Mahabharata (English)

by Kisari Mohan Ganguli | 2,566,952 words | ISBN-10: 8121505933

The English translation of the Mahabharata is a large text describing ancient India. It is authored by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa and contains the records of ancient humans. Also, it documents the fate of the Kauravas and the Pandavas family. Another part of the large contents, deal with many philosophical dialogues such as the goals of life. Book...

Section CXXIII

"Vaisampayana said, 'O Janamejaya, when Gandhari’s conception had been a full year old, it was then that Kunti summoned the eternal god of justice to obtain offspring from him. And she offered without loss of time, sacrifices unto the god and began to duly repeat the formula that Durvasa had imparted to her some time before. Then the god, overpowered by her incantations, arrived at the spot where Kunti was seated in his car resplendent as the Sun. Smiling, he asked,

'O Kunti, what am I to give you?'

And Kunti too smiling in her turn, replied,

'You must even give me offspring.'

Then the handsome Kunti was united (in intercourse) with the god of justice in his spiritual form and obtained from him a son devoted to the good of all creatures. And she brought his excellent child, who lived to acquire a great fame, at the eighth Muhurta called Abhijit, of the hour of noon of that very auspicious day of the seventh month (Kartika), viz., the fifth of the lighted fortnight, when the star Jyeshtha in conjunction with the moon was ascendant.

And as soon as the child was born, an incorporeal voice (from the skies) said,

'This child shall be the best of men, the foremost of those that are virtuous. Endued with great prowess and truthful in speech, he shall certainly be the ruler of the earth. And this first child of Pandu shall be known by the name of Yudhishthira.

Possessed of prowess and honesty of disposition, he shall be a famous king, known throughout the three worlds.'

"Pandu, having obtained that virtuous son, again addressed his wife and said. 'The wise have declared that a Kshatriya must be endued with physical strength, otherwise he is no Kshatriya.' Therefore, ask you for an offspring of superior strength. Thus commanded by her lord, Kunti then invoked Vayu.

And the mighty god of wind, thus invoked, came unto her, riding upon a deer, and said,

'What, O Kunti, am I to give you? Tell me what is in your heart'

Smiling in modesty, she said to him,

'Give me, O best of celestials, a child endued with great strength and largeness of limbs and capable of humbling the pride of every body.'

The god of wind thereupon begat upon her the child afterwards known as Bhima of mighty arms and fierce prowess. And upon the birth of that child endued with extraordinary strength, an incorporeal voice, O Bharata, as before, said,

'This child shall be the foremost of all endued with strength.'

I must tell you, O Bharata, of another wonderful event that occurred alter the birth of Vrikodara (Bhima). While he fell from the lap of his mother upon the mountain breast, the violence of the fall broke into fragments the stone upon which he fell without his infant body being injured in the least. And he fell from his mother’s lap because Kunti, frightened by a tiger, had risen up suddenly, unconscious of the child that lay asleep on her lap.

And as she had risen, the infant, of body hard as the thunderbolt, falling down upon the mountain breast, broke into a hundred fragments the rocky mass upon which he fell. And beholding this, Pandu wondered much. And it so happened that that very day on which Vrikodara was born, was also, O best of Bharatas, the birthday of Duryodhana who afterwards became the ruler of the whole earth.

"After the birth of Vrikodara, Pandu again began to think,

'How am I to obtain a very superior son who shall achieve world-wide fame? Every, thing in the world depends on destiny and exertion. But destiny can never be successful except by timely exertion. We have heard it said that Indra is the chief of the gods.

Indeed, he is endued with immeasurable might and energy and prowess and glory. Gratifying him with my asceticism, I shall obtain from him a son of great strength.

Indeed, the son he gives me must be superior to all and capable of vanquishing in battle all men and creatures other than men.

I shall, therefore, practise the severest austerities, with heart, deed and speech.'

"After this, the Kuru king Pandu, taking counsel with the great Rishis commanded Kunti to observe an auspicious vow for one full year, while he himself commenced, O Bharata, to stand upon one leg from morning to evening, and practise other severe austerities with mind rapt in meditation, for gratifying the lord of the celestials.

"It was after a long time that Indra (gratified with such devotion) approached Pandu and, addressing him, said,

'I shall give you, O king, a son who will be celebrated all over the three worlds and who will promote the welfare of Brahmanas, kine and all honest men. The son I shall give you will be the smiter of the wicked and the delight of friends and relatives.

Foremost of all men, he will be an irresistible slayer of all foes.'

Thus addressed by Vasava (the king of the celestials), the virtuous king of the Kuru race, well-recollecting those words, said unto Kunti,

'O fortunate one, your vow has become successful. The lord of the celestials has been gratified, and is willing to give you a son such as you desirest, of superhuman achievements and great fame. He will be the oppressor of all enemies and possessed of great wisdom.

Endued with a great soul, in splendour equal unto the Sun, invincible in battles, and of great achievements, he will also be extremely handsome. O you of fair hips and sweet smiles, the lord of the celestials has become gracious to you.

Invoking him, bring you forth a child who will be the very home of all Kshatriya virtues.'

"Vaisampayana continued, 'The celebrated Kunti, thus addressed by her lord, invoked Sakra (the king of the gods) who thereupon came unto her and begat him that was afterwards called Arjuna. And as soon as this child was born, an incorporeal voice, loud and deep as that of the clouds and filling the whole welkin, distinctly said, addressing Kunti in the hearing of every creature dwelling in that asylum,

'This child of thine, O Kunti, will be equal unto Kartavirya in energy and Siva in prowess. Invincible like Sakra himself he will spread your fame far and wide. As Vishnu (the youngest of Aditi’s sons) had enhanced Aditi’s joy, so shall this child enhance your joy. Subjugating the Madras, the Kurus along with the Somakas, and the people of Chedi, Kasi and Karusha, he will maintain the prosperity of the Kurus.

(Surfeited with libations at the sacrifice of king Svetaketu), Agni will derive great gratification from the fat of all creatures dwelling in the Khandava woods (to be burnt down) by the might of this one’s arms. This mighty hero, vanquishing all the effeminate monarchs of the earth, will, with his brothers perform three great sacrifices.

In prowess, O Kunti, he will be even as Jamadagnya or Vishnu. The foremost of all men endued with prowess, he will achieve great fame. He will gratify in battle (by his heroism) Sankara, the god of gods (Mahadeva), and will receive from him the great weapon named Pasupata.

This your son of mighty arms will also slay, at the command of Indra, those Daityas called the Nivatakavacas who are the enemies of the gods. He will also acquire all kinds of celestial weapons, and this bull among men will also retrieve the fortunes of his race.'

'Kunti heard these extraordinary words, while lying in the room. And hearing those words uttered so loudly, the ascetics dwelling on the mountain of a hundred peaks, and the celestials with Indra sitting in their cars, became exceedingly glad. The sounds of the (invisible) drum filled the entire welkin. There were shouts of joy, and the whole region was covered with flowers showered down by invisible agents.

The various tribes of celestials assembled together, began to offer their respectful adorations to the son of Pritha.

  1. The sons of Kadru (Nagas),
  2. the son of Vinata,
  3. the Gandharvas,
  4. the lords of the creation,

and the seven great Rishis, viz.,

  1. Bharadvaja,
  2. Kasyapa,
  3. Gautama,
  4. Visvamitra,
  5. Jamadagni,
  6. Vasishtha,
  7. and the illustrious Atri

who illumined the world of old when the Sun was lost, all came there.

  1. And Marichi,
  2. Angiras,
  3. Pulastya,
  4. Pulaha,
  5. Kratu,
  6. Daksha the lord of creation,
  7. the Gandharvas,
  8. and Apsaras,

came there also. The various tribes of Apsaras, decked with celestial garlands and every ornament, and attired in fine robes, came there and danced in joy, chanting the praises of Vibhatsu (Arjuna).

All around, the great Rishis began to utter propitiatory formulas. And Tumvuru accompanied by the Gandharvas began to sing in charming notes.

  1. And Bhimasena
  2. and Ugrasena,
  3. Urnayus
  4. and Anagha.
  5. Gopati
  6. and Dhritarashtra
  7. and Suryavarchas the eighth,
  8. Yugapa
  9. and Trinapa,
  10. Karshni,
  11. Nandi,
  12. and Citraratha,
  13. Salisirah the thirteenth,
  14. Parjanya the fourteenth,
  15. Kali the fifteenth,
  16. and Narada the sixteenth in this list,
  17. Vrihatta,
  18. Vrihaka,
  19. Karala of great soul,
  20. Brahmacarin,
  21. Vahuguna,
  22. Suvarna of great fame,
  23. Visvavasu,
  24. Bhumanyu,
  25. Sucandra,
  26. Sam
  27. and the celebrated tribes of Haha and Huhu gifted with wonderful melody of voice,

—these celestial Gandharvas, O king, all went there.

Many illustrious Apsaras also of large eyes, decked with every ornament came there to dance and sing.

  1. And Anucana
  2. and Anavadya,
  3. Gunamukhya
  4. and Gunavara,
  5. Adrika
  6. and Soma,
  7. Misrakesi
  8. and Alambusha,
  9. Marichi
  10. and Suchika,
  11. Vidyutparna
  12. and Tilottama
  13. and Ambika,
  14. Lakshmana,
  15. Kshema Devi,
  16. Rambha,
  17. Manorama,
  18. Asita,
  19. Suvahu,
  20. Supriya,
  21. Suvapuh,
  22. Pundarika,
  23. Sugandha,
  24. Surasa,
  25. Pramathini,
  26. Kamya
  27. and Saradvati,

all danced there together.

  1. And Menaka,
  2. Sahajanya,
  3. Karnika,
  4. Punjikasthala,
  5. Ritusthala,
  6. Ghritachi,
  7. Visvachi,
  8. Purvaciti,
  9. the celebrated Umlocha,
  10. Pramlocha the tenth
  11. and Urvasi the eleventh,

—these large-eyed dancing girls of heaven,—came there and sang in chorus.

  1. And Dharti
  2. and Aryaman
  3. and Mitra
  4. and Varuna,
  5. Bhaga
  6. and Indra,
  7. Vivasvat,
  8. Pushan,
  9. Tvastri
  10. and Parjanya
  11. or Vishnu,

these twelve [eleven?] Adityas came there to glorify Pandu’s son.

And, O king,

  1. Mrigavyadha,
  2. Sarpa,
  3. the celebrated Niriti,
  4. Ajaikapada,
  5. Ahivradhna,
  6. Pinakin,
  7. Dahana,
  8. Isvara,
  9. Kapalin,
  10. Sthanu
  11. and the illustrious Bhaga

—these eleven Rudras,—also came there.

  1. And the twin Asvins,
  2. the eight Vasus,
  3. the mighty Maruts,
  4. the Visvedevas,
  5. and the Sadhyas,

also came there.

  1. And Karkotaka,
  2. Vasuki,
  3. Kacchapa,
  4. Kunda
  5. and the great Naga Takshaka,

—these mighty and wrathful snakes possessed of high ascetic merit also came there.

  1. And Tarkshya,
  2. Arishtanemi,
  3. Garuda,
  4. Asitadvaja,

—these and many other Nagas, came there, so also Aruna and Aruni of Vinata’s race also came there.

And only great Rishis crowned with ascetic success and not others saw those celestials and other beings seated in their cars or waiting on the mountain peaks. Those best of Munis beholding that wonderful sight, became amazed, and their love and affection for the children of Pandu was in consequence enhanced.

"The celebrated Pandu, tempted by the desire of having more children wished to speak again unto his wedded wife (for invoking some other god). But Kunti addressed him, saying,

'The wise do not sanction a fourth delivery even in a season of distress. The woman having intercourse with four different men is called a Swairini (heanton), while she having intercourse with five becomes a harlot.

Therefore, O learned one, as you are well-acquainted with the scripture on this subject, why dost you, beguiled by desire of offspring, tell me so in seeming forgetfulness of the ordinance?'"


This concludes Section CXXIII of Book 1 (Adi Parva) of the Mahabharata, of which an English translation is presented on this page. This book is famous as one of the Itihasa, similair in content to the eighteen Puranas. Book 1 is one of the eighteen books comprising roughly 100,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

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