Karala, Karālā, Karaḷa, Karāla: 21 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Karala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Karaḷa can be transliterated into English as Karala or Karalia, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Karāla (कराल)—Sanskrit word for “musk-deer” (Moschus moschiferus). This animal is from the group called Jaṅghāla (large-kneed). Jaṅghāla itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle)

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Karālā (कराला):—One of the four female attendant deities associated with Mitra, the central deity of the Mātṛcakra, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra. This central deity is named Piṅganātha in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā. She is also known by the name Karālī. She is the goddess of the pītha named Jālandhara.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Karāla (कराल) is the name of a teacher to whom the Kāpālika doctrine was revelead, mentioned in the Śābaratantra. The disciple of Karāla is mentioned as being Bhimanātha. The Śābara-tantra is an early tantra of the Kāpālika sect containing important information about the evolution of the Nātha sect. It also lists the twelve original Kāpālika teachers (eg., Karāla). Several of these names appear in the Nātha lists of eighty-four Siddhas and nine Nāthas.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)

Karāla (कराल) is the name of a Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) and together with Kramaṇī they preside over Maru: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra. Their weapon is the aṅkuśa. A similar system appears in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18).

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Karāla (कराल).—A Deva Gandharva. He took part in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Chapter 122, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Karāla (कराल).—Another term for Śiva; a Bhairava.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 25. 68; IV. 20. 82.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Karāla (कराल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.56, XIV.8.13, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Karāla) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Karāla (कराल) is the name of a Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) and together with Kramaṇī Devī they preside over Maru: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). Their weapon is the aṅkuśa and pāśa and their abode is a big desert. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Karāla (कराल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Karāla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Karaḷa, (karala) a wisp of grass (tiṇa°) DhA. III, 38; DhsA. 272. (Page 196)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karala (करल).—n f Husk of rice, sāvā, nācaṇā, rāḷā, varī; esp. fine chaff.

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karaḷa (करळ).—m A sort of soft sandstone, called also kaḍa. 2 n f R (Or karala) Husk of rice and of the inferior and coarse grains. 3 A vacuity or an interstice (as in a loose-textured basket, in rōvaḷī, pāṭī, sūpa &c.)

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karaḷa (करळ).—n karaḷā m The half-burned grass of a kiln underneath the pitchers, bricks, tiles &c.: also a single kāḍī or stalk of it.

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karāla (कराल).—n (Or karala) Husk of rice and of the inferior and coarse grains.

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karāla (कराल).—a S pop. karāḷa a Frightful, formidable, terrible.

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kāralā (कारला).—m An ornament for the wrist, a sort of bāṅgaḍī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

karala (करल).—n f Husk of rice, nācaṇā &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—a.

1) Dreadful, formidable, frightful, terrible; U.5.5,6.1; Māl.3; Bg.11.23,25,27; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् (vapurmahoragasyeva karālaphaṇamaṇḍalam) R.12.98; Mv.3.48.

2) Gaping, opening wide; करालवक्त्र (karālavaktra) U.5.6.

3) Great, large, high, lofty.

4) Uneven, jagged; pointed; प्रालेयमिश्रमकरन्द- करालकोशैः (prāleyamiśramakaranda- karālakośaiḥ) (puṣpaiḥ) Ve.2.6; Māl.1.38.

5) Harsh, क्वणितकरालकिंकिणीकः (kvaṇitakarālakiṃkiṇīkaḥ) Māl.5.3.

6) Wide, spacious; सन्धिः करालो भवेत् (sandhiḥ karālo bhavet) Mk.3.12.

7) Deformed.

8) Having projecting teeth; करालो दन्तुरे तुङ्गे विकृतोज्ज्वलयोरपि । विग्रहे भीषणे (karālo danture tuṅge vikṛtojjvalayorapi | vigrahe bhīṣaṇe) ... ()|| Nm.

-laḥ 1 Resin, pitch.

2) A disease of the teeth.

3) Black Tulasī.

-lā A terrific form of Durgā; °आयतनम् (āyatanam); न करालोपहलाराच्च फलमन्यद्विभाव्यते (na karālopahalārācca phalamanyadvibhāvyate) Māl.5. 33.

-lī One of the seven tongues of fire. काली कराली च मनोजवा च (kālī karālī ca manojavā ca) Muṇḍ.1.2.4.

-lam A particular condiment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 97.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Great, large. 2. High, lofty. 3. Formidable, terrible. 4. Having projecting teeth. m.

(-laḥ) Rosin, pitch, or a mixture of oil and the resin of the Sal tree. n.

(-laṃ) A dark kind of Tulasi or Basil. f.

(-lā) A kind of swallow wort, commonly Anantamul, (Hemisdemus Indicus.) See śārivā. f. (-lī) One of the seven tongues of Agni or fire. E. kara the hand, &c. with āṅ prefixed to take, and ka affix; or kara, and al to be able, &c. affix aṇ, fem. do ṭāp or ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—adj., f. , 1. Gaping, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 47, 2. 2. Formidable, [Hiḍimbavadha] 2, 5; Mahābhārata 2, 296. Ii. m. 1. A certain beast, [Suśruta] 1, 200, 8. 2. The name of a locality, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 1, 97. Iii. f. , A name of Durgā, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 75, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karāla (कराल).—[adjective] projecting (teeth or eyes), opening wide, gaping, ugly, terrible; [feminine] ā [Epithet] of Durga. Abstr. [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karāla (कराल):—mfn. opening wide, cleaving asunder, gaping (as a wound), [Mṛcchakaṭikā; Pañcatantra; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) having a gaping mouth and projecting teeth, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Rāmāyaṇa; Prabodha-candrodaya]

3) formidable, dreadful, terrible, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

4) m. a species of animal, musk-deer, [Suśruta; Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

5) a mixture of oil and the resin of Shorea Robusta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Name of a region, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

7) of an Asura

8) of a Rakṣas

9) of a Deva-gandharva

10) Karālā (कराला):—[from karāla] f. Hemidesmus Indicus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [Mālatīmādhava]

12) [v.s. ...] of a procuress, [Hitopadeśa]

13) Karāla (कराल):—n. a sort of basil, [Caraka]

14) a kind of Ocimum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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