Nandi, Nāndī, Nandin, Nāndi, Nandī, Nāndin, Namdi: 54 definitions
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Nandi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Nandī (नन्दी) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds pung with both hands. She wears a bodice of dark-green colour, a scarf of light-green colour with a white design and lower garment (a trouser) of rosy colour with a crimson-coloured design.
The illustrations (of, for example Nandī) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).Source: Academia.edu: Nandi
Nandi is considered to be one of Śiva's chief attendants and occasionally is depicted in sculpture as a bull-faced dwarf figure. Nandi is known also in a wholly anthropomorphic form, called variously Nandikēśvara, or Adhikāranandin. Sculptures of him in human form, found at the entrance door of many Śiva temples in South India, are frequently confused with images of the deity because they are alike in such iconographic features as the third eye, crescent moon in the matted locks, and four arms, two of which hold the battle-ax and an antelope. Usually a distinguishing feature is that Nandi's hands are pressed together in adoration.Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity
The Bull (Nandi) of Śiva represents virility or libido. Nandi in Sanskrit means ‘delight’ and the greatest form of delight on the material plane is sexual. Sex is perhaps one of the greatest drives and also the hardest to control and sublimate.Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Nandi (The Bull) - The libido, also Dharma — the way to enlightenment and liberation.Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Nandin (नन्दिन्) is a sculpture found at the temple of Lokeśvara.—Nandin, being the vehicle of God Śiva, should always be seated, facing the god, except in the case when He is set up to go on war expedition. Here as Śiva is not on war expedition, his mount is sitting, waiting for the Lord. The temple and the Lokeśvara Liṅga face east. Nandin in the maṇḍapa faces west. It is an open pillared pavilion built on an elevated platform covered with sculptures and other decorations.
Śivapurāṇa sheds light on why Nandin is represented with a high hump. It says: “The king of great splendour, thundering like the great cloud, who is comparable to the peaks of Meru, Kailāsa etc., whose hump is huge in size like the white peaks of clouds…” (Vāyavīyasaṃhitā, uttarabhāga, chapter 31, 53-57). So Nandin is having a hump as high as the peaks of Meru or Kailāsa mountains.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shilpa)
Nandin (नन्दिन्) is described in the Saurapurāṇa as follows:— The form of Nandī as described in the Saurapurāṇa (53.57ff) shows that he was decorated with all the ornaments having the lustre of thousand suns; holding śūla in hand, having three eyes and bearing moon on the forehead and looking as the second Śaṃkara (dvitīyamiva śaṃkaram).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Nandī (नन्दी):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Nandī (नन्दी) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Vairāja, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Vairāja group contains twenty-four out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). The group represents temples (e.g. Nandī) that are to be square shaped. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)
Nandī (नन्दी) refers to one of the hundred types of Temples (in ancient Indian architecture), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—It is quite difficult to say about a definite number of varieties of Hindu temples but in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa hundred varieties of temples have been enumerated. For example, Nandī. These temples are classified according to the particular shape, amount of storeys and other common elements, such as the number of pavilions, doors and roofs.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Nāndī (नान्दी, “benediction”) refers to one of the ten practices performed after the removal of the stage curtain, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5. Accordingly, “The benediction (nāndī) is so called because it must always include and invoke the blessing of gods, Brahmins and kings” and “After performing the apakṛṣṭa, the Director will recite in a medium tone the benediction (nāndī) which should consist of eight or twelve feet”.
Performing the nāndī preliminary pleases Candramā (the mood-god). According to Nāṭyaśāstra 5.57-58, “The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping (pūjā) the gods (devas), is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is conducive to duty, fame and long life. And this performance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the Daityas and the Dānavas as well as the gods.”
According to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35, “as one pleases by it the audience (lit. people) with sweet words of blessing, it is called nāndī (benediction). That which is spoken in the performance of a play to please people in various ways, with Sanskrit and Prakrit recitatives, is to be known as nāndī”.
2) Nandi (नन्दि) is the name of a cloud whose sound corresponds to the Āliṅgya note made by drums (puṣkara) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “after seeing that the Mṛdaṅgas, Paṇavas and Dardaras have been made, the great sage Svāti brought about a similarity of their notes with those of clouds... The cloud named Nandi gave note to Āliṅgya... Those who want Success of performances should make to these clouds, offerings which are dear to spirits (bhūta)”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Nandī (नन्दी) is the name of a gaṇa (attendant of Śiva), mentioned in the Skandapurāṇa 4.2.53. In this chapter, Śiva (Giriśa) summons his attendants (gaṇas) and ask them to venture towards the city Vārāṇasī (Kāśī) in order to find out what the yoginīs, the sun-god, Vidhi (Brahmā) were doing there.
While the gaṇas such as Nandī were staying at Kāśī, they were desirous but unable of finding a weakness in king Divodaśa who was ruling there. Kāśī is described as a fascinating place beyond the range of Giriśa’s vision, and as a place where yoginīs become ayoginīs, after having come in contact with it. Kāśī is described as having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
The Skandapurāṇa narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is the largest Mahāpurāṇa composed of over 81,000 metrical verses, with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Nandī (नन्दी) is the son of Śilāda, a Brāhmaṇa mentioned in the Bhūteśvaramāhātmya, which is embedded in the Nīlamata-purāṇa.—Gonanda’s inquiry about the sacred places of Kaśmīra lead to Bṛhadaśva’s reply referring to various places dedicated to Śiva and other deities. Two names, Bhūteśvara and Kapaṭeśvara, raise Gonanda’s curiosity which, leads Bṛhadaśva to relate Bhūteśvara Māhātmya containing the story of a Brāhmaṇa Śilāda and his son Nandī and Kapaṭeśvara Māhātmya explaining the name of Śiva who appeared before the sages in the guise of logs of wood.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Nandī (नन्दी).—A Deva Gandharva. He was present at the birth celebration of Arjuna. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 56).
2) Nandī (नन्दी).—One of the divine attendants of Śiva. (See under Nandikeśa).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Nandin (नन्दिन्) refers to one of the attendants (gaṇa) of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Then after approaching Satī, Śiva sent out His attendants—Nandin and others, from the cave in the mountain. Following the manner of the people of the world, the merciful lord spoke these affable and courteous words to Nandin and others: [...] Lord Śiva said:—O my attendants, with minds respectfully concentrated in thinking upon me, you shall come to me only when I remember you. When Śiva said like this, Nandin and others who constituted the powerful set of attendants of quick speed left for different places. When they went away and He was left alone with Satī, Śiva rejoiced much and sported with her”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Nandi (नन्दि).—A son of Svarga.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 6.
1c) A consort of Dhṛti; was deserted by her for Soma.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 23. 26.
1d) A gaṇa attending on Mahādeva seated on the peak of the Himālayas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 192. 6.
1e) A son of Nandivardhana; with him the Pradyota line came to an end; was the fifth of the line. All the five ruled for a period of 138 years.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 7-8.
2) Nāndi (नान्दि).—A kind of śrāddha for propitiating the Pitṛs.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 13. 6.
Nandī (नन्दी) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.32). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Nandī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Nandī (नन्दी) and Bhairava were ordered to guard Mandara mountain where Pārvatī was residing, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “[...] In order to enjoy Śarvāṇī (Pārvatī) Andhaka proceeded to Mandara mountain. For some reason Śiva had gone to beg alms with the Brāhmaṇas and placed Pārvatī on the Mandara. Gods assuming the forms of women were in the service of the goddess. The Lord ordered Nandī and Bhairava to guard. [...]”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Nandin (नन्दिन्) was given the order to guard the door when Śiva was about to tell a story (the adventures of the seven Vidyādharas) to Pārvatī. When Puṣpadanta was about to enter, he was denied entrance by Nandin.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Nandin, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Nandi is the name of one of the eighteen Siddhars mentioned in the Abhidāna-cintāmaṇi, a 12th century lexicon by Hemacandra. The Siddhars refers to ancient intellectuals of Tamil Nadu and are the teachers of Siddha medicine: an ancient practice of South-India claiming to over 8,000 years old.
According to tradition, Nandi and Agastya learnt the Siddha system of medicine and Śivayoga from Śiva, and imparted it to a number of disciples (eg., Nandi). These Siddhars are united by their philosophy, accepting the human body as the microcosm of the universe, and seeing the human evolution as the ultimate accomplishment of the regenerative power of the Universe.Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śaivism)
Nandin (नन्दिन्).—In the Somaśambhupaddhati it is mentioned that Nandin is dvārapāla, guardian of the eastern door of the shrine and his place is to the southeast. This statement leads us to say that Nandin, vehicle of Śiva, is different from the door guardian Nandin who is also called Nandīśvara, Śailādin etc. He is represented with human body, fangs, head bedecked with two horns and a tiara.Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)
Nandi (नन्दि) refers to progenitor of the most ancient group of Siddha thinkers. Nandideva is semantically identified with Ṛṣabadēva, who gained the wisdom directly from the Supreme Lord Śiva.
Tradition holds that Nandi was the chief exponent of Indian tradition of Dance. He was identified with Taṇḍu and as an author of the Nāṭyaśāstra, a treatise on dance and the name Tāṇḍava was given to the dance of Śiva. Nandi is also regarded as the first exponent of rasa theory and Vātsyāyana acknowledges him as the first author of Kāma.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)
Nandin (नन्दिन्) or Nandī refers to one of Śiva’s associates (Gaṇa), according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Nandī is first mentioned in the Rāmāyaṇa, Uttarakāṇḍa 16.8 and the characteristics of Nandī as discribed here appears to be the general characteristics of the Gaṇas of Śiva:—“That Nandī is of firece form, dark and yellow-complexioned, dwarfish, with short arms, bald headed and powerful”.
The Liṅgapurāṇa, Kūrmapurāṇa and other Purāṇas narrate how Śiva himself was born as Nandin, the son of the blind Ṛṣi Śilāda. Hence he is called Śailādi and the leader of the Gaṇas. Nandin is said to have attained the Lord of the Gaṇas by observing kṛṣṇāṣṭamī-vrata in honour of Śaṃkara.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Nandī (नन्दी) is another name for Apāmārga, a medicinal plant identified with Achyranthes aspera Linn. (“prickly chaff-flower”) from the Amaranthaceae or “amaranth” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.88-91 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Nandī and Apāmārga, there are a total of twenty-three Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Nandī (नन्दी) refers to:—Śrī Śiva’s bull carrier. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Nandi is the divine ox, who is the mount of Lord Shiva. He is the most well known member of the Ganas, who comprise Shiva's army. His likeness is present in all the temples of Shiva and it is customary to pay respects to him before proceeding to get a glimpse of Shiva and Parvati.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Nandi (नंदि): Nandi is the white bull which Shiva rides, and the leader of the Ganas. The white color of the bull symbolizes purity and justice.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
The name of Maha Kassapa when he was king of Benares. The story is given in Ras.i.26f. The name if; evidently a variant of Nanda. See Nanda (11).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)
Nandi (नन्दि) is the name of a Gandharva appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Puruṣapura, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Gandharva Nandi in Puruṣapura], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Nandi (नन्दि) is the name of the caitya-tree (identified with Cendrela tooma) under which the parents of Śānti are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.
Śānti is the sixteenth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Bhānu and his mother is Suvratā, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).
2) Nandī (नन्दी) is the name of the sixth Baladeva according to Digambara sources, while Śvetāmbara sources mentions Ānanda as the third Baladeva. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).
The stories of the nine Baladevas (such as Nandī) are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra. They are also known as the Balabhadras and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Baladeva is described as follows: their body is of a white complexion, they wear a blue-black robe, and the mark of the palm-tree (tāla) is seen on their banners.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
Ṇandi (णन्दि) is a Prakrit technical term referring to a ending for names in general as well as friendly names, representing a rule when deriving personal names as mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning ṇandi) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Nandi (नन्दि) is the name of an ancient village situated in Dhātakīkhaṇḍa, as mentioned in chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as the incarnation of Svayambuddha said to the incarnation of king Mahābala:
“[...] Do not be downcast, noble sir. Be at ease now. I have found your wife as I searched for her. In the continent Dhātakīkhaṇḍa, in the East Videhas in the village Nandi, there is a miserable householder, named Nāgila. Wandering like a ghost daily to fill his stomach, he goes to bed hungry and thirsty and gets up the same. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (historical)
Nandi (नन्दि).—A limited number of documents indicate that a historical figure named Nandi may have lived in the same century as Tirumūlar. This Nandi, a Buddhist monk from central India, left India in the middle of the seventh century, traveling by sea to Śrīlaṅkā and Southeast Asia before arriving in China in 655 C.E. A year later, the emperor of China shipped him off to sea again to collect medicinal herbs. He returned to China in 663 C.E.Source: Shodhganga: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu
Nandi refers to one of the various famous Siddha Centre distributed throughout South India and Tamil Nadu. The Siddha cult represents a Tantric philosophy that emerged from the combination of several elements found in traditions such as Shaivism (viz., Pashupata), Shaktism, Jainism, Tantric Buddhism (Vajrayana), etc. Both the Siddha and the Navanath cult (i.e., Nava-natha, ‘nine saints’) are popular in South India [viz., Nandi] and Tamilnadu. A Siddha was an inspired seer belonging to the marginalized sections of society who dissolved their past karma and crushed the roots of future karma.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs
Nandi [ನಂದಿ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Lagerstroemia microcarpa from the Lythraceae (Crape Myrtle) family having the following synonyms: Lagerstroemia lanceolata. For the possible medicinal usage of nandi, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.
Nandi in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. ex Hook.f. from the Phyllanthaceae (Amla) family having the following synonyms: Lebedieropsis orbicularis.
Nandi [ನಂದಿ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Toona ciliata from the Meliaceae (Neem) family.Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
1) Nandi in India is the name of a plant defined with Cleistanthus collinus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Lebidieropsis orbiculata var. lambertii Müll.Arg. (among others).
2) Nandi is also identified with Ficus arnottiana It has the synonym Urostigma caulobotryum Miq. (etc.).
3) Nandi is also identified with Ficus benghalensis It has the synonym Ficus indica L. (etc.).
4) Nandi is also identified with Lagerstroemia lanceolata It has the synonym Lagerstroemia lanceolata Wall. ex Wight & Arn., nom. inval. (etc.).
5) Nandi is also identified with Lagerstroemia microcarpa It has the synonym Lagerstroemia microcarpa Hance (etc.).
6) Nandi is also identified with Lagerstroemia parviflora.
7) Nandi is also identified with Lagerstroemia speciosa It has the synonym Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. (etc.).
8) Nandi is also identified with Thespesia populnea It has the synonym Hibiscus populifolius Salisb. (etc.).
9) Nandi is also identified with Toona ciliata It has the synonym Cedrela yunnanensis C. DC. (etc.).
10) Nandi in Peru is also identified with Genipa americana It has the synonym Gardenia oblongifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. (etc.).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1791)
· Synopseos Plantarum (1805)
· Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden (1972)
· Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1761)
· Plants of the Coast of Coromandel (1802)
· Flora Yunnanica (1977)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Nandi, for example extract dosage, pregnancy safety, health benefits, side effects, diet and recipes, chemical composition, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
nandi : (aor. of nandati) was glad; rejoices; found delight in. (f.), pleasure; joy; delight; craving.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
1) Nandin, (adj.) (Sk. nandin) finding or giving delight, delighting in, pleasurable, gladdening S. II, 53 (vedanā); A. II, 59, 61; It. 112. (Page 346)
2) Nandi, 2 =nandhi. (Page 346)
3) Nandi, 1 & (frequent) Nandī (f.) (Sk. nandi, but cp. BSk. nandī Divy 37) 1. joy, enjoyment, pleasure, delight in (c. Loc.) S. I, 16, 39, 54; II, 101 sq. (āhāre); III, 14 (=upādāna); IV, 36 sq.; A. II, 10 (kāma°, bhava°, diṭṭhi°), III, 246; IV, 423 sq. (dhamma°); Sn. 1055 (+nivesana); Nd2 330 (=taṇhā); Pug. 57; Dhs. 1059≈(in def. of taṇhā); Vbh. 145, 356, 361; DhsA. 363; ThA. 65, 167.—For nandī at Miln. 289 read tandī.—2. a musical instrument: joy-drum (Sk. nandī) Vin. III, 108 (=vijayabheri). Cp. ā°.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
nandī (नंदी).—m (S) The bull on which Mahadeva rides. A stone-bull is fixed in front of all temples to Mahadeva. Hence A term for a dolt or blockhead. 2 (Or nanda) The lines or figures drawn with kuṅkūṃ &c. upon the antaḥpaṭa.
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nāndī (नांदी).—f S Eulogium of a king or praise of a deity recited in benedictory verses at the opening of a drama &c.
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nāndī (नांदी).—f (Commonly nānda) A large open-mouthed jar.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
nandī (नंदी).—m The bull on which Mahadeva rides.
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nāndī (नांदी).—f Eulogium of a king or praise of a deity recited in benedictory verses at the opening of a drama &c.
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nāndī (नांदी).—f (Commonly nānda.) A large open- mouthed jar.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Nandi (नन्दि).—m., f. [nand-in] Joy, pleasure, delight; प्रातिष्ठन्नन्दिमापन्नाः स्वं स्वमाश्रममण्डलम् (prātiṣṭhannandimāpannāḥ svaṃ svamāśramamaṇḍalam) Bhāgavata 3.24.25. कौसल्या- नन्दिवर्धनः (kausalyā- nandivardhanaḥ).
1) An epithet of Viṣṇu.
2) Of Śiva.
3) Name of an attendant of Śiva.
4) Gambling, gaming; (n. also in this sense).
5) The speaker of a prelude or benediction (in a drama.)
6) Prosperity; मानहा भव शत्रूणां सुहृदां नन्दिवर्धनः (mānahā bhava śatrūṇāṃ suhṛdāṃ nandivardhanaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.162.29.
Derivable forms: nandiḥ (नन्दिः).
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Nandī (नन्दी).—f. Name of Durgā.
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Nāndī (नान्दी).—[nandanti devā atra nand-ghañ pṛṣo° vṛddhiḥ ṅīp]
1) Joy, satisfaction, delight.
2) Prosperity; ततो राजकुले नान्दी संजज्ञे भूयसा पुनः (tato rājakule nāndī saṃjajñe bhūyasā punaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.82.66.
3) Praise of a deity at the commencement of a religious rite or observance.
4) Particularly, the benedictory verse or verses recited as a sort of prologue at the beginning of a drama, benediction; आशीर्वचनसंयुक्ता नित्यं यस्मात् प्रयुज्यते । देवद्विजनृपा- दीनां तस्मान्नान्दीति संज्ञिता (āśīrvacanasaṃyuktā nityaṃ yasmāt prayujyate | devadvijanṛpā- dīnāṃ tasmānnāndīti saṃjñitā) || or देवद्विजनृपादीनामाशीर्वचनपूर्विका । नन्दन्ति देवता यस्यां तस्मान्नान्दीति कीर्तिता (devadvijanṛpādīnāmāśīrvacanapūrvikā | nandanti devatā yasyāṃ tasmānnāndīti kīrtitā) ||
5) Loud noise of a dozen drums; L. D. B.
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Nandin (नन्दिन्).—a. [nand-ṇini]
1) Happy, pleased, glad, delighted.
2) Making happy, gladdening, giving delight; अद्याप्यानन्दयति मां त्वं पुनः क्वासि नन्दिनी (adyāpyānandayati māṃ tvaṃ punaḥ kvāsi nandinī) Uttararāmacarita 3.14.
3) Delighting in, liking.
1) A son.
2) The speaker of a prelude or benediction in a drama.
3) Name of the door-keeper of Śiva, his chief attendant, or of the bull which he rides; लतागृहद्वारगतोऽथ नन्दी (latāgṛhadvāragato'tha nandī) Kumārasambhava 3.41; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.1.
4) An epithet of Viṣṇu.
5) The Indian fig-tree.
1) A daughter; तेषां कुले त्वमसि नन्दिनि पार्थिवानाम् (teṣāṃ kule tvamasi nandini pārthivānām); Uttararāmacarita 1.9.
2) A husband's sister.
3) A fabulous cow, daughter of Surabhi, yielding all desires (kāmadhenu) and in the possession of the sage Vasisṭha; अनिन्द्या नन्दिनी नाम धेनुराववृते वनात् (anindyā nandinī nāma dhenurāvavṛte vanāt) R.1.82;2.69.
4) An epithet of the Ganges; नन्दिनी नलिनी सीता मालती च मलापहा । विष्णुपादाब्जसंभूता गङ्गा त्रिपथगमिनी (nandinī nalinī sītā mālatī ca malāpahā | viṣṇupādābjasaṃbhūtā gaṅgā tripathagaminī) ||
5) The holy basil.
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Nāndin (नान्दिन्).—m. The speaker of the नान्दी (nāndī) or benediction.
See also (synonyms): nāndikara.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
1) Nandin (नन्दिन्).—name of two yakṣas: Mahā-Māyūrī 35; 104.
2) Nandī (नन्दी).—(= Sanskrit nandi, f.; both in Pali), joy: yo rāgo yā nandī yā tṛṣṇā Samy Ag 1.2; nandī-rāga, m., app. not dvandva (as taken by [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary]), but passion for joys (compare Majjhimanikāya (Pali) i.145.3, 4, in sing. and not compounded with another word): °gaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 2217 = Tibetan dgaḥ baḥi ḥdod chags, passion for joy(s), so also Tibetan on Lalitavistara below; °gasya Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.49.16; °rāgāndhāś ca Śikṣāsamuccaya 288.1; (tṛṣṇā…) nandīrā- gasahagatā (as in Pali with taṇhā) Lalitavistara 417.8, 10 (in 10 v.l. nandi°); Mahāvastu iii.332.6, 7 (no v.l.). All these are prose.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Nandi (नन्दि).—mn. (-ndiḥ-ndi) 1. Gambling, gaming. 2. Happiness. m.
(-ndiḥ) 1. One of Siva'S principal attendants. 2. The speaker of the prologue or prelude to a drama. 3. One who pronounces a benediction. E. nadi to make happy, and in Unadi aff.
2) Nāndī (नान्दी).—f. (-ndī) 1. Eulogium of a king, or praise of a deity, recited in benedictory verses at the commencement of a religious ceremony, or the opening of a drama; it most usually signifies the kind of blessing pronounced as a prologue to a Nataka or play. 2. Prosperity, thriving, increase. E. nadi to be happy, in the causal form, affix in, and ṅīp; delighting the gods, &c. or procuring happiness for mankind. nandanti devā atra nanda-ghañ pṛṣo0 vṛddhiḥ ṅīp .
3) Nandin (नन्दिन्).—mfn. (-ndī-ndinī-ndi) Happy, rejoiced, delighted. m. (-ndī) 1. The name of one of Siva'S chamberlains, and chief attendants. 2. The Indian fig tree. 3. Parspipal, (Hibiscus populneoides.) 4. The speaker of the prelude or prologue to a drama. f. (-ndinī) 1. A name of the goddess Parvati. 2. Ganga, the river goddess. 3. A husband’s sister. 4. A fabulous cow, related to the cow of plenty, and the property of the sage Vasishtha. 5. The Alakananda river. 6. The mother of the writer Vyari. E. nanda happiness, ṇini aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Nandi (नन्दि).—[nand + i], I. m. I. Epithet of Viṣṇu and Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 7015; 1189. 2. A proper name, 13, 872. Ii. f. (and m. and n.) Joy, Mahābhārata 5, 4600; personified, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 6, 6.
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Nāndī (नान्दी).—i. e. nand + a + ī, f. 1. Joy, Mahābhārata 4, 2189. 2. A prayer at the opening of a drama, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Nandin (नन्दिन्).—[nand + in], I. adj., f. nī. 1. Liking, Mahābhārata 6, 16. 2. Gladdening, 13, 4708. Ii. m. 1. A son, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 47, 21. 2. A proper name, Mahābhārata 12, 10223. Iii. f. nī, 1. A daughter, 14, 1841. 2. The name of a fabulous cow, 1, 3923. 3. A proper name, 9, 2623.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Nandi (नन्दि).—[masculine] the Joyful, [Epithet] of Viṣṇu, Śiva & one of his attendants; [feminine] joy, happiness, a woman’s name.
2) Nāndī (नान्दी).—[feminine] joy, satisfaction; the introductory prayer ([drama]).
3) Nandin (नन्दिन्).—[adjective] delighting in or gladdening, [masculine] son of (—°); [Epithet] of Śiva, a man’s name. [feminine] nī daughter, [Epithet] of Durgā etc., [Name] of a myth. cow.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Nandin (नन्दिन्) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—grammarian. Quoted by Kṣīrasvāmin in Kṣīrataraṅgiṇī, by Sāyaṇa in Dhātuvṛtti, Gaṇaratnamahodadhi p. 212, Rāyamukuṭa. See Abhayanandin, Devanandin, Somanandin, Nandisvāmin.
2) Nandin (नन्दिन्):—Abhinayadarpaṇa.
3) Nandin (नन्दिन्):—quoted as an astronomical authority by Bhaṭṭotpala on Bṛhatsaṃhitā 7, 180. 35, 475.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Nandī (नन्दी):—[from nanda > nand] a f. Cedrela Toona, [Suśruta]
2) [v.s. ...] a kind of song or musical instrument, [Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra]
3) [v.s. ...] Name of the 6th day in a month’s light half, [ib.]
4) [v.s. ...] of Durgā, [DevīP.]
5) [v.s. ...] of Indra’s city, [Horace H. Wilson]
6) Nandi (नन्दि):—[from nand] m. ‘the happy one’, Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]
7) [v.s. ...] of Śiva, [ib.]
8) [v.s. ...] of an attendant of Śiva, [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka; Mahābhārata] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] of a Gandharva, [Mahābhārata]
10) [v.s. ...] of a man, [Pravara texts]
11) [v.s. ...] the speaker of a prologue, [Horace H. Wilson] ([wrong reading] for nāndin)
12) [v.s. ...] f. joy, happiness, welfare, [Mahābhārata] etc. (also m. n., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])
13) [v.s. ...] Joy personified as daughter of Heaven or as wife of Kāma and mother of Harṣa, [Purāṇa]
14) [v.s. ...] n. = dyūta and dyūtāṅga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] n. (with Jainas) a class of sacred writings (m. or f. ?), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 533.]
16) Nandī (नन्दी):—[from nand] b f. of nanda q.v.
17) Nāndi (नान्दि):—[from nānda] for ndī in [compound]
18) Nāndī (नान्दी):—[from nānda] f. (√nand) joy, satisfaction, pleasure, [Ṛg-veda; Mahābhārata]
19) [v.s. ...] eulogium or praise of a deity, ([especially]) a kind of blessing pronounced as a prologue to a drama, [Mṛcchakaṭikā; Kālidāsa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Pratāparudrīya] etc.
20) [v.s. ...] (in music) a [particular] measure
21) [v.s. ...] = dvādaśa-tūrya-nirghoṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
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1) Nandin (नन्दिन्):—[from nand] mfn. (initial n cannot be cerebralized [gana] kṣubhnādi) rejoicing, gladdening (ifc.), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature]
2) [v.s. ...] delighting in, liking, [ib.]
3) [v.s. ...] m. son (ifc.; cf. bhāskara-n)
4) [v.s. ...] the speaker of a prologue (cf. nāndin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])
5) [v.s. ...] Name of sub voce plants (the Indian fig-tree, Thespesia Opulneoides etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] a [particular] form of temple, [Varāha-mihira] (cf. ndi-vardhana)
7) [v.s. ...] Name of an attendant of Śiva, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. (cf. nandi, ndīśa, ndikeśvara)
8) [v.s. ...] of Śiva’s bull, [Horace H. Wilson]
9) [v.s. ...] of sub voce authors, [Catalogue(s)]
10) Nāndin (नान्दिन्):—[from nānda] m. = ndī-kara, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Nandi (नन्दि):—[(ndiḥ-ndi)] 2. m. n. Gambling; happiness. m. An attendant of Shiva; speaker of a prologue, &c.
2) Nandin (नन्दिन्):—(ndī) 1. m. The name of one of Shiva's attendants; Indian fig-tree; speaker of a prologue. f. (dinī) Durgā; Gaṃgā; husband’s sister; a cow; a river; mother of Vyāri.
3) Nāndī (नान्दी):—(ndī) 3. f. Eulogium of a king, or praise of a deity; prosperity.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Nandi (नन्दि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇaṃdi.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Nandi in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a benedictory prologue (in Indian dramaturgy); the mythological bull-vehicle of Lord Shiv; ~[kara] one who recites the [namdi; ~patha] recitation of the [namdi]..—nandi (नांदी) is alternatively transliterated as Nāṃdī.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
Ṇaṃdi (णंदि) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Nandi.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] he who delights (others).
2) [noun] he who enjoys or get delighted.
3) [noun] Basava, (the divine ox), the vehicle of Śiva.
4) [noun] an idol of an ox or Nandi, the divine ox.
5) [noun] the large, deciduous tree Lagerstroemia lanceolata of Lythraceae family, with thin, white bark and hard wood which is used building construction.
6) [noun] the large, deciduous tree Toona ciliata (= Cedrela toona) of Meliaceae family, with paripinnate leaves and white flowers, the wood of which is used in making plywood, tea-chests, furniture, etc.
7) [noun] one of several Jaina associations or schools.
8) [noun] a clan of Jaina mendicants9) [noun] ನಂದಿ ಬಿಡು [namdi bidu] nandi biḍu to allow a bull to graze without restriction in the village, as part of a funeral rite; ನಂದಿಯ ಕುಣಿತ [namdiya kunita] nandiya kuṇita a dancing upholding nandidhvaja.
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1) [noun] an invocation of gods seeking for successful completion, before commencing any religious rite.
2) [noun] a verse or verses in the beginning of a literary work, seeking the blessing of the god or gods, teachers, previous, ideal poets, etc.
3) [noun] fulfilment; gratification; satisfaction.
4) [noun] (fig.) commencement of, initiation for, a good work or undertaking. ನಾಂದಿ ಹಾಡು [namdi hadu] nāndi hāḍu (fig.) to commence (something) auspiciously.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+221): Kandita, Namdia, Namdibattalu, Namdidevate, Namdihala, Namdijja, Namdikallusoppu, Namdikamba, Namdike, Namdikolu, Namdila, Namdilipi, Namdimettalu, Namdinelabevu, Namdipada, Namdipadya, Namdisara, Namdisara, Namdishvaramgey, Namdisopana.
Ends with (+48): Abhinandi, Acyutanandi, Ahinamdi, Anandi, Arhanandi, Bahunandi, Bauddhadhikkaragunanandi, Bhavanandi, Bilinamdi, Billi-nandi, Billinandi, Bolnandi, Buddhanandi, Cauryanandi, Chauryanandi, Dhammabhinandi, Dhyayanandi, Dion counandi, Eanandi, Enandi.
Full-text (+586): Nandikara, Nandishvara, Nandidharma, Nandikeshvara, Nandimukhi, Nandivriksha, Nandimukha, Nandipurana, Nandisha, Tandavatalika, Nandisaras, Nandigupta, Nandigrama, Nandikshetra, Nandivadin, Nandighosha, Nandivardhana, Nandipata, Basava, Anandi.
Search found 113 books and stories containing Nandi, Namdi, Ṇaṃdi, Ṇaṃdī, Naṃdi, Nāṃdi, Nāndī, Nāndi, Nandī, Ṇandi, Ṇandī, Nandin, Nāndin; (plurals include: Nandis, Namdis, Ṇaṃdis, Ṇaṃdīs, Naṃdis, Nāṃdis, Nāndīs, Nāndis, Nandīs, Ṇandis, Ṇandīs, Nandins, Nāndins). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Hanuman Nataka (critical study) (by Nurima Yeasmin)
12.1. Nāndī (opening verse) in the Hanumannāṭaka < [Chapter 4]
2. Religious Elements (b): Dāna-Dharma (charity) < [Chapter 5]
1. Philosophical Elements in the Hanumannāṭaka < [Chapter 5]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 5 - Meritoriousness of Devotion to Śiva < [Section 1 - Kedāra-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 84 - Kapi and Other Tīrthas < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 52 - The Commanding Peak of the Mountain < [Section 3 - Arbuda-khaṇḍa]
Mudrarakshasa (literary study) (by Antara Chakravarty)
3.29. Use of Vyājokti-alaṃkāra < [Chapter 3 - Use of Alaṃkāras in Mudrārākṣasa]
4. Conclusion < [Chapter 3 - Use of Alaṃkāras in Mudrārākṣasa]
2.1. Use of Sragdharā metre < [Chapter 4 - Employment of Chandas in Mudrārākṣasa]
Dasarupaka (critical study) (by Anuru Ranjan Mishra)
Part 11 - Technical Aspects of a Prakaraṇa < [Chapter 10 - Prakaraṇa (critical study)]
Part 11 - Technical Aspects of a Ḍima < [Chapter 4 - Ḍima (critical study)]
Part 2 - Summary of the drama (Tripuradāha) < [Chapter 4 - Ḍima (critical study)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.3.76 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Verse 2.3.63 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Verse 2.3.64 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)