Upeksha, Upekṣā: 12 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Upeksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Upekṣā can be transliterated into English as Upeksa or Upeksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—One of the upāyas of a king.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 222. 2.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of ten constituents (dravya) of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “these thirty-seven auxiliaries (bodhipākṣika) have ten things (dravya) as roots (mūla). Equanimity (upekṣā) constitutes the factor-of-enlightenment called equanimity (upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṅga)”.

2) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of the “four immeasurables” (apramāṇa), according to chapter 32.—Accordingly, “Upekṣā is to abandon the three previous feelings and think of beings without either aversion (pratigha) or fondness (anunaya). Upekṣā is practiced to remove sensual attachment (kāmarāga) and hostility (vyāpāda) toward others”.

3) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) refers to “sensation of indifference” and represents one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., upekṣā] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of the “four spiritual states” (brahmavihāra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 16). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., brahma-vihāra and Upekṣā). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Upekṣā also refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30).

Upekṣā also refers to one of the “seven factors of awakening” (bodhyaṅga) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 49), itself forming part of the “thirty-seven things on the side of awakening” (bodhipākṣika-dharma).

Source: DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti

upekṣā [upekkhā] ('equanimity'): Upekṣā is the state of mind which maintains a balance while experiencing joy or sorrow, fame or infamy, gain or loss. Equanimity takes a person beyond love and hatred. One should meditate upon love, compassion, joy and equanimity. Equanimity is the seventh constituent of enlightenment. It helps one to get rid of attachment and aversion. It can be precisely described as the state which is devoid of pain and pleasure, the state in which no preference is shown to one thing or the other. Its property is indifference.

As one of the bodhyaṅga-s it means one and the same attitude of mind towards all thoughts.

Upekṣā is of ten kinds.

  1. ṣaḍaṅgopekṣā -- neither pleasure nor pain from the objects of six-sense organs,
  2. brahmavihāropekṣā -- equanimity in extending love to all,
  3. bodhyaṅgopekṣā -- equanimity with regard to thoughts,
  4. vīryopekṣā -- the same intensity of force of determination,
  5. saṃskāropekṣā -- equanimity with regard to all kinds of wisdom essential for the attainment of the paths,
  6. vedanopekṣā -- equanimity with regard to feelings,
  7. vidarśanopekṣā -- the state of equanimity towards what has been seen,
  8. tatramadhyasthopekṣā -- practising all modes of upekṣā,
  9. dhyānopekṣā -- equanimity with regard to the impermanency of objects, and
  10. pariśuddhi-upekṣā -- equanimity with regard to everything that takes one to emancipation.
     

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Upekṣā.—(CII 4), Buddhist; indifference; one of the bhā- vanās. Note: upekṣā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upēkṣā (उपेक्षा).—f (S) Indolent or careless putting off; delaying, dallying: also viewing without concern as light and insignificant: slighting. 2 Overlooking (an offence).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upēkṣā (उपेक्षा).—f Indolent putting off; delaying, overlooking (an offence).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—

1) Overlooking, disregard, neglect.

2) Indifference, contempt, disdain; कुर्यामुपेक्षां हतजीवितेऽस्मिन् (kuryāmupekṣāṃ hatajīvite'smin) R.14.65.

3) Leaving, quitting.

4) Endurance, patience.

5) Dissent.

6) Neglect, trick or deceit (one of the 7 expedients in war).

7) A sort of भावना (bhāvanā) in Yoga, q. v.

8) Regard, consideration.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—(Sanskrit id., used in much the same sense, but in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] like Pali upekkhā, upekhā, technical religious term, while also used in general untechnical sense), indifference (Tibetan btaṅ sñoms), putting up with whatever happens, patience, long-suffering: non-religious, Lalitavistara 304.11 (verse) śreyo upekṣa ma raṇe paribhāvu gacchet, (a son of Māra advises him not to fight the Bodhisattva) better is patience (to put up with what can't be helped), lest one arrive at humiliation in battle; religious, as the 7th bodhy- aṅga and as one of the 4 apramāṇa, qq.v.; Lalitavistara 129.10 (prose) aduḥkhāsukham upekṣāsmṛtipariśuddhaṃ catur- thaṃ dhyānam; 224.2 (verse) mudito upekṣa-dhyāyī brāhme pathi vidhijñaḥ; 275.18 (yasyā…brāhmaḥ patho jñāyate) maitrī vā karuṇā upekṣa muditā (see s.v. apramāṇa); in 442.5 acquisition of upekṣā leads to getting rid of love and hatred, anunayapratighotsargāya; its six aṅga, see this.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) 1. Trick, deceit, one of the minor expedients in war. 2. Abandoning, leaving. 3. Dissent. 4. Negligence, neglect. 5. Endurance, patience. 6. Contempt, disdian. E. upa before īkṣ to see, aṅ and ṭāp affs.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—i. e. upa-īkṣ + a, f. 1. Indifference, Mahābhārata 14, 1049. 2. Neglect, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 12, 35. 3. Want of attention, Bhāṣāp. 159.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upekṣa (उपेक्ष):—[from upekṣ] m. Name of a son of Śva-phalka, [Harivaṃśa]

2) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा):—[from upekṣa > upekṣ] f. overlooking, disregard, negligence, indifference, contempt, abandonment, [Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa; Hitopadeśa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] endurance, patience

4) [v.s. ...] dissent

5) [v.s. ...] trick, deceit (as one of the minor expedients in war), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] regard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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