Mitra, Mitrā: 40 definitions


Mitra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Mitra (मित्र):—Another name for Piṅgeśa (the name for Śiva), who is the central deity of the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) according to the Kubjikāmatatantra. From his body are born the eight Mahāmātṛs. Mitra resides in the pericarp of the central lotus. He represents the ātman in its individual aspect.

2) Mitra (मित्र):—According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, Mitra figures as the Bhairava presiding over the eastern petal (of the Mātṛcakra), which, contrary to the Kubjikāmatatantra, is taken to be the seat of the eight Mahāmātṛs themselves.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Mitra (मित्र) refers to a “friend”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[Once the rosary has been thus prepared, he becomes] ready for siddhis and power. Dangerous creatures do not harm one who has [first] accomplished an observance [that qualifies one] for [using] Spells: he should begin an observance by means of recitation. The one engaged in observance should practise the False Observance [by wandering about proclaiming]: ‘I have committed bad deeds: I have killed a cow, mother, father, brother, a guest, friend (mitra), Brahmin! [...]’”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Mitra (मित्र) refers to the “ally”, as in, an allied sovereign. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Mitra (मित्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to a vedic deity (representing friendship, integrity and harmony). Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned Mitra to the protection of the tiring room (backstage, nepathya). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

2) Mitra is to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (e.g., to Mitra).

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Mitra (मित्र, “friend”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Mitravināyaka, Mitragaṇeśa and Mitravighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Mitra is positioned in the Eastern corner of the sixth circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Scindhia Ghat, Atmavireshvara, CK 7 / 158”. Worshippers of Mitra will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the giver of good companionship”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18731, Lon. 83.00929 (or, 25°11'14.3"N, 83°00'33.4"E) (Google maps)

Mitra, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Mitra (मित्र).—General information. One of the twelve Sūryas. The twelve Sūryas born to Aditi of Kaśyapaprajāpati are Viṣṇu, Śakra, Aryamā, Dhātā, Tvaṣṭā, Pūṣā, Vivasvān, Savitā, Mitra, Varuṇa, Bhaga and Aṃśa. (Chapter 15, Aṃśa 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

Mitrāvaruṇas are two devatās of great intimacy. They are always found together. If you pray to Mitrāvaruṇas you will get plenty of rains. (Śūkta 2, Anuvāka 1, Maṇḍala 1, Ṛgveda).

See para 2 under Agastya to understand the story of how Mitrāvaruṇas became the father of Agastya. Other details.

(i) Mitra came and stood in the sky at the time of the birth of Arjuna. (Śloka 66, Chapter 122, Ādi Parva).

(ii) Mitra was one among those sent by Indra to fight against Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna at the time of the burning of the forest Khāṇḍava. (Śloka 36, Chapter 226 Ādi Parva).

(iii) Mitra was a member of the Indra sabhā. (Śloka 21, Chapter 7, Sabhā Parva).

(iv) He presented two Pārṣadas named Suvrata and Satyasandha to Subrahmaṇya. (Śloka 41, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva). (See full article at Story of Mitra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Mitrā (मित्रा).—A female companion of Pārvatī. (Śloka 41, Chapter 231, Vana Parva).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mitra (मित्र) refers to “friends”, as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.27. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once a great sacrifice was started by Dakṣa, [...] Brahminical, Royal and celestial sages, kings, with their friends (mitra), ministers, armies etc, Vasus and other chief Gaṇadevatas—all of them were invited by him in the sacrifice”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mitra (मित्र).—A Brahmaṛṣi, and one of the seven sons of Vasiṣṭha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 41.

1b) A son of Aditī;1 an Āditya; a name used for the sun;2 Bhaga to see through the eye of;3 acted as milkman of the Devas to milk the cow-earth when Indra was calf; the milk was of vigorous strength and the vessel was of gold;4 loved Ūrvaśī and finding her thinking of Varuṇa, cursed her to be born on the earth; performed austerities at Badarī, saw Ūrvaśī and let flow his retas, which was collected by Ūrvaśī in a pot and from which came Agastya and Vasiṣṭha;5 fought with Praheti in the Devāsura war;6 was offered sacrifice by Vasiṣṭha on behalf of Śrāddhadeva;7 worshipped by Yudhiṣṭhira and Akrūra;8 to be worshipped in house-building; also in palace building;9 in the sun's chariot in the months of śuci and jyeṣṭha.10

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 39.
  • 2) Ib. I. 13. 30; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 5, 104; 24. 33, 39; III. 3. 67; IV. 20. 48; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 66; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 131.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 7. 3.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 10. 17.
  • 5) Ib. 61. 27, 31; 126. 6; 171. 56; 201. 23-9.
  • 6) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 10. 28.
  • 7) Ib. IX. 1. 13.
  • 8) Ib. X. 39. 32.
  • 9) Matsya-purāṇa 253. 43; 268. 22.
  • 10) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 7.

1c) His wife was Revatī. Utsarga and others were her sons.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 6.

1d) The name of the sun in the month of Śukra (jyeṣṭha).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 35; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 6.

1e) A son of Vasudeva and Madīrā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 171; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 169.

1f) A Marut gaṇa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 52.

1g) Of three kinds to a King; the hereditaryally, the enemy of the enemies and the Kṛtrima (acquired) ally.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 220. 17-18.

1h) A son of Maṇibhadra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 156.

1i) A Vāsiṣṭha branch.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 90.

2) Mitrā (मित्रा).—Mother of Maitreya and (Maitreyī, Bhāgavata-purāṇa). Her son was seen by Vidura on the banks of the Ganges.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 4. 36.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mitra (मित्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.15, I.65, IX.44.5, IX.44.37) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mitra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Mitra (मित्र) is the name of one of the twelve Ādityas: the offspring of Aditi, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gave thirteen daughters to Kaśyapa. [...] Kaśyapa’s thirteen wives are [viz., Aditi]. Aditi gives birth to twelve Ādityas, [viz. Mitra].

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Mitra (मित्र) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Mitra (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a bull. A viṇā is held with both bands.

The illustrations (of, for example Mitra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Mitra refers to “the friend of the conqueror” and represents one of the twelve categories of the maṇḍala system laid out by Kauṭilya (4th century BCE) and Kāmandaka (7th century A.D.). These twelve cateogires of state can be broadly applied to Gaṇapatideva  (r. 1199-1262 A.D.) and the Kākatīya empire. The friend of the conqueror, the Kota and the Nātavāḍi chiefs were the principal friends who made the conquest of the Velanāḍu region possible.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Mitra (मित्र) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Mitra).

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Mitra (मित्र) refers to the “conventional name” of Bhairava, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Then he became Bhairava, the abode of blood, in the sacrifice. (Thus) Bhairava bore the form of Sadyojāta (sadyarūpa—the Immediately Born). (He was) Sadyanātha, the first (ādi) Bhairava in the lineage of Siddhas beginning with Sadya. He acquired the conventional name ‘Mitra’  [i.e., mitrasaṃketa] and was then Bhairava of the divine Command. He was freed from the fetters of Karma and the Kaula Command was set into operation”.

2) Mitra (मित्र) refers to a “friend”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—(Cf. Gahvarāntasthā)—Accordingly, “[...] The divine Transmission (krama) should be told (to such a one,) not to (just anybody) one likes. O goddess, one should tell this, in the proper manner, to one for whom pleasure and pain, gold and iron, friend and foe [i.e., ari-mitra], nectar and poison are the same and, reflecting on the Transmission, observes all the rules of the renouncer. [...]”.

3) Mitra (मित्र) (Cf. Mitreśanātha) or Mitranātha is the name of a Siddha associated with Kāmarūpa, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā..—The Kumārikākhaṇḍa refers to the place where the teachings were originally propagated as Uḍapīṭha. Here the three Siddhas, Oḍḍīśanātha, Ṣaṣṭhanātha and Mitranātha, received knowledge. As the first of these Siddhas presides over Oḍḍiyāṇa this may be taken to mean that Uḍapīṭha is a separate place. But the texts imply that the first of these three Siddhas remained where the original transmission took place, whereas Ṣaṣṭhanātha went to Pūrṇagiri and Mitranātha to Kāmarūpa, where they founded separate seats. [...]

4) Mitra (मित्र) is the name of the ‘Lord of the Kula’ associated with Oḍḍiyāna, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Mitra (मित्र) refers to “friends”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Māgha year of Jupiter, there will be an increase in respect to fathers; all creatures will be happy, health and rain will prevail over the land; the price of food grains will fall and mankind will be more friendly than ever [i.e., mitra-lābha]”.

Source: Tithikarmaguṇa in Gārgīyajyotiṣa

Mitrā (मित्रा) or Mitratithi is the name of the seventh of fifteen tithis (cycle of time) according to both the Gārgīyajyotiṣa and the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna. The associated deity for Mitrā according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā is Śakra. A tithi was defined as one thirtieth of a synodic month (c. 29.5 days), resulting in an average tithi being slightly less than a day.

Accordingly, “(23) The seventh tithi is called Mitrā. One should engage in gentle activities performed for friends, make king’s banner, parasol, throne and beds. (24) One should put on jewels, gems, pearls, clothes and ornaments for the purpose of embellishment. The deities are known as the seven ṛṣis”.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Mitra (मित्र) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Mitra] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Mitra is a deity of the pre-vedic period. In the Rig Veda, he is mostly addressed in the dual Mitra-Varuna, and sometimes as part of the dual Mitra-Indra. His association with Varuna is so tight, that there is only one hymn [R.V.3.59] where he is addressed separately. He is the protector of oaths and lord of justice (along with Varuna). In the Brahmanas, Mitra is associated with day and Varuna is connected with night.

He appears to be more well established in the ancient persian texts where he is closely associated with the sun. In Sanskrit the name means either "friend" or "associate". He is a benevolent God.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Mitra (मित्र): One of the Adityas.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (h)

Mitra (मित्र) refers to one of the names for the “sun”, who was worshipped as Sūrya, Savitā, Mitra, Pūṣā etc. in the Vedas. Though all of them represented basically the same phenomenon, yet they were considered to be distinct deities as their concepts revealed different powers of the Sun.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mitra (मित्र) refers to “friends”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXXII-XXXIV).—Accordingly, “When one is making fire by friction, first the flame takes fire on the soft grass and dried cow dung and, as the strength of the fire increases, it is able to consume big pieces of moist wood. It is the same for the concentration of loving-kindness (maitrī-samādhi): at the beginning, when one make the vows for loving-kindness, one applies them only to one’s  friends (mitra); but when the mind of loving-kindness has grown, enemies (amitra) and relatives (bandhu) become mixed up and one sees them all as experiencing happiness: this is because the dhyānas or samāpattis of loving-kindness have grown and are becoming complete”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Mitra (मित्र) refers to a “(spiritual) friend”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “When this had been said, the Lord said to the Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja: ‘Excellent! Excellent, son of good family! Son of good family, you have done well to ask the Tathāgata. That is to say, you will attain the light of all teachings of the Buddha because you are a spiritual friend who asks (adhyeṣita-kalyāṇa-mitra) a questions not being asked by any living being. [...]’”,

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Mitrā (मित्रा) is the mother of Aranātha according to Digambara (but she is named Devī according to Śvetāmbara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Aranātha is the eighteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Mitrā is Sudarśana. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Mitrā (मित्रा) is the wife of king Subandhutilaka from Kamalasaṅkula, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.4 [Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Though a child, ruling, King Daśaratha attained growth in age and strength gradually. [...] Daśaratha married in Kamalasaṅkula the daughter of Subandhutilaka and of Queen Mitrā, named Kaikeyī for a first name, with another name, Sumitrā, because she was born of Mitrā and was good-tempered, like the moon marrying Rohiṇī. [...]”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Mitra (मित्र) refers to a “friend”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “For this embodied soul there is not another companion in union and in separation, in birth or in death and at the time of pleasure and pain. This [one] performs action for wealth, a son, a wife, etc. [com.—for the reason (kāraṇāya) of acquiring a friend, wife, son, etc. (mitrakalatraputrādikṛte)] [and] he experiences alone that which is the result of that [action] in the levels of the Śvabhra [hell], etc.”.

Synonyms: Suhṛt.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings

Mitra (मित्र) or Maitreya refers to one of the four disciples of Lakulī (the last incarnation of Maheśvara).—Lakulī had four ascetic pupils, namely, Kuśika, Garga, Mitra and Kauruṣya. The same information is contained in a stone slab inscription, which originally belonged to a temple at Somanātha [= Somnath] in Kathiawad [Kathiyawadi?]. [...] The order and names of his pupils are, however, slightly different in this epigraphic record, being Kuśika, Gārgya, Kauruṣa and Maitreya. [...] The Cintra praśasti, however, tells us one thing more, namely, that these four disciples of Lakulī were the founders of four lines amongst the Pāśupatas.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mitra (मित्र).—m (S) A friend. 2 The sun.

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mitra (मित्र).—a (S) Friendly. Ex. of comp. mitralābha, mitravatsala, mitrayuddha, mitraspardhā, mitravāda, mitraprīti, mitraprāpti, mitraparīkṣā, mitrabhēda, mitravṛddhi, mitrasatkāra, mitradāsa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mitra (मित्र).—m A friend. The sun. a Friendly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mitra (मित्र).—[midyati snihyati, mid-tra, mi-tra vā]

1) The sun; तद्दिनं दुर्दिनं मन्ये यत्र मित्रागमो हि ना (taddinaṃ durdinaṃ manye yatra mitrāgamo hi nā) Subhāṣ.

2) Name of an Āditya and usually associated with Varuṇa; cf. Ṛv. 3.59.

3) The deity presiding over the part of rectum (gudasthāna); गुदं पुंसो विनिर्भिन्नं मित्रो लोकेश आविशत् (gudaṃ puṃso vinirbhinnaṃ mitro lokeśa āviśat) Bhāgavata 3.6.2.

-tram 1 A friend; तन्मित्रमापदि सुखे च समक्रियं यत् (tanmitramāpadi sukhe ca samakriyaṃ yat) Bhartṛhari 2.68; Meghadūta 17.

2) An ally, the next neighbour of a king; cf. मण्डल (maṇḍala).

Derivable forms: mitraḥ (मित्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mitra (मित्र).—(1) friend (in Sanskrit nt.), sometimes with m. gender (also in Pali; not by inheritance from Vedic, but a MIndic change of gender, caused by the meaning; in Class. Sanskrit extremely rare and perhaps only in word-plays): kalyāṇamitrāṃś ca niṣevamāṇāḥ pāpāṃś ca mitrān pari- varjayantāḥ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 98.1 (verse); purāṇamitraḥ 210.10 (prose); mitraṃ ca tasya (read tasyo, WT), with nt. epithets, 212.10 (verse), but Kashgar recension mitraś and m. epithets; pūrvamitro 213.3 (verse, no v.l.); (2) name of a merchant, father of Maitrakanya(ka): Divyāvadāna 586.16; 589.12; 593.16; Avadāna-śataka i.195.3 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mitra (मित्र).—n.

(-traṃ) 1. A friend. 2. An ally; in this form it is always neuter; but it is convertible into an attributive, and is then of three genders, (mitraḥ-mitrā-mitraṃ) Friendly, a friend. m.

(-traḥ) 1. The sun. 2. The name of a Vedic deity. f.

(-trā) One of the wives of Dasa- Ratha, the mother of Satrughna. E. mid to be affectionate, aff. kta; hence more properly mittra .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mitra (मित्र).—[masculine] friend, comrade (mostly [neuter], [especially] in l.l.), [Name] of an Aditya etc.; [neuter] friendship.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Mitra (मित्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] See Prabhākaramitra, Śrīmitra, Saṃghaśrīmitra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mitra (मित्र):—1. mitra m. ([originally] mit-tra, [from] √mith or mid; cf. medin) a friend, companion, associate, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] (in later language mostly n.)

2) Name of an Āditya (generally invoked together with Varuṇa cf. mitrā-v, and often associated with Aryaman q.v.; Mitra is extolled alone in [Ṛg-veda iii, 59], and there described as calling men to activity, sustaining earth and sky and beholding all creatures with unwinking eye; in later times he is considered as the deity of the constellation Anurādhā, and father of Utsarga), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) the sun, [Kāvya literature] etc. (cf. [compound])

4) Name of a Marut, [Harivaṃśa]

5) of a son of Vasiṣṭha and various other men, [Purāṇa]

6) of the third Muhūrta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [dual number] = mitra-varuṇa, [Ṛg-veda]

8) Mitrā (मित्रा):—[from mitra] f. Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata] ([Bombay edition] citrā)

9) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Maitreya and Maitreyī, [Śaṃkarācārya on Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Śatru-ghna (= su-mitrā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([Horace H. Wilson] ī)

11) Mitra (मित्र):—n. friendship, [Ṛg-veda]

12) n. a friend, companion (cf. m. above), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc., etc.

13) n. (with aurasa) a friend connected by blood-relationship, [Hitopadeśa]

14) an ally (a prince whose territory adjoins that of an immediate neighbour who is called ari, enemy, [Manu-smṛti vii, 158 etc.], in this meaning also applied to planets, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā])

15) a companion to = resemblance of ([genitive case]; ifc. = resembling, like), [Bālarāmāyaṇa; Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]

16) Name of the god Mitra (enumerated among the 10 fires), [Mahābhārata]

17) a [particular] mode of fighting, [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio] for bhinna).

18) 2. mitra [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] mitrati, to act in a friendly manner, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mitra (मित्र):—(traṃ) 1. n. A friend. m. The sun. f. A wife of Dasharatha.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mitra (मित्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Mitta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mitra in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mitra (मित्र):—(nm) a friend; an ally; ~[ghāta] killing a friend; ~[ghātī] killer of a friend; ~[tā/tva] friendship, intimacy; alliance; —[deśa] a friendly country; an ally; ~[droha] disloyalty to a friend; acting faithlessly towards a friend; ~[drohī] disloyal to a friend; -[bhāva] friendship, friendliness, alliance; ~[maṃḍalī] a circle of friends; ~[rāṣṭra] (the) allies; an ally; ~[vat] like a friend.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mitra (ಮಿತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the sun.

2) [noun] the Sun-God.

3) [noun] name of one of the twelveādityas an associate of Varuṇa.

4) [noun] a man whom one knows well and is fond of; an intimate associate; a friend.

5) [noun] a man associated with another with the consideration of what is of selfish use or advantage rather than of what is right or just; an expedient companion.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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