Vatsa, Vatsā: 27 definitions
Vatsa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Vats.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
1) Vatsa (वत्स) is the name of a son of Somaśarman, a Brāhman from Supratiṣṭhita, whose storiers are related in the ‘story of Guṇāḍhya’, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara chapter 6. Somaśarman had 2 sons named Vatsa and Gulma, and he also had a daughter named Śrutārthā.
2) Vatsa (वत्स) is the name of a hermit and descendant of Kaśyapa, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 28. Accordingly, “in time she [Sulocanā] grew up to womanhood, and a young hermit, named Vatsa, the descendant of Kaśyapa, as he was roaming about at will, beheld her in a garden. He, though he was all compact of asceticism, the moment he beheld that princess, felt the emotion of love, and he said to himself then and there: ‘Oh! exceedingly wonderful is the beauty of this maiden. If I do not obtain her as a wife, what other fruit of my asceticism can I obtain?’”.
The story of Vatsa was narrated to king Kaliṅgadatta by a certain Brāhman in order to demonstrate that “daughters are better even than sons, and produce happiness in this world and the next”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vatsa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ (Kāvya)
Vatsa (वत्स) in Sanskrit (or Vaccha in Prakrit) refers to “small” (term of affection—i,.e., “from a divinity to his protege” or “from parents to their son”), as is mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Vatsa (वत्स):—Another name for Pratardana (son of Dyumān, who was a son of Divodāsa). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.17.5)
2) Vatsa (वत्स):—One of the four sons of Syenajit (son of Viśada). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.23)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Vatsa (वत्स).—Son of Pratardana the King of Kāśī. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 79, that the name Vatsa was given to him because he was brought up in his childhood by calves of cows.
2) Vatsa (वत्स).—A King of the family of Śaryāti. This King was the father of Tālajaṅgha and Hehaya. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 30, Stanza 7).
3) Vatsa (वत्स).—(VATSABHŪMI). A country in ancient India. The following information is given about this country in the Mahābhārata.
(i) Bhīmasena conquered this country during his regional conquest. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Stanza 10).
(ii) Karṇa once brought this country under control. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanza 9).
(iii) During the battle of Bhārata, the people of Vatsa were on the side of the Pāṇḍavas. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 1.
(iv) Deified beings (semigods) and heavenly singers had lived in this country. There is an asylum there for holy men. Ambā, the princess of Kāśī once lived in this hermitage. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 34).
(v) Ambā became a river and still flows through this country under the name Ambā. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva Chapter 186, Stanza 40).
(vi) In the battle of Bhārata, the warriors of Vatsa stood on the left side of the disposition of the army called Krauñcāruṇavyūha, formed by Dhṛṣṭadyumna. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 50, Stanza 53).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vatsa (वत्स).—A name of Dyumat.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 17. 6.
1b) A son of Senajit, king of Avantaka.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 21. 23; Matsya-purāṇa 49. 51; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 173.
1c) A pupil of Śākalya, and a Vaiśya mantrakṛt.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 32. 121; 35. 2.
1d) A pupil of Yājñavalkya.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 29.
1e) A son of Pratardana, and father of Alarka.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 67. 69, 78; Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 65-6.
1f) A king of the Bharata dynasty; had for his son Kāmadeva, or God of Love.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 19.
1g) A son of Somaśarma, an avatār of the Lord.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 216.
1h) A member of the Bhārgava gotra.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 96.
1i) A son of Gārgya.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 73.
1j) Another name for Pratardana.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 8. 13.
1k) Heard the viṣṇu purāṇa from Vāsuki and narrated it to Aśvatara.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 8. 46.
1l) A branch of the Bhārgavas.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 100.
1m) A Janapada.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 110.
Vatsa (वत्स) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.72.16, VI.10.39, VI.46.51) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vatsa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Vatsa (वत्स) is the name of a country pertaining to the Oḍramāgadhī local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the verbal style (bhāratī) and the graceful style (kaiśikī).
2a) Vatsa (वत्स, “child”) refers to a specific “mode of address” (nāman) used in drama (nāṭya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 19. Vatsa is used by the guru or the father to address a disciple or a son. A similair term that can be used in the same situation would be Putraka.
2b) Vatsa (वत्स) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.
3) Vatsā (वत्सा, “child”) is used in addressing the younger sister.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Vatsa (वत्स) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “calf”.Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Vatsa (वत्स) is often found in the Rigveda and later in the sense of ‘calf’. Reference is made to the use of a calf to induce the cow to give milk, and to the separation of the cows from the calves at certain times.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Vatsa (वत्स) is the pupil of Ṛṣi Kāśyapa according to the Mahāvastu (III, p. 363) mentioned in Appendix 1 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXIV).—Accordingly, “A pupil of the Ṛṣi Kāśyapa, called Vatsa, surrounded by five hundred disciples, lived at Anuhimavat in a hermitage on the shore of the Ganges; they all possessed the five powers, practiced the four trances, had renounced desires, and were of noble conduct and great power. Then Vatsa, suffering from a wind sickness and unable to withstand the bitter cold at Anuhimavat, went away to the Dekhan, to the city of Govardhana. King Daṇḍaki, who reigned there, was an irreligious man and an impious king without the correct view, eager for pleasure, full of wrong ideas, ignoring his mother and father, with neither religious life nor chastity, cruel, pitiless and violent. Seeing the ṛṣi Vatsa, he buried this peaceful, harmless and innocent man in the earth”.
According to the Mahāvastu (III, p. 363).—A pupil of the Ṛṣi Kāśyapa, called Vatsa, surrounded by five hundred disciples, lived at Anuhimavat in a hermitage on the shore of the Ganges; they all possessed the five powers, practiced the four trances, had renounced desires, and were of noble conduct and great power. Then Vatsa, suffering from a wind sickness and unable to withstand the bitter cold at Anuhimavat, went away to the Dekhan, to the city of Govardhana.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Vatsa (वत्स) is the name of an ancient province situated in Videhakṣetra, according to chapter 2.1 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, “situated in the middle part of Jambūdvīpa, like the navel of the continents, is Videhakṣetra provided with sorrow-bliss. In it, on the north bank of the river Sītā there is a province named Vatsa possessing extensive wealth. Endowed with wonderful beauty, it looked like a piece of heaven that had fallen to earth. With villages upon villages and cities upon cities populating it, there was empty space only in the sky, if at all. There was a distinction between cities and villages if made by the king’s authority, but they could not be distinguished from each other on the basis of wealth”.
2) Vatsa (वत्स) (distinguished by the city Kauśāmbīpurī) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Vatsa), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Kauśāmbīpurī) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Vatsa (वत्स) or Vaṃsa refers to one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—The kingdom of the Vaṃsas or Vatsas is mentioned in the Aṅguttara Nikāya as one of the sixteen great countries of India. The capital of the country was Kausāmbī (Kosambī) identical with modern Kosam near Allahabad.
The Bhagga (i.e. Bharga) state of Suṃsumāragiri was a dependency of the Vatsa kingdom. This is confirmed by the Mahābhārata and the Harivaṃśa which testify to the close association of these two realms. In the Dīgha Nikāya we find that Kosambī was suggested as one of the great cities where the Blessed one should attain Mahāparinibbāna.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vatsa (वत्स).—m n (S) A young one of a cow or a buffalo, a calf. 2 Applied in endearment to a child. 3 m A tribe, or an individual of it, of Brahmans about Ratnagiri &c.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vatsa (वत्स).—m n A calf; app. in endearment to a child.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vatsa (वत्स).—[vad-saḥ Uṇ.3.61]
1) A calf, the young of an animal; तेनाद्य वत्समिव लोकममुं पुषाण (tenādya vatsamiva lokamamuṃ puṣāṇa) Bh.2.46; यं सर्वशैलाः परिकल्प्य वत्सम् (yaṃ sarvaśailāḥ parikalpya vatsam) Ku.1.2.
2) A boy, son; in this sense often used in the voc. as a term of endearment and translateable by 'my dear', 'my darling', 'my dear child'; अयि वत्स कृतं कृतमतिविनयेन, किमपराद्धं वत्सेन (ayi vatsa kṛtaṃ kṛtamativinayena, kimaparāddhaṃ vatsena) U.6.
3) Offspring or children in general; जीवद्वत्सा (jīvadvatsā) 'one whose children are living'.
4) A year.
5) Name of a country; (its chief town was kauśāmbī and ruled over by Udayana), or the inhabitants of that country (pl.)
-tsā 1 A female calf.
2) A little girl; वत्से सीते (vatse sīte) 'dear Sītā' &c.
-tsam The breast.
Derivable forms: vatsaḥ (वत्सः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vatsa (वत्स).—(compare Vaṃśa 2); (1) a pupil of the ascetic Kāśyapa, thus fellow-pupil of Śarabhaṅga: Mahāvastu iii.363.3 ff. In the Pali story (see Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)), Kisavaccha, or Vaccha Kisa, is a pupil of Sarabhaṅga, and his adventure with King Daṇḍaki is somewhat differently told. In Mahāvastu iii.364.16 called Vatsa-gotro, compare Pali Vacchagotta, and in 17 described as vātehi ābādhehi kṛśo (compare the Pali Kisa-vaccha?). (2) name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 247.16.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tsaṃ) The breast, the chest. m.
(-tsaḥ) 1. A calf. 2. A year. mf.
(-tsaḥ-tsā) A term of endearment, used to children, scholars, &c. E. vad to speak, to speak kindly to, or vas to love, Unadi aff. sa .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vatsa (वत्स).—I. (vb. 1. vas), m. 1. A calf, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 29, M.M. 2. i. e. probably *vatas, = + a, A year. 3. The name of a Ṛṣi, or saint, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 116. 4. pl. The name of a people and their country,
Vatsa (वत्स).—[masculine] ā [feminine] calf, young animal i.[grammar], child ([especially] [vocative] in friendly address); year (only —°); [Name] of [several] men & a country, [plural] its inhabitants.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Vatsa (वत्स) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Kumārasambhavaṭīkā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vatsa (वत्स):—m. ([probably] originally, ‘yearling’, [from] a lost word vatas) a calf, the young of any animal, offspring, child ([vocative case] vatsa often used as a term of endearment = my dear child, my darling), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) a son, boy (See bāla-v)
3) a year (See tri-v)
4) Name of a descendant of Kaṇva, [Ṛg-veda; Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
5) of an Āgneya (author of [Ṛg-veda x, 187]), [Anukramaṇikā]
6) of a Kāśyapa, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
7) of the step-brother of Maitreya (who passed through fire to prove the falseness of Maitreya’s allegation that he was the child of a Śūdra), [Manu-smṛti viii, 116] ([Scholiast or Commentator]) of a son of Pratardana, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
8) of a son of Sena-jit, [Harivaṃśa]
9) of a son of Akṣa-mālā, [Catalogue(s)]
10) of a son of Uru-kṣepa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
11) of a son of Soma-śarman, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
12) of the author of a law-book, [Catalogue(s)]
13) (with carakādhvaryu-sūtra-kṛt) of another author, [ib.]
14) of a serpent-demon, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
15) Name of a country (whose chief town is Kauśāmbī), [Kathāsaritsāgara]
16) Nerium Aistidysentericum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) the Kutaja tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [plural] the descendants of Vatsa, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra] (cf. [Pāṇini 2-4, 64 [Scholiast or Commentator]])
19) the inhabitants of the country called Vatsa, [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara]
20) Vatsā (वत्सा):—[from vatsa] f. a female calf, little daughter ([vocative case] vatse = my dear child), [Kālidāsa; Uttararāma-carita; Prabodha-candrodaya]
21) Vatsa (वत्स):—mn. the breast, chest, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) cf. vatsara and ἔτος for ϝέτος; [Latin] vetus, vetus-tus, vitulus; [German] widar, Widder; [English] wether.
23) Vātsa (वात्स):—1. vātsa m. [patronymic] [from] vatsa, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ([varia lectio])
24) n. Name of a Sāman, [Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana]
25) 2. vātsa Vṛddhi form of vatsa, in [compound]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vatsa (वत्स):—(tsaṃ) 1. n. The breast. m. A calf; a year. (tsaḥ-tsā) m. f. A tender term used to children and scholars.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Vatsa (वत्स) [Also spelled vats]:—(nm) offspring, progeny; used as a vocative word for son, nephew and younger relatives or near ones in general.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a young calf (of a cow, buffalow).
2) [noun] a male calf.
3) [noun] a child; an infant.
4) [noun] a son; a male offspring.
5) [noun] a term of endearment used in addressing a boy or a young man.
6) [noun] a boy.
7) [noun] a symbol; a sign.
8) [noun] the outside part of the thorax; the chest.
9) [noun] a period of twelve months; a year.
10) [noun] name of an old country.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+90): Vatsa carakadhvaryusutrakrit, Vatsabalaka, Vatsabandha, Vatsabandhavid, Vatsabhatti, Vatsabhumi, Vatsacchavi, Vatsadana, Vatsadani, Vatsadanta, Vatsadesha, Vatsadevi, Vatsadharaka, Vatsadroha, Vatsadvadashi, Vatsagotra, Vatsagulma, Vatsagulmi, Vatsaguru, Vatsahanu.
Ends with (+41): Abhivanyavatsa, Agnihotrivatsa, Anupurvavatsa, Anusritavatsa, Apamvatsa, Apavatsa, Apivanyavatsa, Avatsa, Ayovatsa, Baddhavatsa, Balavatsa, Candravatsa, Divakaravatsa, Ghritavatsa, Govatsa, Govindavatsa, Hridayashrivatsa, Jivadvatsa, Jivavatsa, Kamavatsa.
Full-text (+381): Vaccha, Vatsabandha, Vatsya, Vatsapati, Vatsapattana, Vatsaraja, Medapatha, Vatsesha, Vatsapracetas, Abhivanyavatsa, Vatsarajya, Mritavatsa, Vatsapreya, Anupurvavatsa, Yamavatsa, Vatsatva, Shrivatsa, Vatsashala, Vatsapriya, Vatsatantri.
Search found 52 books and stories containing Vatsa, Vatsā, Vātsa; (plurals include: Vatsas, Vatsās, Vātsas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 3: Story of Udayana and Vāsavadattā < [Chapter XI - The story of Rauhiṇeya]
Part 29: The people in the Manuṣyaloka < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 2: Description of the province Vatsa < [Chapter I - Previous incarnation as Vimalavāhana]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 1.2.76 < [Chapter 2 - Divya (the celestial plane)]
Verse 2.4.81 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.1.120 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 1.32.9 < [Sukta 32]
Rig Veda 1.113.2 < [Sukta 113]
Rig Veda 9.95.4 < [Sukta 95]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 9.50 < [Section III - To whom does the Child belong?]
Verse 8.116 < [Section XVIII - Oaths and Ordeals]
Verse 4.38 < [Section IX - Personal Cleanliness]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)