Upeksha, Upekṣā: 24 definitions


Upeksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Upekṣā can be transliterated into English as Upeksa or Upeksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—One of the upāyas of a king.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 222. 2.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) refers to “ignoring (one’s tasks)”, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “He should not protect (his) body (at the expense of his spiritual discipline). He should not cheat his teacher, nor should he ever ignore (upekṣā) the tasks he should do whether he has (expressly) been told to do them or not. The disciple who is deceitful and whose nature is wicked, one who expounds false (views to others) and, like a prostitute, hides his intentions and is not sincere is destroyed. The foolish one who, like a pimp, is two-faced and (whose selfish) intention (constantly changes) this way and that, is destroyed”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) refers to “ignoring (another deity) (in devotion)”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] My devotion to you nourishes me every day, as the rise of the full moon always nourishes the ocean. On account of the true affluence of victorious devotion to you I even ignore (upekṣā) the excellent Lakṣmī. The whole world consists of you, Goddess of Gods! Your body is consciousness, you are alone and perfectly established. Nowhere is there ignorance. Thus, where do we see the son of a barren woman run and raise his bow? [...]”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Upeksha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) refers to “impartiality”, according to Ratnakheṭaśrīnivāsadīkṣita’s Bhāvanāpuruṣottama (1979, p. 100 l. 2).—In later commentaries on the Pātañjalayogaśāstra, the term udāsīna was used by both Bhoja and Vijñānabhikṣu to gloss impartiality (upekṣā) which is one of the four emotional states to be cultivated for the attainment of stability of mind in Pātañjalayogaśāstra 1.33.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of ten constituents (dravya) of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “these thirty-seven auxiliaries (bodhipākṣika) have ten things (dravya) as roots (mūla). Equanimity (upekṣā) constitutes the factor-of-enlightenment called equanimity (upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṅga)”.

2) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of the “four immeasurables” (apramāṇa), according to chapter 32.—Accordingly, “Upekṣā is to abandon the three previous feelings and think of beings without either aversion (pratigha) or fondness (anunaya). Upekṣā is practiced to remove sensual attachment (kāmarāga) and hostility (vyāpāda) toward others”.

3) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) refers to “sensation of indifference” and represents one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., upekṣā] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Upekṣa (उपेक्ष) refers to “equanimity”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, from innumerable aeons ago (asaṃkhyeya-kalpa), the Bodhisatvas in the Mahāvyūha universe have been in accordance with the [perfection of] giving as adorned with generosity, [...] have practiced the protection of all living beings as adorned with great friendliness (mahā-maitrī), have practiced never giving up any being as adorned with great compassion (mahā-karuṇa), have never ceased to make joy, happiness, and great delight of all living beings as adorned with great happiness (mahā-mudita), and have been punctilious in the practice without interruption, which has made all living beings not to be conceited or depressed as adorned with great equanimity (mahā-upekṣa) [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) refers to “sympathetic (joy)”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Benevolence, compassion, sympathetic joy (mudita-upekṣā), and equanimity. Oṃ the natural state of all conditions is pure... First crossing onto a cremation ground, fixed high on a mountain, A yogi having all the sacred threads, loose hair, and facing southward, The five ambrosias and lamps, interpolated into the face”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of the “four spiritual states” (brahmavihāra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 16). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., brahma-vihāra and Upekṣā). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Upekṣā also refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30).

Upekṣā also refers to one of the “seven factors of awakening” (bodhyaṅga) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 49), itself forming part of the “thirty-seven things on the side of awakening” (bodhipākṣika-dharma).

Source: DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti

upekṣā [upekkhā] ('equanimity'): Upekṣā is the state of mind which maintains a balance while experiencing joy or sorrow, fame or infamy, gain or loss. Equanimity takes a person beyond love and hatred. One should meditate upon love, compassion, joy and equanimity. Equanimity is the seventh constituent of enlightenment. It helps one to get rid of attachment and aversion. It can be precisely described as the state which is devoid of pain and pleasure, the state in which no preference is shown to one thing or the other. Its property is indifference.

As one of the bodhyaṅga-s it means one and the same attitude of mind towards all thoughts.

Upekṣā is of ten kinds.

  1. ṣaḍaṅgopekṣā -- neither pleasure nor pain from the objects of six-sense organs,
  2. brahmavihāropekṣā -- equanimity in extending love to all,
  3. bodhyaṅgopekṣā -- equanimity with regard to thoughts,
  4. vīryopekṣā -- the same intensity of force of determination,
  5. saṃskāropekṣā -- equanimity with regard to all kinds of wisdom essential for the attainment of the paths,
  6. vedanopekṣā -- equanimity with regard to feelings,
  7. vidarśanopekṣā -- the state of equanimity towards what has been seen,
  8. tatramadhyasthopekṣā -- practising all modes of upekṣā,
  9. dhyānopekṣā -- equanimity with regard to the impermanency of objects, and
  10. pariśuddhi-upekṣā -- equanimity with regard to everything that takes one to emancipation.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा, “equanimity”) refers to one of  the four brahmavihāras “four practices”, according to the Yogaśāstra 4.75 (vol. 2, p. 863).—Hemacandra explains that by the phrase “friendliness, etc.” (maitryādi), he means to say “friendliness” (maitrī), “joy” (muditā), “compassion” (karuṇā) and “equanimity” (upekṣā). These constitute the four practices known as the brahmavihāras mentioned in various Buddhist texts. They are also listed by Patañjali in Yogasūtra 1.33 as means for purification of the mind (see Mukerji 2000: 77-8; Bryant 2009: 128-30).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Upekṣā.—(CII 4), Buddhist; indifference; one of the bhā- vanās. Note: upekṣā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upēkṣā (उपेक्षा).—f (S) Indolent or careless putting off; delaying, dallying: also viewing without concern as light and insignificant: slighting. 2 Overlooking (an offence).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upēkṣā (उपेक्षा).—f Indolent putting off; delaying, overlooking (an offence).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—

1) Overlooking, disregard, neglect.

2) Indifference, contempt, disdain; कुर्यामुपेक्षां हतजीवितेऽस्मिन् (kuryāmupekṣāṃ hatajīvite'smin) R.14.65.

3) Leaving, quitting.

4) Endurance, patience.

5) Dissent.

6) Neglect, trick or deceit (one of the 7 expedients in war).

7) A sort of भावना (bhāvanā) in Yoga, q. v.

8) Regard, consideration.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—(Sanskrit id., used in much the same sense, but in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] like Pali upekkhā, upekhā, technical religious term, while also used in general untechnical sense), indifference (Tibetan btaṅ sñoms), putting up with whatever happens, patience, long-suffering: non-religious, Lalitavistara 304.11 (verse) śreyo upekṣa ma raṇe paribhāvu gacchet, (a son of Māra advises him not to fight the Bodhisattva) better is patience (to put up with what can't be helped), lest one arrive at humiliation in battle; religious, as the 7th bodhy- aṅga and as one of the 4 apramāṇa, qq.v.; Lalitavistara 129.10 (prose) aduḥkhāsukham upekṣāsmṛtipariśuddhaṃ catur- thaṃ dhyānam; 224.2 (verse) mudito upekṣa-dhyāyī brāhme pathi vidhijñaḥ; 275.18 (yasyā…brāhmaḥ patho jñāyate) maitrī vā karuṇā upekṣa muditā (see s.v. apramāṇa); in 442.5 acquisition of upekṣā leads to getting rid of love and hatred, anunayapratighotsargāya; its six aṅga, see this.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) 1. Trick, deceit, one of the minor expedients in war. 2. Abandoning, leaving. 3. Dissent. 4. Negligence, neglect. 5. Endurance, patience. 6. Contempt, disdian. E. upa before īkṣ to see, aṅ and ṭāp affs.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा).—i. e. upa-īkṣ + a, f. 1. Indifference, Mahābhārata 14, 1049. 2. Neglect, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 12, 35. 3. Want of attention, Bhāṣāp. 159.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upekṣa (उपेक्ष):—[from upekṣ] m. Name of a son of Śva-phalka, [Harivaṃśa]

2) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा):—[from upekṣa > upekṣ] f. overlooking, disregard, negligence, indifference, contempt, abandonment, [Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa; Hitopadeśa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] endurance, patience

4) [v.s. ...] dissent

5) [v.s. ...] trick, deceit (as one of the minor expedients in war), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] regard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा):—[upe+kṣā] (kṣā) 1. f. Neglect; abandoning; endurance; trick.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Uvikkhā, Uvehā, Ovehā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Upeksha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upeksha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Upekṣā (उपेक्षा):—(nf) negligence; neglect, disregard; ~[kārī] negligent; —[karanā] to ignore, to disregard, to brush aside.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Upekṣa (उपेक्ष):—adj. negligible; fit to be discarded;

2) Upekṣā (उपेक्षा):—n. slight; indignity; neglect; disregard; contempt;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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