Anuttara, Anuttarā: 24 definitions


Anuttara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Anuttarā (अनुत्तरा) refers to “absolute” and is used to describe the Goddess, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The word “śakti” which denotes the god’s spiritual power, embodied in the goddess, his consort. The goddess, in other words, is the state of the god, his divinity that is his infinite divine power through which he wills, knows and does all things.—Kashmiri Śaiva theologians call this Bhairava’s “freedom” (svātantrya) or “independence” (nirapekṣatā), the intuitive and creative genius (pratibhā) of his pure conscious nature. [...] Again: The independence (nirapekṣatā) of the Lord with respect to His being all things is that supreme creative intuition (pratibhā) (the wise) call the Goddess Absolute (anuttarā)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) refers to the “insurpassable”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I uninterruptedly remember [you], the Vidyā leading to the ultimate well-being, embodiment of bliss, the cause of the extension of all prosperities. [You are] the primordial one, the insurpassable Kalā [i.e., anuttara-kalā]. You are Bālā, the beloved of Kulanātha (namely, Śiva). [Your] glory is incomparable, and you are filled with many felicities”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) or “without superior”, is a synonym for the Buddha according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV).

Why is he called A neou to lo (Anuttara)?

1) Nirvāṇa is the highest dharma. The Buddha alone knows this nirvāṇa; he has not learned it from another. Besides, he guides beings and leads them to nirvāṇa. Just as nirvāṇa is without superior among all the dharmas, so the Buddha is without superior among beings.

2) Furthermore, no-one is his equal and, a fortiori, surpasses him in discipline (śīla), samādhi and wisdom (prajñā). This is why he is called Anuttara.

3) Furthermore, A indicates negation and uttara means refutation. All the systems of the heretics (tīrthika) can be refuted and destroyed because they are false (asatya) and impure (aviśudda). But the doctrine of the Buddha cannot be either refuted or destroyed because it escapes any discussion; it is true (satya) and pure (viśuddha). This is why he is called Anuttara.

According to the Visuddhimagga:—“There is no-one better endowed with qualities than him; no-one surpasses him”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) refers to “unsurpassable”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (8) All the dharmas are born from causes and conditions (hetupratyaya). Without any activity or intrinsic nature (asvabhāva), they are generated in thought-constructions (saṃkalpa). But still the Sugata, having known the mode (naya) of such dharmas, obtained the changeless (nirvikāra), peaceful (śānta), unsurpassable (anuttara) awakening. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) or Anuttarayoga refers to the “highest (yoga)” and represents one of the divisions of Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhism, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).—Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna is commonly divided into four modes of practice, kriyā, "action", worshiping and serving a deity seen as outside oneself, caryā, "performance", embodying a deity by performing its ritual music and dance, yoga, "meditation", visualizing a deity or deities and absorbing them into oneself, and anuttara-yoga, "the highest yoga", using sophisticated yogic meditation practices to actively turn oneself into an enlightened divinity. [...] What makes Anuttara Yoga unique is the nature of the deities visualized, wrathful and erotic, and the level of sophistication of the meditative practices which include caṇḍalī-yoga, "yogic heat", known as "Tummo" in Tibetan, which are breathing exercises using kuṇḍalinī-yoga for generating internal heat originating from the pelvic bowl, utkrānti-yoga, "death yoga", known as "Phowa" in Tibetan, which is transference of consciousness at the time of death, and śmāśāna-yoga, "cremation ground yoga", meditations and ritual magic performed in cremation grounds.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography

Anuttara (अनुत्तर).—One of the five heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka);—The five Anuttaras (according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara) are:

  1. Vijaya in the east,
  2. Vaijayanta in the south,
  3. Jayanta in the west,
  4. Aparājita in the north,
  5. Sarvarthasiddhi in the centre.
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) and Anuttara are the name of two heavens in Jainism, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism. Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Dharma is the highest happiness. Dharma bestows heaven and emancipation. Dharma shows the road for crossing the wilderness of saṃsāra. [...] From dharma one attains Ahamindraship in the Graiveyaka and Anuttara heavens. [...]”.

In these two heavens [viz., Graiveyaka and Anuttara], the highest, the gods have no distinction of rank, and all are called ‘Ahamindras’. Cf. Bṛhatsaṅgrahanī 3, p. 4b. Die Kosmographie der Inder p. 302.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) is one of the three subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

There are five anuttaras, namely:

  1. Vijaya,
  2. Vaijayanta,
  3. Jayanta,
  4. Aparājita,
  5. Sarvārtha-siddhi

Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration. What is the life span of deities in the five-Anuttara? The five anuttara heavens are layered heavens above Nava-anudiśā where deities reside. The life span in these heavens is thirty three sāgaropama.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Anuttara.—(EI 18), penance. Note: anuttara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Anuttara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

anuttara : (adj.) incomparable; unsurpassed.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Anuttara, (adj.) (an + uttara) “nothing higher”, without a superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, excellent, preeminent Sn.234 (= adhikassa kassaci abhāvato KhA 193), 1003; Dh.23, 55 (= asadisa appaṭibhāga DhA.I, 423); Pv IV.35 2 (dhamma); Dhs.1294; DA.I, 129; PvA.1, 5, 6, 18, etc. (Page 36)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

anuttara (अनुत्तर).—a (S) Unable to answer. 2 S Chief, principal, best, excelled or surpassed by none, haud ulli secundus.

--- OR ---

anuttara (अनुत्तर).—n (S) Want or absence of an answer; or a defective, inapplicable, irrelevant answer. Pr. anuttaraṃ utaraṃ or pop. anuttaraṃ mēva uttaraṃ. 2 In law. Any answer not includible within the four kinds prescribed. See uttara. 3 Failure or non-performance of an engagement. Ex. sadarahu lihilyāpramāṇēṃ karīna hyāsa a0 karaṇāra nāhīṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

anuttara (अनुत्तर).—a Unable to answer.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Anuttara (अनुत्तर).—a. [nāsti uttaro yasmāt]

1) Principal, chief.

2) Best, excellent; अनुत्तराणि विलसितानि (anuttarāṇi vilasitāni) Daśakumāracarita 162 unsurpassed. शरीरसौख्यार्थमनुत्तरस्य निपेततुर्मूर्धनि तस्य सौम्ये (śarīrasaukhyārthamanuttarasya nipetaturmūrdhani tasya saumye) | Bu. ch.1.35.

3) [nāsti uttaraṃ yasya] Without a reply, silent, unable to answer; भवत्यवज्ञा च भवत्यनुत्तरात् (bhavatyavajñā ca bhavatyanuttarāt) Naiṣadha.

4) Fixed, firm (na uttarati calati). अर्थ्यं तथ्यं हितं वाक्यं लघुयुक्तमनुत्तरम् (arthyaṃ tathyaṃ hitaṃ vākyaṃ laghuyuktamanuttaram) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 2.2.5.

5) Low, inferior, base, mean.

6) Southern.

-ram [na. ta.] No reply, a reply which, being evasive, is considered to be no reply.

-rāḥ (pl.) A class of gods among Jainas (°upapātika).

-upapātikadaśāḥ f. Title of the ninth aṅga of the Jainas treating of those gods.

-rā The south. ...अनुत्तरः । नोदीच्यां नोपरि श्रेष्ठे (anuttaraḥ | nodīcyāṃ nopari śreṣṭhe)... ()| Nm.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Anuttara (अनुत्तर).—adj. (= Pali id.; compare sottara; Sanskrit in this sense only Lex., replaced by anuttama, which has had its ending assimilated to superlatives owing to the meaning of the word), having no superior, highest, supreme: Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 266.13, of cittāni; Gaṇḍavyūha 244.7 °rāṃ tathāgatavarṇaviśud- dhiṃ; Lalitavistara 24.13 °ra-parivāraṃ (kulaṃ); 85.2 anuttaro bhaviṣyāmi sarvasattvānām; Divyāvadāna 144.5 anuttare-manuṣ- yadharme (see s.v. uttari-, end); especially epithet of samyak- saṃbodhi, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 100.3; Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 293.10; Vajracchedikā 24.2; Lalitavistara 183.17; Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 148.3 etc., etc., extremely common (see under abhisaṃbudhyate); m. as epithet of a Buddha, Mahāvyutpatti 9; as name of a samādhi, Kāraṇḍavvūha 52.3; f. with ellipsis of samyak- saṃbodhi (see above), Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 216.8 (prose) °rāṃ samyak- saṃbuddhaḥ samāno, being enlightened unto supreme (enlightenment); normally the noun samyaksaṃbodhiṃ follows anuttarāṃ in this common phrase; has it dropped out by haplography? (WT same text).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anuttara (अनुत्तर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Chief, principal. 2. Best, excellent. 3. Unable to answer, silent. 4. Fixed, firm. 5. Low, inferior. 6. South, southern. n.

(-raṃ) A reply which is incoherent or evasive, and is therfore held to be no answer. E. an neg. and uttara subsequent, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Anuttara (अनुत्तर):—[=an-uttara] mfn. chief, principal

2) [v.s. ...] best, excellent

3) [v.s. ...] without a reply, unable to answer, silent

4) [v.s. ...] fixed, firm

5) [v.s. ...] low, inferior, base

6) [v.s. ...] south, southern

7) [v.s. ...] n. a reply which is coherent or evasive and therefore held to be no answer

8) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] a class of gods among the Jainas.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anuttara (अनुत्तर):—I. [tatpurusha compound] 1. m. f. n.

(-raḥ-rā-ram) 1) Low, nether.

2) South, southern.

3) Low, inferior, vile. 2. n.

(-ram) 1) No-answer.

2) A bad or evasive reply and held therefore to be no-answer (e. g. of the defendant, in a law-suit). E. a neg. and uttara. Ii. [bahuvrihi compound] 1. m. f. n.

(-raḥ-rā-ram) 1) Best, excellent, supreme, chief, principal (literally: than which there is no higher or better).

2) Fixed, firm.

3) Unable to answer or to give a proper answer. 2. m. pl.

(-rāḥ) In Jaina mythology, one of the two divisions (see also graiveyaka) of the gods called kalpātīta (q. v.) which are one of the two divisions (see also kalpabhava) of the gods called vaimānika (q. v.); the anuttarāḥ comprise five classes. See vijaya, vaijayanta, jayanta, aparājita and sarvārthasiddhi. See also anuttaropapātika. E. a priv. and uttara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anuttara (अनुत्तर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Chief. n. An evasive answer or reply.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Anuttara (अनुत्तर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Aṇuttara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Anuttara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Aṇuttara (अणुत्तर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Anuttara.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Prakrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Anuttara (ಅನುತ್ತರ):—

1) [adjective] not good; bad.

2) [adjective] that is not excelled by another; best; most excellent.

3) [adjective] of, from; or related to the south or southern direction.

4) [adjective] that cannot be answered.

5) [adjective] not fit to be answered.

6) [adjective] unable to answer.

--- OR ---

Anuttara (ಅನುತ್ತರ):—

1) [noun] the direction opposite to the north; the south.

2) [noun] an impertinent or evasive answer.

3) [noun] one who talks foolishly or too much; babbler.

4) [noun] the quality or state of being fixed; firmness.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of anuttara in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: