); a precious stone, quartz Vin. II, 238; Miln. 267, 380; Vv 8415 (=phalika° VvA. 339); pada-silā a flag-stone Vin. II, 121, 154. Cp. sela.
— or —
Sīla, (nt.) (cp. Sk. śīla. It is interesting to note that the Dhtp puts down a root sīl in meaning of samādhi (No. 268) and upadhāraṇa (615)) 1. nature, character, habit, behaviour; usually as —° in adj. function “being of such a nature, ” like, having the character of ... , e.g. adāna° of stingy character, illiberal Sn. 244; PvA. 68 (+maccharin); kiṃ° of what behaviour? Pv. II, 913; keḷi° tricky PvA. 241; damana° one who conquers PvA. 251; parisuddha° of excellent character A. III, 124; pāpa° wicked Sn. 246; bhaṇana° wont to speak DhA. IV, 93; vāda° quarrelsome Sn. 381 sq.—dussīla (of) bad character D. III, 235; Dhs. 1327; Pug. 20, 53; Pv. II, 82 (noun); II, 969 (adj.); DhA. II, 252; IV, 3; Sdhp. 338; Miln. 257; opp. susīla S. I, 141.—2. moral practice, good character, Buddhist ethics, code of morality. (a) The dasa-sīla or 10 items of good character (not “commandments”) are (1) pāṇâtipātā veramaṇī, i.e. abstinence from taking life; (2) adinn’ādānā (from) taking what is not given to one; (3) abrahmacariyā adultery (oṭherwise called kāmesu micchā-cārā); (4) musāvādā telling lies; (5) pisuna-vācāya slander; (6) pharusa-vācāya harsh or impolite speech; (7) samphappalāpā frivolous and senseless talk; (8) abhijjhāya covetousness; (9) byāpādā malevolence; (10) micchādiṭṭhiyā heretic views.—Of these 10 we sometimes find only the first 7 designated as “sīla” per se, or good character generally. See e.g. A. I, 269 (where called sīla-sampadā); II, 83 sq. (not called “sīla”), & sampadā.—(b) The pañca-sīla or 5 items of good behaviour are Nos. 1—4 of dasa-sīla, and (5) abstaining from any state of indolence arising from (the use of) intoxicants, viz. surā-meraya-majjapamāda-ṭṭhānā veramaṇī. These five also from the first half of the 10 sikkha-padāni. They are a sort of preliminary condition to any higher development after conforming to the teaching of the Buddha (saraṇaṃgamana) and as such often mentioned when a new follower is “officially” installed, e.g. Bu II. 190: saraṇâgamane kañci nivesesi Tathāgato kañci pañcasu sīlesu sīle dasavidhe paraṃ. From Pv IV. 176 sq. (as also fr. Kh II. as following upon Kh I.) it is evident that the sikkhāpadāni are meant in this connection (either 5 or 10), and not the sīlaṃ, cp. also Pv IV. 350 sq. , although at the above passage of Bu and at J. I, 28 as well as at Mhvs 18, 10 the expression dasa-sīla is used: evidently a later development of the term as regards dasa-sīla (cp. Mhvs translation 122, n. 3), which through the identity of the 5 sīlas & sikkhāpadas was transferred to the 10 sikkhāpadas. These 5 are often simply called pañca dhammā, e.g. at A. III, 203 sq. , 208 sq. Without a special title they are mentioned in connection with the “saraṇaṃ gata” formula e.g. at A. IV, 266. Similarly the 10 sīlas (as above a) are only called dhammā at A. II, 253 sq.; V, 260; nor are they designated as sīla at A. II, 221.—pañcasu sīlesu samādapeti to instruct in the 5 sīlas (alias sikkhāpadāni) Vin. II, 162.—(c) The only standard enumerations of the 5 or 10 sīlas are found at two places in the Saṃyutta and correspond with those given in the Niddesa. See on the 10 (as given under a) S. IV, 342 & Nd2 s. v. sīla; on the 5 (also as under b) S. II, 68 & Nd2 s. v. The so-called 10 sīlas (Childers) as found at Kh II. (under the name of dasa-sikkhāpada) are of late origin & served as memorial verses for the use of novices. Strictly speaking they should not be called dasa-sīla.—The eightfold sīla or the eight pledges which are recommended to the Buddhist layman (cp. Miln. 333 mentioned below) are the sikkhāpadas Nos. 1—8 (see sikkhāpada), which in the Canon however do not occur under the name of sīla nor sikkhāpada, but as aṭṭhaṅga-samannāgata uposatha (or aṭṭhaṅgika u.) “the fast-day with its 8 constituents. ” They are discussed in detail at A. IV, 248 sq. , with a poetical setting of the eight at A. IV, 254=Sn. 400, 401 — (d) Three special tracts on morality are found in the Canon. The Cullasīla (D. I, 3 sq.) consists first of the items (dasa) sīla 1-7; then follow specific injunctions as to practices of daily living & special conduct, of which the first 5 (omitting the introductory item of bījagāma-bhūtagāma-samārambha) form the second 5 sikkhāpadāni. Upon the Culla° follows the Majjhima° (D. I, 5 sq.) & then the Mahāsīla D. I, 9 sq. The whole of these 3 sīlas is called sīlakkhandha and is (in the Sāmaññaphala sutta e.g. ) grouped with samādhi- and paññākkhandha: D. I, 206 sq.; at A. V, 205, 206 sīla-kkhandha refers to the Culla-sīla only. The three (s. , samādhi & paññā) are often mentioned together, e.g. D. II, 81, 84; It. 51; DA. I, 57.—The characteristic of a kalyāṇa-mitta is endowment with saddhā, sīla, cāga, paññā A. IV, 282. These four are counted as constituents of future bliss A. IV, 282, and form the 4 sampadās ibid. 322. In another connection at M. III, 99; Vism. 19. They are, with suta (foll. after sīla) characteristic of the merit of the devatās A. I, 210 sq. (under devat’ânussati).—At Miln. 333 sīla is classed as: saraṇa°, pañca°, aṭṭhaṅga°, dasaṅga°, pātimokkhasaṃvara°, all of which expressions refer to the sikkhāpadas and not to the sīlas.—At Miln. 336 sq. sīla functions as one of the 7 ratanas (the 5 as given under sampadā up to vimuttiñāṇadassana; plus paṭisambhidā and bojjhaṅga).—cattāro sīlakkhandhā “4 sections of morality” Miln. 243; Vism. 15 & DhsA. 168 (here as pātimokkha-saṃvara, indriya-saṃvara, ājīvapārisuddhi, paccaya-sannissita. The same with ref. to catubbidha sīla at J. III, 195). See also under cpds. ‹-› At Ps. I, 46 sq. we find the fivefold grouping as (1) pāṇâtipatassa pahānaṃ, (2) veramaṇī, (3) cetanā, (4) saṃvara, (5) avītikkama, which is commented on at Vism. 49.—A fourfold sīla (referring to the sikkhāpada) is given at Vism. 15 as bhikkhu°, bhikkhunī°, anupasampanna° gahaṭṭha°.—On sīla and adhisīla see e.g. A. I, 229 sq.; VbhA. 413 sq.—The division of sīla at J. III, 195 is a distinction of a simple sīla as “saṃvara, ” of twofold sīla as “caritta-vāritta, ” threefold as “kāyika, vācasika, mānasika, ” and fourfold as above under cattāro sīlakkhandhā.—See further generally: Ps. I, 42 sq.; Vism. 3 sq.; Tikp 154, 165 sq. , 269, 277; Nd1 14, 188 (explained as “pātimokkha-saṃvara”); Nd2 p. 277; VbhA. 143.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śilā (शिला).—f (S) A stone, esp. a large and hard stone; a rock. 2 A slab or flat stone on which condiments &c. are ground. 3 Threshold.
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śilā (शिला).—m ( A) Armour or a piece of armour.
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śiḷā (शिळा).—a Stale. 2 C Cold;--used of water. 3 fig. Cold, dull, sluggish, slow;--used of a business, proceedings, a disposition, a habit.
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śiḷā (शिळा).—f (For śilā) A slab on which condiments &c. are ground; any large flat and hard rock or stone.
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śīla (शील).—n (S) Nature or disposition; native propension or aptitude. 2 A good disposition.
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śīla (शील).—n C See śīḷa C.
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śīla (शील).—a (S) Possessed of naturally; endowed with; propense, prone, disposed, or apt unto. Numerous valuable compounds are common, and others may be formed endlessly. Ex. adhyayanaśīla, karmaśīla, dharmaśīla, dānaśīla, puṇyaśīla, pāpaśīla, vidyā- -paṭhana-vicāra -vyaya -dayā -kṛpā -nyāya -snānasandhyā -gāyana- sukarma -duṣkarma -adharma -anuṣṭhāna -vivāda -śīla, also su- śīla, kuśīla, duḥśīla &c. Of these only a few will occur in order.
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śīḷa (शीळ).—f (śilā S) A stone. Used particularly of such stones as are smooth and flat, and are applied to certain purposes;--as a whetstone, a rubbing stone, a levigation-slab, an ablutionstone, a washerman's stone, a threshold stone or sill &c.
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śīḷa (शीळ).—f (Or śiūḷa) Whistling. v ghāla, vājava.
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śīḷa (शीळ).—n (śīla S) Nature or disposition. 2 A good disposition; uniform determination to rectitude or propriety.
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śīḷa (शीळ).—n C In casting up an embankment over ground from which the sea is to be excluded gaps are left over the inlets which run up, and these gaps are, subsequently, filled up and taken in. This gap is called śīḷa. v bāndha, daḍaka, bhara, miḷava, phuṭa. On filling up a gap or the gaps a person is appointed to the care and preservation of it or them, and named śiḷōttarāpāṭīla. Sometimes a stone is, with certain rites and forms, buried at the spot, and termed pāṭīla. śīḷa is applied also to the space across the mouth of a river when it is proposed to cast up a bank over it, for the purpose of causing the river to overflow, and thus to prepare the adjacent grounds for the cultivation of rice.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śilā (शिला).—f A stone. Threshold. A slab. m Armour.
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śiḷā (शिळा).—a Stale. Cold f A flat stone.
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śīla (शील).—n Nature. Character. A good dis- position. a Possessed of. Prone. In comp. Ex. adhyayanaśīla, karmaśīla.
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śīḷa (शीळ).—f A stone. Whistling. n Disposition.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śila (शिल).—Gleaning ears of corn (more than one at a time); शिलानप्युञ्छतो नित्यं पञ्चाग्नीनपि जुह्वतः (śilānapyuñchato nityaṃ pañcāgnīnapi juhvataḥ) Manusmṛti 3.1; Bhāgavata 1.31.11.
Derivable forms: śilaḥ (शिलः), śilam (शिलम्).
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1) A stone, rock.
2) A grind-stone; शिलाधौत (śilādhauta) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 4.58.29.
3) The lower timber of a door.
4) The top of a column.
5) A tendon, vein (for śirā).
6) Red arsenic.
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1) A large serpent (the boa).
-lam 1 Disposition, nature, character, tendency, inclination, habit, custom; सा तस्य शीलमाज्ञाय तस्माच्छापाच्च बिभ्यती (sā tasya śīlamājñāya tasmācchāpācca bibhyatī) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.136.4; समानशीलव्यसनेषु सख्यम् (samānaśīlavyasaneṣu sakhyam) Subhāṣ frequently at the end of comp. in the sense of 'disposed or habituated to', 'indulging in', 'prone to', 'addicted to', 'attached to'; &c.; as कलहशील (kalahaśīla) 'disposed to quarrel, quarrelsome'; भावनशील (bhāvanaśīla) 'disposed or apt to think'; so दान°, मृगया°, दया°, पुण्य°, आश्वासन° (dāna°, mṛgayā°, dayā°, puṇya°, āśvāsana°) &c.
2) Conduct, behaviour in general.
3) Good disposition or character, good nature; शीलं परं भूषणम् (śīlaṃ paraṃ bhūṣaṇam) Bhartṛhari 2.82; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.2.
4) Virtue, morality, good conduct, virtuous life, chastity, uprightness; दौर्मन्त्र्यान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति (daurmantryānnṛpatirvinaśyati) ... शीलं खलोपा- सनात् (śīlaṃ khalopā- sanāt) Bhartṛhari 2.42,39; तथा हि ते शीलमुदारदर्शने तपस्विनामप्युप- देशतां गतम् (tathā hi te śīlamudāradarśane tapasvināmapyupa- deśatāṃ gatam) Kumārasambhava 5.36; Kirātārjunīya 11.25; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.169; R.1.7.
5) Beauty, good form.
Derivable forms: śīlaḥ (शीलः).
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Sīla (सील).—A plough.
Derivable forms: sīlam (सीलम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śilā (शिला).—(1) (= Pali silā, defined in [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] a precious stone, quartz!; read probably crystal), crystal: Mahāvyutpatti 5955, in a list of gems, = Tibetan man śel; (2) a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 106.10 (precedes śvelā; seems to have no correspondent in Gaṇḍavyūha 133 and the list cited thence in Mahāvyutpatti).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-laṃ) Gleaning ears of corn. f.
(-lā) 1. A stone, a rock. 2. Arsenic. 3. A flat stone on which condiments, &c. are ground with a muller. f. (-lā-lī) 1. The timber of a door-frame. 2. A transverse beam or a beam or stone placed across the top of a post or pillar. 3. Camphor. f. (-lī) 1. A small earth-worm. 2. A dart, a spike. E. śil to glean, aff. ka .
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(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Possessed of, endowed with, practising, versed in, &c.) 2. Behaviour, conduct. 3. Well-behaved, well-disposed. mn.
(-laḥ-laṃ) 1. Nature, quality. 2. Disposition, inclination. 3. Good conduct or disposition, steady and uniform observance of law and morals. 4. Beauty. m.
(-laḥ) A large snake. E. śīl to meditate, to learn, &c., aff. ac; or śī to sleep, and lak Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śila (शिल).—A. n. Gleaning ears of corn, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 100; 10, 112. B. i. e. probably śo + la, I. f. lā. 1. A stone, [Pañcatantra] 100, 18; a rock, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 49. 2. A flat stone on which condiments are ground. 3. Arsenic. Ii. f. lā and lī. 1. A stone or beam placed across a post or pillar. 2. The timber of a door frame. Iii. f. lī. 1. A dart, an arrow, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 62. 2. An earth-worm.
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Śīla (शील).—i. e. A. śiṣ + la (m. and) n. 1. Nature, quality. Mahābhārata 1, 4054. 2. Disposition, inclination, character, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 282; a good character, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 2. 3. Moral practice, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 6. 4. Good conduct, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 13, 45. 5. Virtue, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 77. 6. Beauty. B. śī + la, m. A large snake.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śila (शिल).—[masculine] an ear of corn left on the field & the gleaning of it.
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Śilā (शिला).—[feminine] stone, rock.
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Śīla (शील).—[neuter] character, nature, custom, habit, behaviour, conduct, [especially] good or moral conduct, virtue (often adj. —°); [abstract] tā [feminine], tva [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śila (शिल):—[from sil] 1. śila m. ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also n.; for 2. See [column]2) gleaning, gathering stalks or ears of corn ([according to] to [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti x, 112] śila = aneka-dhānyonnayana id est. ‘gleaning more than one ear of corn at a time’, opp. to uñcha = ekaika-dhānyādi-guḍakoccayana), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Pāryātra, [Raghuvaṃśa]
3) Śilā (शिला):—f. (perhaps connected with √1. śi) a stone, rock, crag, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
4) red arsenic, [Suśruta]
5) camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) the lower mill-stone, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) the lower timber of a door, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) the top of the pillar supporting a house, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) a vein, tendon (for śira q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) Name of a river, [Rāmāyaṇa]
11) of a woman, [Catalogue(s)]
12) Śila (शिल):—[from śilā] 2. śila (for 1. See [column]1), in [compound] for śilā.
13) Śīla (शील):—[from śīl] n. (and m. [gana] ardharcādi; ifc. f(ā). ) habit, custom, usage, natural or acquired way of living or acting, practice, conduct, disposition, tendency, character, nature (often ifc. = ‘habituated’ or ‘accustomed’ or ‘disposed’ or ‘addicted to’, ‘practising’; cf. guṇa-, dāna-, puṇya-ś etc.), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc. good disposition or character, moral conduct, integrity, morality, piety, virtue, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
14) [v.s. ...] cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 208]
15) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists śīla, ‘moral conduct’, is one of the 6 or 10 perfections or Pāramitās q.v. and is threefold, viz. sambhāra, kuśala-saṃgrāha, sattvārtha-kriyā, [Dharmasaṃgraha 106])
16) [v.s. ...] a moral precept (with, [Buddhist literature] there are 5 fundamental precepts or rules of moral conduct cf. pañca-śīla), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 126]
17) [v.s. ...] form, shape, beauty, [Horace H. Wilson]
18) [v.s. ...] m. a large snake (in this sense [probably] [from] √1. śī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Buddhist literature]
20) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
21) Śīlā (शीला):—[from śīla > śīl] a f. See below.
22) [from śīl] b f. Name of the wife of Kauṇḍinya, [Vāsavadattā, [Introduction]]
23) [v.s. ...] (also -bhaṭṭārikā) Name of a poetess, [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati; Catalogue(s)]
24) Sīla (सील):—n. = sīra, a plough, [Kapiṣṭhala-saṃhitā]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śila (शिल):—(laṃ) 1. n. Gleaning ears of corn. 1. f. Rock, stone; arsenic. f. (ā-ī) Timber of a doorframe; transverse beam. f.
(-ī) Earthworm; dart; spike.
2) Śīla (शील):—śīlati 1. a. To meditate; to worship; (ki) to exercise; (ka) to wear, to possess.
3) [(laḥ-laṃ)] 1. m. n. Nature, disposition; good conduct. m. Large snake. a. Possessed of; versed in, well behaved.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Śilā (शिला):—(nf) a rock, large piece of stone; foundation stone; cliff; ~[mudraka] lithographer; ~[mudraṇa] lithograph; ~[lipi/lekha] (rock) inscription, petrograph.
2) Śīla (शील) [Also spelled sheel]:—(nm) modesty; piety, virtue, moral conduct; chastity; (mental) disposition; used as a suffix to denote natural or acquired disposition of aptitude (as [pragatiśīla, krodhaśīla], etc.); -[tyāga] abandonment of modesty; ~[dhārī] well-behaved, modest; -[bhaṃga] outrage of modesty; ~[varjita] devoid of modesty/moral conduct; —[toḍanā] to become harsh, to be blunt; to outrage the modesty (of); —[na honā] to have no modesty; —[nibhānā] to stick to one’s own disposition; to be good inspite of provocation; to retain one’s modesty.
3) Sila (सिल) [Also spelled sil]:—(nf) a stone-slab on which spices etc. are ground; ~[kharī/khaḍī] chalk; -[baṭṭā] a stone-slab and mill-stone.
4) Silā (सिला):—(nm) return, reward, consideration.
5) Sīla (सील) [Also spelled seel]:—(nm) see [śīla] (nf) damp/dampness, moisture; a seal; kinds of carnivorous amphibious marine mammal; ~[baṃda] sealed; —[muhara honā] to be sealed; —[lagānā] to put a seal.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Silā (सिला) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Śilā.
2) Sīla (सील) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śīla.
3) Sīla (सील) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śīla.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] an ear or ears of corn left out on the field after harvest.
2) [noun] a gleaning of such ears.
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1) [noun] good disposition or character; moral conduct; piety; virtue.
2) [noun] a good or beautiful form.
3) [noun] sexual abstinence; celibacy; chastity.
4) [noun] the strict and sincere following of or adherence to religious and pious practices and keeping from religious defilement.
5) [noun] (in comp.) a man of so and so nature.
6) [noun] ನೀರು ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಿ ಶೀಲ, ಕೂಳು ಹೆಚ್ಚಾಗಿ ಕುಲ [niru heccagi shila, kulu heccagi kula] nīru heccāgi śila, ku'ḷu heccāgi kula (prov.) discrimination comes not among people who are really poor, but among the rich.
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Śīḷa (ಶೀಳ):—[noun] = ಶೀಲ [shila].
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1) [noun] (correctly, ಶೀಲ [shila]) 1. the way that one acts; behavior; deportment; conduct.
2) [noun] good disposition or character; moral conduct; piety; virtue.
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Sīḷa (ಸೀಳ):—[noun] = ಸೀಲ [sila].
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+246): Shila Bajara, Shila Bibba, Shila-guntha, Shila-karmanta, Shila-kutta, Shila-lashti, Shila-patra, Shila-pushp, Shila-shasana, Shilaarasamu, Shilabalike, Shilabalka, Shilabandha, Shilabda, Shilabhadra, Shilabhaj, Shilabhanda, Shilabhanga, Shilabhattarika, Shilabhauma.
Ends with (+297): Abhivadanashila, Abhivriddhishila, Acarashila, Adharashila, Adhishila, Adhvashila, Adhyayanashila, Agunashila, Ajnatakulashila, Ajnatashila, Akarmashila, Akhandashila, Akramanashila, Aksharashila, Akshashila, Akshila, Alamkarashila, Alankarashila, Alikavadashila, Alpashila.
Full-text (+1022): Carushila, Manahshila, Shilavrishti, Shilaphalaka, Shilaputra, Dhautashila, Shilavritti, Unchashila, Shiladhatu, Shilabhava, Shiladadru, Shilarasa, Duhshila, Shilatmika, Sushila, Mamsashila, Silamaya, Shilavrata, Shilajatu, Sili.
Search found 177 books and stories containing Shila, Śilā, Silā, Sīla, Śila, Śīla, Sila, Śiḷā, Śīḷa, Śīlā, Śiḷa, Sīḷa; (plurals include: Shilas, Śilās, Silās, Sīlas, Śilas, Śīlas, Silas, Śiḷās, Śīḷas, Śīlās, Śiḷas, Sīḷas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)
Verse 2.8.282 < [Chapter 8 - The Manifestation of Opulences]
Verse 2.22.14 < [Chapter 22 - Delivering Śacīdevī from Offense and Descriptions of Nityānanda’s Qualities]
Verse 1.5.13 < [Chapter 5 - Eating the Mendicant Brāhmaṇa’s Offerings]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
I. Lists of recollections (anusmṛti or anussati) < [Preliminary note on the Eight Recollections]
Part 1 - Definition of discipline (śīla) < [Chapter XXI - Discipline or Morality]
Abhidharma auxiliaries (B): The elements constituting the thirty-seven auxiliaries < [Part 2 - The auxiliaries according to the Abhidharma]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Notes (f-g): Defilement and Purification of Morality < [Chapter 6 - On Pāramitā]
Part 10c - The method of fulfilling the Perfection of Renunciation (Nekkhamma Pāramī) < [Chapter 7 - On Miscellany]
Part 2 - The two forms of Pāṭimokkha < [Chapter 16 - The arrival of Upatissa and Kolita]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Shilajatu or Shilajit (bitumen) < [Chapter IV - Uparasa (4): Shilajatu or Shilajit (bitumen)]
Part 1 - Characteristics of Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar) < [Chapter XIII - Uparasa (14): Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar)]
Part 2 - Purification of manas-shila < [Chapter XIII - Uparasa (14): Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar)]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 33 - The Silas of Nandapura (A.D. 1350-1430) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Part 40 - End of the Sila (Silavamsi) dynasty < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Part 37 - Gangaraju (A.D. 1427-1435) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Buddhist Monastic Discipline (by Jotiya Dhirasekera)