Kapalin, Kapālī, Kapāli, Kapālin, Kāpālin, Kapali: 25 definitions

Introduction:

Kapalin means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Agni Purāṇa

Kapālī (कपाली):—One of the Eleven Rudras (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Agni-purāṇa. The Agni Purāṇa is a religious text containing details on Viṣṇu’s different incarnations (avatar), but also deals with various cultural subjects such as Cosmology, Grammar and Astrology.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Kapālī (कपाली) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Kapālī) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kapālī (कपाली).—One of the eleven Rudras. This Rudra was the son of Sthāṇu, son of Brahmā. (Chapter 66, Ādi Parva). According to the Mahābhārata the eleven Rudras are the following: Mṛgavyādha, Sarpa, Nirṛti, Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Pinākī, Īśvara, Kapālī, Sthāṇu, Bharga and Dahana. (See under Kapardī). The eleven Rudras are referred to in different ways in Agni Purāṇa and Viṣṇu Purāṇa.

2) Kapālī (कपाली).—Śiva. The Mahābhārata gives the following story regarding the reason for Śiva’s getting the name of Kapālī.

2) Once a great controversy arose regarding the supreme sovereignty of the three worlds between Brahmā and Viṣṇu. Then there came to their midst an effulgence of Śiva and a voice from heaven said "He who finds the source of this brilliance is the real sovereign of the three worlds". Brahmā went up to find the upper end and Viṣṇu went down to find the lower end. They travelled for a very long time without finding the end when Brahmā saw a Ketakī flower coming down. On enquiry the flower said it was coming from the origin of the brilliance and that three Brahmā deluges had elapsed since its starting from there. Brahmā took that flower and went to Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu asked Brahmā whether he had seen the end of the effulgence and Brahmā said 'yes'. Immediately the flower in the hand of Brahmā turned into the figure of Śiva and cut off one of the heads of Brahmā making five-headed Brahmā into fourheaded. The angered Brahmā cursed Śiva "May you go begging with a Kapāla (human skull) in your hand." Thus Śiva became a Kapālī. Śiva cursed Brahmā back saying "You will not be worshipped by anyone" (See under Śiva, Brahmā).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Kapālin (कपालिन्) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] The leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Kapālin with five crores, the auspicious Sandāraka with six crores and Kaṇḍuka and Kuṇḍaka each with a crore. [...]”.

These [viz., Kapālin] and other leaders of Gaṇas [viz., Gaṇapas] were all powerful (mahābala) and innumerable (asaṃkhyāta). [...] The Gaṇa chiefs and other noble souls of spotless splendour eagerly reached there desirous of seeing Śiva. Reaching the spot they saw Śiva, bowed to and eulogised him.

2) Kapālin (कपालिन्) refers to an epithet of Śiva (i.e., Śiva is called Kapalin for He bears skulls of men [kapāla] as ornament), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.27. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once a great sacrifice was started by Dakṣa, [...] Dakṣa, the evil-minded, did not invite Śiva for that sacrifice, deciding that He was not worthy of taking part in the sacrifice because He was a Kapālin”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Kapāli (कपालि).—A name of Śiva: a Rudra.1 A Bhairava god;2 killed Gajāsura;3 Śiva had to become Kapāli for having destroyed the fifth face of Brahmā, but released through Hari's grace.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 25. 68; III. 3. 71; 25. 8.
  • 2) Ib. IV. 19. 79; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 123.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 153. 19-68; 171. 39.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 183. 87-100.

2) Kapālī (कपाली).—A mother goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 16.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kapālī (कपाली) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.3) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kapālī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Kapālin (कपालिन्) refers to “one carrying a skull” and is used to describe Śaṃkara (i.e., Bhairava), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess (i.e., Khageśī) said to the God (i.e., Bhairava), “[...] Being one who has matted hair, shaved head, (having a) topknot, carrying a skull [i.e., kapālin], smeared with ashes or wearing the five insignias—O god, (none of this) leads to accomplishment in the Kula tradition. (Even) a renouncer who does not bear the five insignias and is naked does not quickly achieve success in the western (transmission) of the House of the Yoginīs. This is forbidden and (so) all this is absent in the Kaula (teachings). O Maheśvara, as this is improper how can the Command be given to you?”.

2) Kāpālin (कापालिन्) or Asthibhaṃjaka refers to the Servant (kiṃkara) associated with Nāda, one of the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.

3) Kapālī (कपाली) refers to one of the eight Yoginīs (yoginī-aṣṭaka) associated with Nādapīṭha (identified with Kulūta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Yoginīs (yoginyaṣṭaka): Vīrabhadrā, Kālī, Kapālī, Vikṛtā, Kroṣṭāṅgī, Vāmabhadrā, Vāyuvegā, Hayānanā.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Kapālī (कपाली) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Kapālī] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Kapālī (कपाली) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Kapālī]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kāpālin (कापालिन्) refers to “skull-bearers” (Cf. Jayadrathayāmala verse 3.35.33).—Cf. Somajanakāpālī (“Skull-bearers who are the soma people”) which is another name for the Kāpālikas (“skull-bearers”), who were perhaps the most notorious Śaiva ascetics of classical India. The Kāpālikas were known for their cremation ground rituals and for wandering around with a skull for an alms bowl. The skull (kapāla), their most conspicuous attribute, also provided their name. But the Kāpālikas are also designated as Somasiddhāntins, “Those of the Soma Doctrine”, or the “Soma People with the Skull”. These appellations seem to have been of some importance because their initiation names also included or ended in -soma in most cases (e.g. Satyasoma, Devasomā, Somibhaṭṭāraka).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kapālin (कपालिन्) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kapālinī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kapālin] are whitish red in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kapāli (कपालि).—Name of Śiva.

Derivable forms: kapāliḥ (कपालिः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kapālin (कपालिन्).—a.

1) Furnished with or having a skull; Y.3.243.

2) Wearing skulls. कपालि वा स्यादथवेन्दुशेखरम् (kapāli vā syādathavenduśekharam) (vapuḥ) Kumārasambhava 5.78. -m.

1) An epithet of Śiva; करं कर्णे कुर्वन्त्यपि किल कपालिप्रभृतयः (karaṃ karṇe kurvantyapi kila kapāliprabhṛtayaḥ) G. L.28.

2) A man of low caste (offspring of a Brāhmaṇa mother to fisherman father.).

-nī Name of Durgā.

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Kāpālin (कापालिन्).—m. Name of Śiva; रुद्राणामिव कापाली (rudrāṇāmiva kāpālī) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.6.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapālin (कपालिन्).—m. (-lī) 1. A title of Siva. 2. A man of low caste, from a Brahman mother and fisherman father. f. (-linī) The goddess Durga. E. kapāla a skull, ini affix; and ṅīṣ fem. do.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapālin (कपालिन्).—i. e. kapāla + in, I. adj., f. , Wearing skulls (as a necklace), [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 5, 78; covered with skulls, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 4, 16. Ii. m. and f. A follower of a certain sect, [Prabodhacandrodaya, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 56, 13. Iii. m. A name of Śiva, Mahābhārata 2, 1641; of one of the Rudras, 1, 2567. Iv. f. , A name of Durgā.

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Kāpālin (कापालिन्).—m. 1. = kapālin Iii. Mahābhārata 13, 1217 (perhaps with lengthened a on account of the metre). 2. A proper name, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 9196.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapālin (कपालिन्).—[adjective] bearing a cup (for begging) or skulls (Śiva or a cert. Śivaitic seet).

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Kāpālin (कापालिन्).—[masculine] [Name] of Śiva (bearer of skulls); [plural] a cert. mixed caste.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Kāpālin (कापालिन्) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Quoted in Sarvadarśanasaṃgraha. Oxf. 247^a.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kapālī (कपाली):—[from kapāla] f. a beggar’s bowl, [Bhartṛhari]

2) Kapāli (कपालि):—[from kapāla] m. Name of Śiva (cf. the next).

3) Kāpālī (कापाली):—[from kāpāla] f. the Embelia Ribes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a clever woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Kāpāli (कापालि):—[from kāpāla] m. Name of a Siddha, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kapālin (कपालिन्):—[from kapāla] mfn. bearing a pot (to receive food, as a beggar), [Nārada-smṛti, nāradīya-dharma-śāstra]

2) [v.s. ...] furnished with or bearing skulls, [Yājñavalkya iii, 243; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Kumāra-sambhava]

3) [v.s. ...] mf. (ī, inī) a man or woman of low caste (son or daughter of a Brāhman mother and a fisherman father)

4) [v.s. ...] the follower of a particular Śaiva sect (carrying skulls of men as ornament and eating and drinking from them; cf. kāpālika), [Prabodha-candrodaya; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata i; Bālarāmāyaṇa] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] of one of the eleven Rudras, [Mahābhārata ii; Harivaṃśa] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] of a demon causing diseases, [Harivaṃśa 9557]

8) [v.s. ...] of a teacher

9) Kāpālin (कापालिन्):—[from kāpāla] m. ‘adorned with skulls’, Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata xiii, 1217] (cf. kapālin)

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a mixed caste, [Brahma-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Kṛṣṇa and Yaudhiṣṭhirī, [Harivaṃśa 9196.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapālin (कपालिन्):—(lī) 3. m. Shiva; a man of low caste (linī) 3. f. Durgā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kapalin in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kapali (ಕಪಲಿ):—[noun] = ಕಪಿಲೆ [kapile]1.

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Kapāli (ಕಪಾಲಿ):—

1) [noun] = ಕಪಾಲಹಸ್ತ [kapalahasta].

2) [noun] 2) a man of low caste (an offspring of a fisherman and a brāhmaṇa woman).

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Kapāli (ಕಪಾಲಿ):—[noun] a leather bag for carrying water.

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Kāpaḻi (ಕಾಪೞಿ):—

1) [verb] (one’s guard or protecting system) to be destroyed or broken.

2) [verb] to break another’s guard or protecting system.

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Kāpāli (ಕಾಪಾಲಿ):—[noun] = ಕಾಪಾಲಧರ [kapaladhara].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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