Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön | 2001 | 940,961 words

This page describes “the joyous ground (pramudita)” as written by Nagarjuna in his Maha-prajnaparamita-sastra (lit. “the treatise on the great virtue of wisdom”) in the 2nd century. This book, written in five volumes, represents an encyclopedia on Buddhism as well as a commentary on the Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita.

Bhūmi 1: the joyous ground (pramuditā)

1. Sūtra.

Katamaṃ ca bodhisattvasya mahāsattvasya bhūmiparikarma | prathamāyāṃ bhūmau vartamānena bodhisattvena mahāsattvena daśabhūmiparikarmāṇi karaṇitāni | adhyāśayadṛḍhatt-ānupalambhayogena |

evam ukta āyuṣmān subhūtir bhagavantam etad avocat | katamad bhagavan bodhisattvasya mahāsattvasyādhyāśayaparikarma | bhagavan āha | yad bodhisattvo mahāsattvāḥ sarvajñatāpratisaṃyuktaiś cittotpādaiḥ kuśalamūlāni samurānayati |

What is the preparation of the grounds in the bodhisattva-mahāsattva? The bodhisattva-mahāsattva who is in the first ground (pramuditā-bhūmi) should fulfill ten preparations:

1) the strength of his high aspiration by means of the method of non-apprehending.

Then the venerable Subhūti said to the Bhagavat: For the bodhisattva-mahāsattva, what, O Bhagavat, is this preparation consisting of a high aspiration? – The Bhagavat answered: By means of resolutions associated with omniscience, the bodhisattva-mahāsattva accumulates the roots of good.

Śāstra (p. 411b1). – In order to enter into the first ground, the bodhisattva must accomplish ten things, from high aspiration (adhyāśaya) up to true speech (satyavacana).[1] Subhūti knows this very well, but in order to cut the doubts (saṃśaya) of beings on this subject, he questions the Bhagavat and asks him: “What is this high aspiration? “ The Buddha answers: “It is to accumulate the roots of good by means of resolutions associated with omniscience.” In regard to the resolutions associated with omniscience, we may note: When the bodhisattva-mahāsattva produces the mind of supreme complete enlightenment for the first time (prathamato ’nuttarasamyaksaṃbodhicittam utpādayati), he makes the following vow (praṇidhāna): “May I become Buddha in a future lifetime (anāgate janmani).” Thus this mind of supreme complete enlightenment constitutes a ‘resolution associated with omniscience’ (sarvajñatāsaṃprayukta cittotpāda). ‘Associated’ (saṃprayukta) insofar as it joins the mind to the wish to become Buddha.

For the bodhisattva of keen faculties (tīkṣṇendriya) who has accumulated merits (puṇya) greatly, the passions (kleśa) are slight (tanu) and the past wrongdoings (atītāpatti) are less numerous. When he produces the mind of bodhi (cittotpāda), he forms the high aspiration (adhyāśaya) which takes pleasure in abhisaṃbodhi and, from lifetime to lifetime, the concerns about worldly things (loka) decrease: this is what is here called ‘resolutions associated with omniscience’ (sarvajñatāsaṃprayukta cittotpāda).

In all the virtues that he practices, generosity (dāna), morality (śīla), concentration (samādhi), etc., the bodhisattva does not seek either the happiness of this world or that of the other world (ihaparalokasukha), or longevity (āyuḥpramāṇa) or safety (kṣema); he seeks only omniscience (sarvajñatā). Just as a miser (matsarin) refuses for any reason to give even a single coin (kārṣāpaṇa), saves them and piles them up with the sole desire of becoming rich, so the bodhisattva, whether his merits (puṇya) are many or not, seeks nothing other than to save them and pile them up with the view of omniscience.

Question. – But if the bodhisattva does not yet have omniscience and has not yet tasted its flavor (rasa), how can he form the high aspiration (adhyāśaya)?

Answer. – I said above that it is a question of someone of keen faculties (tīkṣnendrīya), of slight passions, of pure qualities, who is not fond of the world. Without even having heard the Mahāyāna praised, he hates the world: what then if he has heard it praised?

Thus, Mo-ho-kia-chö (Mahākāśyapa) had taken as wife a woman golden in color (suvarṇavarṇa), but as he did not love her, he abandoned her and entered into the religious life.[2]

Also seeing in the middle of the night that his courtesans were like corpses, Ye-chö tch’ang-tchö-tseu (Yaśaḥ śreṣṭhiputra) left his precious sandals worth a hundred thousand [kārṣāpaṇas] on the bank of the river, crossed over the river and went straight to the Buddha (śatasahasraṃ maṇipādukayugaṃ nadyāvārakāyās tīre ujjhitvā, nadīṃ vārakāṃ pratyuttīryayena bhagavāṃs tenopasaṃkrāntāḥ).[3]

The noblemen and kings who, out of disgust, thus renounced the five objects of enjoyment (pañcakāmaguṇa) are innumerable. Why then does the bodhisattva, who has heard speak of the many qualities (guṇa) of the bodhi of the Buddhas, not at once make the resolution (cittotpāda) to penetrate it deeply? Thus, in the chapter Sa-t’o-po-louen (Sadāprarudita-parivarta) which will follow,[4] the daughter of a nobleman (śreṣṭhidārikā), having heard the praises of the Buddha, immediately left her home and went to T’an-wou-kie (Dharmodgata).[5]

Moreover, as his five spiritual faculties (pañcendriya), faith (śraddhā), etc., are complete (paripūrṇa) and ripe (paripakva), the bodhisattva is able to acquire the high aspiration (adhyāśaya). A small child whose five organs (pañcendriya), eye (cakṣus), etc., are not complete, does not discern the five objects (pañcaviṣaya) and does not distinguish what is beautiful and what is ugly; it is the same when the five spiritual faculties, faith, etc., are not complete: one does not distinguish between the good and the bad, one does not know the difference between what is bondage (bandana) and what is deliverance (mokṣa), one loves the five objects of enjoyment (pañcakāmaguṇa) and one falls into wrong views (mithyādṛṣṭi). But the person whose five spiritual faculties, faith, etc., are complete is able to distinguish good from bad. If already he takes pleasure in the śrāvaka system advocating the ten good paths of action (daśakuśalakarmapatha), why would he not think more deeply yet of supreme bodhi?

As soon as he first produces the mind of supreme bodhi, he has already gone beyond the world; he goes even further when he has perfected [this mind of supreme bodhi].

Furthermore, when the bodhisattva begins to taste the flavor (rasa) of the Prajñāpāramitā, he is able to produce the high aspiration (adhyāśaya). A man closed up in a dark prison who sees the light through a narrow slit, leaps for joy; he thinks and tells others that he alone has seen such a light and, in his joy and happiness, he produces a high aspiration; thinking of this light, he seeks to escape by any means. It is the same for the bodhisattva: closed up in the dark prison of the twelve bases of consciousness (dvādaśāyatana) and of ignorance (avidyā) by his earlier actions (pūrvakarman), everything that he knew and saw was false; but when he has heard the Prajñāpāramitā and tasted its flavor a little bit, he thinks deeply about omniscience (sarvajñatā) and wonders how to get out of the prison of the six sense organs (ṣaḍindriya), like the Buddhas and the āryas.

Finally, when the bodhisattva has produced the mind of supreme complete enlightenment, he acts in conformity with his wish (yathāpraṇidhānam); this is why he produces the high aspiration (adhyāśaya) that consists of loving all dharmas, but none as much as omniscience (sarvajñatā); of loving all beings, but none as much as the Buddhas; of penetrating deeply into the feelings of compassion (karuṇācitta) to work for the benefit of all beings (sarvārthakriyā): these are the characteristics of adhyāśaya. In the first ground (pramuditā-bhūmi), the bodhisattva must always practice these resolutions (cittotpāda) [associated with omniscience].

2. Sūtra.

Sarvasattvasamacittatāparikarma sattvānupalabdhitām upādāya || yad bodhisattvaḥ sarvajñatāpratisaṃyuktaiś cittotpādaiś caturpramāṇany abhinirharati maitrīkaruṇāmuditopekṣam |

The equality of mind towards all beings by not apprehending any being. – By means of the resolutions associated with omniscience, the bodhisattva produces the four immeasurable [feelings]: loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity.

Śāstra (p. 411c16). – When the bodhisattva has obtained this high aspiration (adhyāśaya), he equalizes his mind in regard to all beings. Beings always love their friends and hate their enemies, but, for the bodhisattva who has obtained the high aspiration, enemy and friend are equal; he regards them as the same.

Here the Buddha himself defines the equality of mind (samacittatā) as being the four immeasurable feelings (caturapramāṇa). When the bodhisattva sees beings experiencing happiness (sukha), he produces minds of loving-kindness (maitrī) and joy (muditā) and formulates the vow (praṇidhāna) to lead all beings to find the happiness of a Buddha. – When he sees beings undergoing suffering (duḥkha), he produces a mind of compassion (karuṇā) and, out of pity for them, he formulates the vow to eradicate the sufferings of all beings. When he sees beings who are neither unhappy nor happy, he produces a mind of equanimity (upekṣā) and formulates the vow of bringing them to renounce any feeling of fondness (anunaya) or aversion (pratigha).

For other explanations of these four immeasurable feelings, see what has been said above (p. 1239–1273F).

3. Sūtra.

Tyāgaparikarma dānadāyakapratigrāhakānupalabdhitām upādāya || yad bodhisattvaḥ sarvasattvebhyo ‘vikalpitaṃ dānaṃ dadāti ||

The generosity of not apprehending either gift or giver. – The bodhisattva makes gifts to all beings free of discrimination.

Śāstra (p. 411c28) – Generosity (tyāga) is of two kinds: i) Making a gift by giving up a material object (āmiṣa); ii) obtaining bodhi by giving up the fetters (saṃyojana). The former is ‘abandoning’ insofar as it rejects avarice (mātsarya); by contrast, the latter, the ‘abandoning’ of the fetters, plays the role of cause and condition (hetupratyaya). It is necessary to reach the seventh ground in order to abandon the fetters.

Question. – There are several kinds of abandoning: internal (ādhyātmika) or external (bāhya) gift, small (laghu) or large (guru) gift, material gift (āmiṣadāna) or gift of the Dharma, worldly gift (laukikadāna) or supraworldly gift (lokottaradāna), etc. Why then does the Buddha speak only of supraworldly gift ‘free of discrimination’ (avikalpita) and free of conceptualization (asaṃkalpita)?

Answer. – Although generosity is of any type, the Buddha speaks only of great generosity, the generosity that does not grasp the characteristics (nimittodgrahaṇahita).[6]

Furthermore, the Buddha subscribes to no dharma and therefore teaches the bodhisattva a generosity ‘without adherence’ (nirāsaṅga), in conformity with the teachings of the Buddhas.

Here it would be necessary to speak at length about the generosity free of discrimination (avikalpitadāna); as for the other kinds of generosity, they have been the object of many explanations already in several places.

4. Sūtra.

Kalyāṇamitrasevanāparikarma nairmāṇyatām upādāya || yāni kalyāṇamitrāṇi sarvajñatāyaṃ samādāpayanti teṣāṃ mitrāṇāṃ sevanā bhajanā paryupāsanā śuśruṣā |

The good services rendered to good friends by not deriving any pride from them. – Helping, venerating, respecting and listening to good friends who encourage one to omniscience.

Śāstra. – (p. 412a4) – On the good services rendered to good friends, see the explanations given above (Pañcaviṃśati, p. 156).

5. Sūtra.

Dharmaparyeṣtiparikarma sarvadharmānuplabdhitām upādāya || yad bodhisattvaḥ sarvajñatāpratisaṃyuktaiś cittotpādair dharmaṃ paryeṣate na ca śrāvakapratyekabuddhabhūmau patati |

The search for the Dharma by means of the non-apprehension of all the teachings. – The bodhisattva seeks the Dharma with resolutions associated with omniscience and [hence] does not fall to the rank of śrāvaka or pratyekabuddha.

Śāstra (p. 412a5). – There are three kinds of Dharma:

1) The supreme Dharma of all (sarveṣv anuttara), i.e., nirvāṇa.

2) The means of attaining nirvāṇa (nirvāṇaprāptyupāya), i.e., the noble eightfold Path (āryāṣṭāṅgamārga).

3) All good words (subhāṣita), truthful words (satyavacana) promoting the eightfold noble Path. These are: (a) the eighty-four thousand articles of the Dharma (caturaśītidharmaskandha-sahasra), or (b) the twelve-membered speech of the Buddha (dvādaśāṅgabuddhavacana), or (c) the four Baskets (catuṣpiṭaka) consisting of (i) the [four] Āgamas (āgamacatuṣpiṭaka), (ii) the Abhidharma, (iii) the Vinaya, (iv) the Kṣudrakapiṭaka, plus all the Mahāyānasūtras such as he Mahāprajñāpāramitā, etc. All that is called Dharma.[7]

To seek the Dharma (dharmaparyeṣṭi) is to write it, to recite it, to study it and to meditate on it. These texts heal the mental illnesses (cittavyādhi) of beings. The bodhisattva sacrifices his life to gather together these text-remedies.

Thus while still a bodhisattva, the Buddha Śā was called Lo-fa (Dharmarata). At that time there was no buddha, and this bodhisattva had not yet heard a good word (subhāṣita), but he was searching everywhere for the Dharma and did not relax his exertion (virya); however, he had not yet found it. One day, Māra transformed himself into a brāhmaṇa and said to him: “I have a stanza (gāthā) spoken by a buddha; I will give it to you if you agree to write it using your skin as parchment, your bone as pen and your blood as ink.” Dharmarata thought: “During my previous lifetimes I have lost my life an incalculable number of times without ever deriving any benefit from it.” Immediately he flayed his skin, put it out to dry and wrote the stanza on it. Māra went to take his life when, at that moment, the Buddha, aware of the extreme resolve of the bodhisattva, arose from the direction of the nadir (adhodiś) and came to teach him the profound Dharma. Immediately Dharmarata obtained the conviction that dharmas do not arise (anutpattikadharmakṣānti).[8]

Sa-t’o-po-louen (Sadāprarudita) also sought the Dharma by ascetic practices (duṣkara-caryā).[9]

The bodhisattva Śākyamuni drove five hundred nails into his body in order to find the Dharma.[10]

The king Kin-kien (Kāñcanasāra) perforated his body in five hundred places, [put wicks in the holes] and threw himself into the flames in order to light them.[11]

All these heroes were seeking the Dharma by means of these ascetic practices and deeds in order to teach beings.

Finally, the Buddha himself says here that “by seeking the Dharma [with resolutions associated] with omniscience, the bodhisattva does not fall to the rank of śrāvaka or of prateykabuddha”.

6. Sūtra.

Abhīkṣṇanaiṣkramyaparikarma gṛhānupalabdhitām upādāya || yad bodhisattvaḥ sarvajātiṣv avyakīrṇacittena niṣkrāmati | tathāgataśāsane pravrajati | na cāsya kaścid antarāyo bhavati |

The continual departure from the world by the non-apprehension of the householder life. – From lifetime to lifetime and with an unmixed intent, the bodhisattva goes forth from the world and becomes a monk in the Tathāgata’s order, and is not hindered by anyone.

Śāstra (p. 412a25). – The bodhisattva knows that the householder life (gṛhavāsa) is the cause and condition (hetupratyaya) of many wrongs (āpatti). “If I remain at home”, he says to himself, “I myself will be unable to carry out the pure practices (viśuddhacaryā); how then could I lead others to practice them? If I follow the rules of the householder life, I would have a whip and a stick, etc., and I would be tormenting beings. If I act in conformity with the Holy Dharma, I will violate the rules of the householder life. I have two things to think about: if I do not leave home today, I will, of course, be forced to leave it at the time of death; if I abandon it by myself today, my merit (puṇya) will be great.”[12]

Again the bodhisattva has the following thought: “Kings and noblemen, powerful as gods, seek happiness and do not find it; death takes them away cruelly. As for myself, I am abandoning home for beings in order to keep the pure morality (viśuddhaśīla) [of the monastic], seek the abhisaṃbodhi of the Buddhas and fulfill the causes and conditions for the perfection of morality (śīlapāramitā).”

Here the Buddha himself says that “from lifetime to lifetime and with an unmixed intention, the bodhisattva goes forth from home”. With an unmixed intention (avyavakīrṇa-cittena), for the bodhisattva does not leave home to embrace the ninety-six kinds of [heretical] doctrines, but only to enter into the Tathāgata’s order (tathāgataśāsane pravrajitum). Why? Because in the Tathāgata’s order, both kinds of correct seeing (samyagdṛṣṭi) are present: correct worldly (laukika) view and correct supraworldly (lokottara) view.[13]

7. Sūtra.

Buddhakāyaspṛhāparikarma lakṣaṇānuvyañjanānupalabdhitām upādāya || yad bodhisattvo buddhavigrahaṃ dṛṣṭvā na kadācid buddhamanasikāreṇa virahito bhavati yāvad anuttarāṃ saṃyaksaṃbodhiṃ anuprāpnoti |

Taking delight in the Buddha’s body by the non-apprehension of the major and minor marks. – Having seen the body of the Buddha, the bodhisattva never ceases thinking about the Buddha until he attains supreme complete enlightenment.

Śāstra (p. 412b8). – The Buddha hears the qualities (guṇa) of the Buddha praised in many ways: the ten powers (bala), the four fearlessnesses (vaiśāradya), great loving kindness (mahāmaitrī), great compassion (mahākaruṇā) and omniscience (sarvajñāna). Moreover, he sees the Buddha’s body adorned with the thirty-two major marks (lakṣaṇa) and the eighty minor marks (anuvyañjana), emitting a great brilliance (mahāprabhā) and unceasingly honored by gods and men, and he says to himself: “In a future lifetime, I too will be like that.” Even if he does not fulfill the causes and conditions required to meet a Buddha, already he is delighted in him, and if he does fulfill them, he is even more pleased. Possessing the high disposition (adhyāśaya), he takes delight in the Buddha, and this is why he always succeeds in meeting a Buddha from lifetime to lifetime.

8. Sūtra.

Dharmavivaraṇaparikarma dharmabhedānupalabdhitām upādaya || yad bodhisattvaḥ saṃmukhibhūtasya tathāgatasya parinirvṛtasya vā sattvebhyo dharmaṃ deśayaty ādau kalyāṇaṃ madhye kalyāṇaṃ paryavasāne kalyāṇaṃ svarthaṃ suvyañjanaṃ pariśuddhaṃ paripūrṇaṃ yaduta sūtraṃ yāvad upadeśāḥ |

The propagation of the Dharma by the non-apprehension of the subdivision of this Dharma. – Whether a Tathāgata is still present in the world or has already become parinirvāṇized, the bodhisattva preaches the Dharma to beings, the Dharma which is good at the beginning, good in the middle and good at the end, of good meaning and letter, completely pure and perfectly full, namely, the sūtras, etc. up to the Upadeśas.

Śāstra (p. 412b13). – Having sought the Dharma as has been said above, the bodhisattva “preaches it to beings (sattvebhyo deśayati).” The lay bodhisattva (gṛhastha) practices material generosity particularly; the monastic (pravrajita) bodhisattva, in his love and respect for the Buddha, always practices the generosity of the Dharma (dharmadāna).

Whether a Buddha is present in the world or not, the bodhisattva is well established in morality (śīla) without seeking fame (śloka) or profit (lābha). Equalizing his mind toward all beings, “he preaches the Dharma to them” (dharmaṃ deśayati).

This Dharma is “good at the beginning” (ādau kalyāṇa) because it praises generosity; it is “good in the middle” (madhye kalyāṇa) because it praises morality (śīla) in detail; it is “good at the end” (paryavasāne kalyāna) for, in reward for these two things [– generosity and morality -], the bodhisattva is going to be reborn in a buddha-field (buddhakṣetra) or become a deity.

Or again, the Dharma is good at the beginning because in seeing the five aggregates of attachment (pañcopādānaskandha) of the triple world (traidhātuka) abounding in suffering, one feels disgust (nirvedacitta) towards them. It is good in the middle because one abandons lay life and separates oneself from the world. It is good at the end because the mind is liberated from the disturbing emotions (kleśa).

Or finally, the Dharma is good at the beginning because it first explains the Vehicle of the śrāvakas. It is good in the middle because it explains [next] the Vehicle of the pratyekabuddhas. It is good at the end because it [finally] proclaims the Greater Vehicle.

The Dharma is “good in meaning and good in letter” (svartha suvyañjana). In the threefold speech, the elocution may be good while the reasoning is mediocre and superficial, or the reasoning may be profound and good while the elocution in imperfect; this is why the sūtra says here that the meaning is good and the letter is good.

The Dharma is “completely pure” (pariśuddha) because, having eliminated the stains of the triple poison, it enunciates only the True Dharma (saddharma), without mixing in false dharma (adharma).

The Dharma is “completely clear” (paripūrṇa) because the noble eightfold Path (ārya aṣṭāṅgikamārga) and the six perfections (ṣaṭpāramitā) are complete in it.

On the twelve-membered [speech of the Buddha] (dvādaśaṅgabuddhavacana), sūtra, etc., see what has been said above (p. 2286–2303F).

9. Sūtra.

Mānastambhanirghātanaparikarma, adbhutatānupalabdhitām upādāya || yad bodhisattvas tena mānastambhanirghātanena na jātu nīcakuleṣūpapadyate |

The destruction of pride and vanity by the non-apprehension of any superiority whatsoever. – By the destruction of pride and vanity, the bodhisattva is never reborn into lowly families.

Śāstra (p. 412b29). – The bodhisattva goes forth from home (pravrajati), observes morality (śīlaṃ rakṣati), preaches the Dharma (dharmaṃ deśayati) and cuts the doubts of beings (sattvānāṃ saṃśayāṃś chinatti); and sometimes he becomes puffed up and experiences pride (māna) and vanity (stambha). In that case, he should make the following reflection: “I have shaved my head, I have put on the yellow robe (kāṣāya) and with bowl in hand, I beg for my food. This is of the nature of destroying pride and vanity in me. How could I feel pride and vanity in that?”

Moreover, pride and vanity dwell in the human mind. These faults stifle the qualities, they are detested by men and are the source of a bad reputation. In later lifetimes, the prideful are always reborn among wild animals or, if they are reborn among humans, they are base and lowly in condition.

Knowing that pride and vanity have these immense defects, the bodhisattva destroys this pride and this vanity in order to seek supreme complete enlightenment. If the person who begs for material things should be humble and modest, then what should be said about the person who is seeking the peerless bodhi?

Because he has destroyed pride and vanity, the bodhisattva is always reborn among the nobility and never in lowly families.

10. Sūtra.

Satyavacanaparikarma vacanānupalabdhitām upādāyā || tatra katamad bodhisattvasya satyavacanaparikarma | bhagavān āha | yaduta bodhisattvasya yathāvāditā tathākāritā | imāni bodhisattvena mahāsattvena prathamāyāṃ bhūmau vartamānena daśaparikarmāṇi karaṇīyāni ||

Truthful speech by means of non-apprehension of any speech. – What is truthful speech in the bodhisattva? – The Bhagavat replied: It is the fact that the bodhisattva “acts as he says”.

These are the ten preparations for accomplishment by the bodhisattva-mahāsattva in the first ground.

Śāstra (p. 412c9). – Truthful speech is the root of all good (kuśala), the cause and condition of rebirth among the gods; it is believed and accepted by all people. He who puts it into practice does not pretend generosity (dāna), morality (śīla) or wisdom; merely by cultivating truthful speech, he wins immense merit (puṇya). Truthful speech is “acting as one says”.

Question. – There are four [good] vocal actions (vākkarman): [abstaining from lying (mṛṣāvāda), from malicious gossip (paiśunyavāda), from harmful speech (pāruṣyavāda) and from idle speech (saṃbhinnapralāpa)[14]]; why does the sūtra not mention “truthful speech” here?

Answer. – In the Buddhadharma, truth (satya) is specially honored; this is why the sūtra here speaks of the truth that encompasses (saṃgṛhṇāti) the four [good] vocal actions. One obtains nirvāṇa by means of the truth.

Furthermore, the bodhisattva who relates to beings will [inevitably] endure harmful words (pāruṣyavāda), idle words (saṃbhinnapralāpa) and malicious gossip (paiśunyavāda); sometimes he will even commit the grave wrongdoing of false speech (mṛṣāvāda) himself. He must correct this in the first ground. On the first ground, the bodhisattva is not yet able to practice the four [good] vocal actions fully; this is why the sūtra mentions only “truthful speech” [here]; in the second ground, he will be able to practice it fully.

Question. – Why is it a matter of only the “ten preparations” (daśaparikarma) in the first ground (pramuditā-bhūmi)?

Answer. – The Buddha is the king of Dharma, having mastery (vaśita) over all dharmas. He knows that these ten preparations can produce the first ground. He is like a good physician (vaidya) who knows the number of medicines (bhaiṣajya) necessary to cure the sickness, sometimes five, sometimes ten. Therefore there is no objection that can be raised against the number [of preparations].

Footnotes and references:

1.

Compare Abhisamayālaṃkāra, I, v. 48–50 (p. 7–8); Āloka, p. 99. Properly speaking, these ten parikarmas are to be practiced in the course of the prayogamārga preceding entry into the first bhūmi.

2.

On the marriage of Mahākāśyapa and Bhadrā, soon followed by separation, see above, p. 287F, n. 1.

3.

On the conversion of Yaśas, see above, p. 1545F, n. 4. To the references, add Saṃghabheda, I, p. 139–141.

4.

Tch’ang-t’i p’in, chapter 88 of the Pañcaviṃśati, T 223, k. 27, p. 416a–421b.

5.

In this chapter, the daughter of the śreṣṭhin went with her father and mother to the bodhisattva Dharmodgata to pay homage to him. – Cf. Aṣṭasāhasrikā, ed. U. Wogihara, p. 953: Atha khalu sā śreṣṭhidārikā Dharmaodgatasya bodhisattvasya mahāsattvasya pūjārthaṃ satkārārthaṃ ca prasthitā.

6.

Triply pure generosity (trimaṇḍalapariśuddha) where there is total absence of giver, gift and recipient: cf. p. 675–677F, 724F.

7.

This brief summary shows that the Traité did indeed use the Sanskrit canon of the Sarvāstivādins as canonical scripture, reserving a separate place for the minor scriptures designated here by the name Tsa-tsang in Chinese, Kṣudrapiṭaka in Sanskrit or, quite simply, Kṣudraka: cf. p. 341F, n. 1.

8.

Jātaka of Dharmarata already mentioned above, p. 975F, n. 1; 1853F, n. 4. – References to Kotanese and Uigur sources in M. J. Dresden, The Jātakastava, 21st story, p. 432 and 339. – Mural painting at Qyzil, in E. Waldschmidt, Über die Darstellungen…, p. 15, and table 1, fig. 1.

9.

Wishing to honor the Prajñāpāramitā and offer gifts to the bodhisattva Dharmodgata, Sadāprarudita sold his body to Śakra disguised as a young man. The sale being concluded, he took a sharp knife, pierced his right arm and let the blood flow; then he pierced his right breast, cut off the flesh and, to break his bones, ran into a wall. Cf. Aṣṭasāhasrikā, ed. U. Wogihara, p. 947.

10.

Jātaka of king P’i-leng-kie-li (Bhṛṅgāra?) who drove a thousand nails into his body in order to hear from the mouth of the brāhmāṇa Raudrākṣa the Buddhist stanza: anityā bata saṃskārāḥ. Cf. P’ou-sa-pen-hing king, T 155, k. 3, p. 119b15–16; Hien-yu king, T 202, k. 1, p. 350a–b; King liu yi siang, T 2121, k. 25, p. 136c20–137a3.

11.

Jātaka of Kāñcanasāra told above, p. 688F, b. 4. – References to the Khotanese, Uigur and Sogdian sources in M. J. Dresden, The Jātakastava, 43rd story, p. 440 and 451. Friezes from Qyzil in E. Waldschmidt, Über die Darstellungen…,p. 16 and 17, fig. 25 to 31.

12.

By contrast with the householder life, the religious life has numerous advantages which have been detailed above, p. 839–843F.

13.

See Majjhima, III, p. 72.

14.

See p. 771F.