Karala, Karālā, Karaḷa, Karāla: 29 definitions

Introduction:

Karala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Karaḷa can be transliterated into English as Karala or Karalia, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Karal.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Karala [করলা] in the Bengali language is the name of a plant identified with Momordica charantia L. from the Cucurbitaceae (Pumpkin) family having the following synonyms: Momordica muricata, Momordica zeylanica, Momordica charantia var. muricata. For the possible medicinal usage of karala, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Karala [କରାଳ] in the Oriya language is the name of a plant identified with Jasminum multiflorum (Burm.f.) Andrews from the Oleaceae (Jasmine) family having the following synonyms: Jasminum pubescens, Jasminum gracillimum, Mogorium multiflorum.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Karāla (कराल)—Sanskrit word for “musk-deer” (Moschus moschiferus). This animal is from the group called Jaṅghāla (large-kneed). Jaṅghāla itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle)

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Karālā (कराला):—One of the four female attendant deities associated with Mitra, the central deity of the Mātṛcakra, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra. This central deity is named Piṅganātha in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā. She is also known by the name Karālī. She is the goddess of the pītha named Jālandhara.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Karāla (कराल) is the name of a teacher to whom the Kāpālika doctrine was revelead, mentioned in the Śābaratantra. The disciple of Karāla is mentioned as being Bhimanātha. The Śābara-tantra is an early tantra of the Kāpālika sect containing important information about the evolution of the Nātha sect. It also lists the twelve original Kāpālika teachers (eg., Karāla). Several of these names appear in the Nātha lists of eighty-four Siddhas and nine Nāthas.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)

Karāla (कराल) is the name of a Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) and together with Kramaṇī they preside over Maru: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra. Their weapon is the aṅkuśa. A similar system appears in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Karāla (कराल).—A Deva Gandharva. He took part in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Chapter 122, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Karāla (कराल) refers to “terrible” (e.g., the terrible miseries of worldly existence), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.3.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...] she who is the Tāmasika power of all the Gods, she who is visible in the Rājasika quality of the Creator, she who is heard by us as the benefactress and of the form of Śiva is eulogised here. Let us bow to her who is interested in residing on the Vindhya mountains; who is clever in the playful activity of affording protection to Aṣṭāṅga Yoga; who is devoid of cessation and who acts like a raft that enables the crossing of the ocean of worldly existence with its terrible miseries (i.e., karāla-bhavāṅga-duḥkha)”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Karāla (कराल).—Another term for Śiva; a Bhairava.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 25. 68; IV. 20. 82.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Karāla (कराल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.56, XIV.8.13, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Karāla) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: The Kubjikāmatatantra: Kulālikāmnāya Version

Karāla (कराल) refers to one of the places where Devī becomes incarnate, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra.—After her stay on the Kaumāraparvata, Devī visits several localities e.g., Mount Trikūṭa, Mount Kiṣkindha etc., untill she reaches the Western Himagahvara. This locality and the three following—Karāla, Sahya Mahāvana, Ucchuṣmā Nadī—are identified with the four Mahāpīṭhas: Oḍḍiyāna, Jālandhara, Pūrṇagiri and Kāmarūpa. In these four places, Devī becomes incarnate as a protective goddess and future mother of many sons and daughters; a number of servants also appears at each of the four localities. During her stay in the fourth Mahāpīṭha Devī explains the fifth which is called Mātaṅga. In contradistinction to the other Pīṭhas it has no fixed location on earth, but seems to be located above Kāmarūpa. As such it is the place of origin of the entire world. [...] After her visit to the fourth Mahāpīṭha, the goddess proceeds to various other places; [...]

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Karāla (कराल) refers to the “fierce” face of the Goddess, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] When she heard the Bhairavīstotra, that Kuleśvarī burst apart the Liṅga by means of Bhairava’s unlimited energy (tejas) and having done so, emerged out (of it). She was dark blue (śyāmā) like the petals of a blue lotus and (her hair was) tied up in the barbarian style. Extending her left hand, she was bent over (kubjarūpā) and had a big belly. The goddess with a fierce (karāla) face, (her) mind full of wonder, spoke there in (that) dwelling (vāsara), looking around in all directions”.

2) Karāla (कराल) (also, Jāla, Jālandhara) refers to a Mahāpīṭha (main sacred seat) and one of the ten places visited by the Goddess on her pilgrimage, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] (Then) having thus given them a boon, she reached Karāla. The place is brilliant with rows of mighty flames (mahājvāla), the greatly astonishing energy (tejas) of the goddess, and so is called Jāla. Passing some time (there), she burnt with the awakened rays (of her radiance) and beheld before (her) countless marvellous creations like (those produced) by magic (indrajāla)”.

3) Kārālā (काराला) (or Kārālāmudrā) is the name of the gesture (mudrā) associated with Jālandhara, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Note: Although not all the mantras uttered in the course of a ritual are accompanied by a corresponding gesture, many are, and so are commonly formed (baddha lit. ‘bound’) in quick succession. In this context, the gestures [i.e., kārālā] are, like the other constituents of the seats, channels through which the deity's energy flows and operates. The goddess, as pure spiritual energy, is herself Mudrā—Gesture.

4) Karāla (कराल) refers to one of the eight Bhairavas  (bhairavāṣṭaka) associated with Oṃkārapīṭha (also called Oḍḍiyāna, Ādipīṭha or Uḍapīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Bhairavas (bhairavāṣṭaka): Niṣkala, Asitāṅga, Saṃvarta, Ānandabhairava, Niṣtaraṅga, Karāla, Amogha, Khecara.

5) Karāla (कराल) also refers to one of the eight Heroes (vīra-aṣṭaka) associated with Oṃkārapīṭha.—[...] The eight heroes (vīrāṣṭaka): Karāla, Kanda, Vimala, Rudrāṅga, Kamalekṣaṇa, Vicitra, Citra, Bhānu.

6) Karāla (कराल) also refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Candrapīṭha (or Candrapīṭhapura).—[...] The eight Guardians (kṣetrapālāṣṭaka): Niśānta, Nigraha, Dhanañjaya, Dhaneśvara, Karāla, Vaḍavāmukha, Vikarāla, Sugrīva.

7) Karālā (कराला) refers to the Gesture associated with Jālandhara, one of the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Karāla (कराल) is the name of a Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) and together with Kramaṇī Devī they preside over Maru: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). Their weapon is the aṅkuśa and pāśa and their abode is a big desert. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Karāla (कराल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Karāla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Karaḷa, (karala) a wisp of grass (tiṇa°) DhA. III, 38; DhsA. 272. (Page 196)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karala (करल).—n f Husk of rice, sāvā, nācaṇā, rāḷā, varī; esp. fine chaff.

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karaḷa (करळ).—m A sort of soft sandstone, called also kaḍa. 2 n f R (Or karala) Husk of rice and of the inferior and coarse grains. 3 A vacuity or an interstice (as in a loose-textured basket, in rōvaḷī, pāṭī, sūpa &c.)

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karaḷa (करळ).—n karaḷā m The half-burned grass of a kiln underneath the pitchers, bricks, tiles &c.: also a single kāḍī or stalk of it.

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karāla (कराल).—n (Or karala) Husk of rice and of the inferior and coarse grains.

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karāla (कराल).—a S pop. karāḷa a Frightful, formidable, terrible.

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kāralā (कारला).—m An ornament for the wrist, a sort of bāṅgaḍī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

karala (करल).—n f Husk of rice, nācaṇā &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—a.

1) Dreadful, formidable, frightful, terrible; U.5.5,6.1; Māl.3; Bg.11.23,25,27; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् (vapurmahoragasyeva karālaphaṇamaṇḍalam) R.12.98; Mv.3.48.

2) Gaping, opening wide; करालवक्त्र (karālavaktra) U.5.6.

3) Great, large, high, lofty.

4) Uneven, jagged; pointed; प्रालेयमिश्रमकरन्द- करालकोशैः (prāleyamiśramakaranda- karālakośaiḥ) (puṣpaiḥ) Ve.2.6; Māl.1.38.

5) Harsh, क्वणितकरालकिंकिणीकः (kvaṇitakarālakiṃkiṇīkaḥ) Māl.5.3.

6) Wide, spacious; सन्धिः करालो भवेत् (sandhiḥ karālo bhavet) Mk.3.12.

7) Deformed.

8) Having projecting teeth; करालो दन्तुरे तुङ्गे विकृतोज्ज्वलयोरपि । विग्रहे भीषणे (karālo danture tuṅge vikṛtojjvalayorapi | vigrahe bhīṣaṇe) ... ()|| Nm.

-laḥ 1 Resin, pitch.

2) A disease of the teeth.

3) Black Tulasī.

-lā A terrific form of Durgā; °आयतनम् (āyatanam); न करालोपहलाराच्च फलमन्यद्विभाव्यते (na karālopahalārācca phalamanyadvibhāvyate) Māl.5. 33.

-lī One of the seven tongues of fire. काली कराली च मनोजवा च (kālī karālī ca manojavā ca) Muṇḍ.1.2.4.

-lam A particular condiment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 97.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Great, large. 2. High, lofty. 3. Formidable, terrible. 4. Having projecting teeth. m.

(-laḥ) Rosin, pitch, or a mixture of oil and the resin of the Sal tree. n.

(-laṃ) A dark kind of Tulasi or Basil. f.

(-lā) A kind of swallow wort, commonly Anantamul, (Hemisdemus Indicus.) See śārivā. f. (-lī) One of the seven tongues of Agni or fire. E. kara the hand, &c. with āṅ prefixed to take, and ka affix; or kara, and al to be able, &c. affix aṇ, fem. do ṭāp or ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—adj., f. , 1. Gaping, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 47, 2. 2. Formidable, [Hiḍimbavadha] 2, 5; Mahābhārata 2, 296. Ii. m. 1. A certain beast, [Suśruta] 1, 200, 8. 2. The name of a locality, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 1, 97. Iii. f. , A name of Durgā, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 75, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—[adjective] projecting (teeth or eyes), opening wide, gaping, ugly, terrible; [feminine] ā [Epithet] of Durga. Abstr. [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karāla (कराल):—mfn. opening wide, cleaving asunder, gaping (as a wound), [Mṛcchakaṭikā; Pañcatantra; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) having a gaping mouth and projecting teeth, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Rāmāyaṇa; Prabodha-candrodaya]

3) formidable, dreadful, terrible, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

4) m. a species of animal, musk-deer, [Suśruta; Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

5) a mixture of oil and the resin of Shorea Robusta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Name of a region, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

7) of an Asura

8) of a Rakṣas

9) of a Deva-gandharva

10) Karālā (कराला):—[from karāla] f. Hemidesmus Indicus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [Mālatīmādhava]

12) [v.s. ...] of a procuress, [Hitopadeśa]

13) Karāla (कराल):—n. a sort of basil, [Caraka]

14) a kind of Ocimum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल):—[karā+la] (laḥ) 1. m. Rosin, pitch. () A kind of swallow wort. (lo) One of the seven tongues of fire. n. Black basil. a. Terrible; great, lofty, projecting.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karāla (कराल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Karāla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Karāla (कराल) [Also spelled karal]:—(a) terrifying, formidable; hence ~[] (nf).

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Karāla (कराल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Karāla.

2) Karāla (कराल) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Karāla.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karala (ಕರಲ):—[noun] a particular kind of physical exercise by wrestlers and body-builders.

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Karāla (ಕರಾಲ):—[adjective] = ಕರಾಳ [karala]1.

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Karāla (ಕರಾಲ):—[noun] = ಕರಾಳ [karala]2.

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Karāḷa (ಕರಾಳ):—

1) [adjective] very much exceeding the usual size, number or degree; of great size; huge; vast.

2) [adjective] causing fright; terrifying; frightening; dreadful.

3) [adjective] outrageously evil or wicked; abominable; heinous; atrocious; very brutal.

4) [adjective] abnormal to a considerable degree.

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Karāḷa (ಕರಾಳ):—

1) [noun] (myth.) Rāhu, a serpant demon, once believed to eclipse the sun and moon, considered to be one of the nine planets that rule the destinies of individuals.

2) [noun] Yama, the Hindu Death-God.

3) [noun] Śiva.

4) [noun] a disease of the teeth.

5) [noun] the plant Ocimum sanctum of Lamiaceae family; sacred basil; black basil.

6) [noun] (myth.) one of the hells.

7) [noun] a cloth made from the hair of some wild animals.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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