Shakra, Śakra, Sakra, Śākra: 24 definitions
Shakra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śakra and Śākra can be transliterated into English as Sakra or Shakra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Images (photo gallery)
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Śakra (शक्र).—A synonym of Indra. (See under Indra)Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Śakra (शक्र) is the name of a Nakṣatra mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 784. As regards the heavenly bodies, the Nīlamata refers to the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars. The divisions of the time are also mentioned as objects of worship.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Śakra (शक्र).—(Śatakratu) a son of Aditi, and surname of Indra (s.v.); his brother Upendra;1 deceived Rāji accepting him to be his son in the first instance and finally contrived to oust him from Indrahood.2
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 39; 10. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 6. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 95, 109; 61. 30; 96. 196; 97. 23.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 88.
1b) A son of Śoṇāśva.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 44. 79.
1c) A son of Śūra.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 137.
1d) An Āditya.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 130.
- 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 11. 1; 29. 1; 30. 4 and 26; 34. 1.
- 2) Ib. I. 21. 33, 40.
- 3) Ib. II. 8. 9.
- 4) Ib. IV. 6. 16.
- 5) Ib. IV. 20. 40.
2) Śākra (शाक्र).—Of the Yajurvedins, to be recited in rituals connected with the digging of tanks.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 58. 35; 93. 132.
Śakra (शक्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.57.18, I.59.15, I.65, I.60.35) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śakra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Śakra (शक्र) is a synonym for Kuṭaja (Wrightia antidysenterica, “Kurchi fruit”), from the Apocynaceae family. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā. This synonym was identified by Amarasiṃha in his Amarakośa (a Sanskrit botanical thesaurus from the 4th century). Śakra literally translates to “powerful one” and is an epithet for Indra (king of the devas in Vedic Hinduism).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Śakra (शक्र) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Śakra).
Śakra is also mentioned as another one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the eastern quarter.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Śakra (सक्र): Śakra is identified with the Vedic deity Indra. Śakra is sometimes named as one of the twelve Ādityas.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Fundamentals of Vipassanā Meditation
King of the gods:
"... In the days of the Buddha, the Sakra (King of the gods) himself had these signs appear to him..."
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Śakra (शक्र) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śakra).Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini
Śakra (शक्र) is another name for Indra: protector deity of the eastern cremation ground.—Indra is the king of the gods, also called Śakra (Śmaśānavidhi 4) and Devendra (Guhyasamayasādhanamālā). In the Śmaśānavidhi he is described mounted on his elephant, Airāvata. He is white and holds a vajra (left) and skull bowl (right); in Adbhutaśmaśānālaṃkāra he is said to hold a vajra (left), and make the threatening gesture, the tarjanīmudrā (right)
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Śakra (शक्र) or “Śakra devānām indra” is one of the three great leaders among the gods according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “Śakra devānām indraḥ is the leader of two classes of gods, (the Cāturmahārājika and the Trāyastriṃśa)”.
Also, “Śakra devānām indraḥ resides above ground like the Buddha; he is constantly near the Buddha; he is very famous (yaśas) and people know him well”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Śakra (शक्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śakra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Śakra (शक्र) or Indra refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism commonly depicted in Jaina art and iconography.—There seems to be very little difference between the descriptions of the Dikpāla Indra, as afforded both by the Śvetāmbara and Digambara texts. His chief characteristics are his elephant called Airāvata and his Vajra or thunderbolt. Indra is the guardian of the eastern regions and his wife is called Śacī. In one text, we shall see, later on, he has been described as possessed of thousand eyes. We can infer, therefore, that the Brahmanic conception of Indra’s having thousand eyes, is carried to Jainism. Clear identity of some features leads me also to infer that Mātaṅga, the Yakṣa of Mahāvīra or Mahendra, the Yakṣa of Aranātha according to the Digambaras owes largely its conception to that of Indra.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śakra.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘fourteen’. Note: śakra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śakra (शक्र).—m S A name of Indra. śakradhanu n The bow of Indra, rain-bow.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śakra (शक्र).—m A name of indra. śakradhanu n Rainbow.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Name of Indra; एकः कृती शकुन्तेषु योऽन्यः शक्रान्न याचते (ekaḥ kṛtī śakunteṣu yo'nyaḥ śakrānna yācate) Kuval.
2) The Arjuna tree.
3) The Kuṭaja tree.
4) An owl.
5) The asterism ज्येष्ठा (jyeṣṭhā).
6) The number 'fourteen'.
7) Name of Śiva.
8) Lord; शक्रप्रस्थस्य शक्रेण विरुद्धोऽयमभूत् सदा (śakraprasthasya śakreṇa viruddho'yamabhūt sadā) Śiva B.9.5.
Derivable forms: śakraḥ (शक्रः).
--- OR ---
Śākra (शाक्र).—a. Relating or belonging to Indra; प्रादुश्चक्रे ततः पार्थः शाक्रमस्त्रं महारथः (prāduścakre tataḥ pārthaḥ śākramastraṃ mahārathaḥ) Mb.7.93.21.
-kram The ज्येष्ठा (jyeṣṭhā) Nakṣatra (presided over by Indra).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śakra (शक्र).—m. or nt., a high number: Gaṇḍavyūha 105.23; corrupt for saṃkrama (Gaṇḍavyūha 133.4), the place of which it occupies.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kraḥ) 1. Indra, the chief of the inferior gods, and ruler of Swarga or paradise. 2. A plant, (Wrightea antidysenterica.) 3. A tree, (Pentaptera arjuna.) 4. An owl. 5. The number “fourteen” E. śak to possess power, Unadi aff. rak .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śakra (शक्र).—[śak + ra], m. 1. Indra, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 54, 8. 2. A king(?), [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 41 (cf. Gorr. n.). 3. The name of two trees, Pentaptera arjuna and Nerium antidysentericum.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śakra (शक्र).—[adjective] powerful, mighty, strong; [masculine] [Epithet] of Indra.
--- OR ---
Śākra (शाक्र).—[feminine] ī belonging to Śakra (Indra).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śakra (शक्र):—[from śak] mf(ā)n. strong, powerful, mighty (applied to various gods, but [especially] to Indra), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana]
2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Indra, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] of an Āditya, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
4) [v.s. ...] of the number ‘fourteen’ [Gaṇitādhyāya]
5) [v.s. ...] Wrightia Antidysenterica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] Terminalia Arjuna, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) Śākra (शाक्र):—mf(ī)n. ([from] śakra) relating or belonging or sacred to or addressed to Indra, [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Kathāsaritsāgara]
8) n. the Nakṣatra Jyeṣṭhā (presided over by Indra), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+95): Shakra-yajna, Shakrabhaksha, Shakrabhakshabhakshaka, Shakrabhakshamakha, Shakrabhakshamakhotsava, Shakrabhanu, Shakrabhavana, Shakrabhid, Shakrabhilagna, Shakrabhilagnaratna, Shakrabhubhava, Shakrabhuruha, Shakrabhuvana, Shakrabija, Shakracapa, Shakracapasamudbhava, Shakracapaya, Shakradaivata, Shakradana, Shakradantin.
Full-text (+231): Shakradhvaja, Indra, Shakrashiras, Shakrajata, Shakravahana, Shakrashala, Shakrashana, Shakrajit, Shakradish, Shakrayudha, Shakrashakhin, Shakraja, Shakrabhid, Shakradhanus, Shakravalli, Shakramurdhan, Shakrabhavana, Shakrasudha, Shakraprastha, Shakragopa.
Search found 72 books and stories containing Shakra, Śakra, Sakra, Śākra; (plurals include: Shakras, Śakras, Sakras, Śākras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Part 11 - More on the movement of Indras < [Chapter 2]
Chapter 7: Lokapāla Somadeva < [Book 3]
Part 6 - Sakrendra, king of the Devas in Saudharma-kalpa < [Chapter 1]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 20: Sanatkumāra’s installation as Cakravartin < [Chapter VII - Sanatkumāracakricaritra]
Part 4: Birth ceremonies of Ṛṣabha < [Chapter II]
Part 8: Birth-ceremonies presided over by Śakra < [Chapter II - Birth of Ajita and Sagara]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter VI - The Vijitāvin Jātaka < [Volume III]
Chapter XXII - The story of Sarvaṃdada < [Volume III]
Chapter XXVII - Jātaka of Surūpa (king of the deer) < [Volume II]
The Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 29 - Ravani takes Indra captive < [Book 7 - Uttara-kanda]
Chapter 28 - The Duel between Indra and Ravana < [Book 7 - Uttara-kanda]
Chapter 30 - Telling of the Curse pronounced by the Sage Gautama on Shakra < [Book 7 - Uttara-kanda]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 83 - Bilveśvara (bilva-īśvara-liṅga) < [Section 2 - Caturaśīti-liṅga-māhātmya]
Chapter 7 - Triviṣṭapeśvara (triviṣṭapa-īśvara-liṅga) < [Section 2 - Caturaśīti-liṅga-māhātmya]
Chapter 138 - The Greatness of Śakra Tīrtha < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra (by Charles Luk)