Samadhi, Samādhi: 34 definitions

Introduction

Samadhi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: The Roots of Vedanta

Samādhi is of two kinds: meditation on Nirguṇa-Brahman results in nirvikalpaka samādhi, while meditation on Saguṇa-Brahman leads to savikalpaka samādhi.

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samadhi in Yoga glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Samādhi (समाधि, “completion”) is a Sanskrit word referring to “intense self-absorption”. It is one of the eight brances of yoga, also known as the eightfold-path (aṣṭānga). Also see the fifth section of the Varāha-upaniṣad.

In yoga philosophy, Samadhi represents the stage where the mediator merges with its object of focus and transcends the self altogether to a higher understanding.

Source: Google Books: The Khecarividya of Adinatha

The Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā 7.3-6 teaches that rājayoga encompasses six types of Samādhi:

  1. dhyāna (prduced by śāmbhavīmudrā),
  2. nāda (prduced by khecarīmudrā),
  3. rasānanda (prduced by bhrāmarīmudrā),
  4. laya (prduced by yonimudrā),
  5. bhakti
  6. and manomūrcchā (‘trance’).
Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Samādhi (समाधि).—Total absorption and trance of the mind and senses in consciousness of the Supreme Godhead and service to Him. The word samādhi also refers to the tomb where a great soul's body is laid after his departure from this world.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Samādhi (समाधि) refers to “concentration of the mind; meditation or deep trance, either on Paramātmā or Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Samādhi (समाधि) refers to:—Meditation or deep trance. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Samādhi (समाधि).—The state when the soul (ātmā) and the mind become one. When the soul and the mind mingle with each other as salt and water, it is Samādhi (contemplation). (For more details see under Yoga.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Samādhi (समाधि).—Honourable or āryam, explained by Yayāti to Aṣṭaka;1 Bhṛgu in samādhi.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 41. 4: Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 25.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 193. 26.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Samādhi (समाधि, “concentration”) refers to one of the ten merits (guṇa) of a dramatic play (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. They are characterised by their sweetness and depth of meaning.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Samādhi (समाधि, “concentration”).—One of the ten guṇas (merits) of a kāvya (dramatic play);—Description of samādhi: Careful condensation of meanings suggested by and derived from similes and other figures of speech is called Concentration (samādhi).

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Samādhi (समाधि) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure samādhi has not been mentioned by ancient rhetoricians like Bhāmaha, Udbhaṭa and Rudraṭa. According to Mammaṭa when an effect become very much easy owing to the accidental presence of another cause the figure samādhi arises. Ruyyaka has followed Mammaṭa in defining samādhi.

Jayadeva in his Candrāloka (C.L.V/98) has defined samādhi as—“samādhiḥ kāryasaukaryaṃ kāraṇāntarasannidheḥ”. This tradition has been followed by Cirañjīva who gives exactly the same definition. When an effect become easier due to the presence of some other cause or causes, the figure samādhi takes place. In fact according to the rules of causation one cause is sufficient to produce an effect. But if it is found that in addition to the definite cause there is another cause which supports to produce the effect in a easier way the figure samādhi takes place.

Example of the samādhi-alaṃkāra:—

astaṃ yāto dinamaṇirasau bhūṣaya svalpamaṅgaṃ tūrṇaṃ turṇaṃ racaya kucayoḥ kelipatrāṅkurālīm |
ityākarṇya pracalitumiyaṃ yāvadutkaṇṭhitā’bhū ttāvatprīto janayati ghanāḍambaraṃ śambarāriḥ ||

“The sun has set, decorate some part of your body quickly, paint your breast by sandal paste for amorous sports. Hearing this when she became anxious to start then the cupid being pleased created the roar of clouds”.

Notes: In this verse the setting of sun is the cause of the journey of the lady to the place of her assignation. In addition to this cause there is another cause i.e. the roaring of clouds which makes easier for the lady to move to her place of assignation. On account of the darkness caused by the arising of clouds, journey to the place of assignation becomes smoother. Here one cause i.e. setting of the sun is sufficient. In addition to this cause arising of clouds has been mentioned. So it is an example of samādhi.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga

Samādhi (समाधि) is explained by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka.—The eighth and last limb is absorption (samādhi), defined as the constant contemplation (bhāvanā) of the identity of the individual Self and the supreme Self (27).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga

Samādhi (समाधि, “absorption”) refers to one of the six members (aṅga) of the Ṣaḍaṅgayoga, as taught in the early Śaiva Siddhānta.—Ṣaḍaṅgayoga is taught as the standard yoga of the Śaivasiddhānta (Siddhānta) a mainstream, Veda congruent dualist tradition. See, for example, the 6th century texts of Raurava-āgama, Kiraṇa-āgma, Sarvajñānottara-āgama, Svāyambhuvasūtrasaṃgraha, the 7th century Mālinīvijayottara and the 9th century Tantrasadbhāva.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Samādhi (समाधि) refers to one of the three functions of saṃyama (self-control).—The Pāñcarātrāgama offers its own treatment which has a significant contribution. Dhāraṇā is retaining the mind in God, dhyāna is joining the mind in God and meditating upon Him and samādhi is mere appearance of the nature of the object, (God). According to Viṣṇupurāṇa. (VI.7.86), dhāraṇā is stability of the citta In God, dhyāna is continuity of that cognition without any desire for other things (ibid. VI.7.91) and samādhi is a stage in Yogic practise in which God’s own nature is grasped without any imagined appendage (ibid. VI.7.92).

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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Samādhi (समाधि): A term used in yogic meditation. Samadhi is also the Hindi word for a structure commemorating the dead.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsConcentration; the practice of centering the mind in a single sensation or preoccupation, usually to the point of jhana.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M (Calm, serenity). Clarity of the mind caused by a sharp concentration that is the fruit of a sustained training.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of being firmly fixed' (sam+ā+Ö hā),

is the fixing of the mind on a single object.

"One-pointedness of mind (cittass' ekaggatā), Brother Visakha, this is called concentration" (M. 44).

Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the 7 mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness. Cf. nāma, cetanā.

Right concentration (sammā-samādhi), as the last link of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative absorptions (jhāna). In a wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala) consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchā-samādhi) is concentration associated with all karmically unwholesome (akusala) consciousness. Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant .

In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:

  • (1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samādhi) existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.

  • (2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacāra-samādhi), i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption (jhāna), which in certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' (patibhāga-nimitta).

  • (3) 'Attainment concentration' (appanā-samādhi), i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions. (App.)

Further details, s. bhāvana, Vis.M. III and Fund. IV.

Concentration connected with the 4 noble path-moments (magga), and fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara), having Nibbāna as object. Any other concentration, even that of the sublimest absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya).

According to D.33, the development of concentration (samādhi-bhāvanā) may procure a 4-fold blessing:

  • (1) present happiness through the 4 absorptions;

  • (2) knowledge and vision (ñāna-dassana) - here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññā) through perception of light (kasina);

  • (3) mindfulness and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts;

  • (4) extinction of all cankers (āsavakkhaya) through understanding the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging (s. khandha).

Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga), one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala), and the last link of the 8-fold Path.

In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality, concentration and wisdom), it is a collective name for the three last links of the path (s. sikkhā).

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

concentration;

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Samādhi (समाधि) refers to a set of “three concentrations”, representing qualities acquired by the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X.

The three concentrations (samādhi) are those of:

  1. emptiness (śūnyatā),
  2. wishlessness (apraṇihita),
  3. signlessness (ānimitta).

Some say that there are twenty-three kinds of samādhi; others say sixty-five, still others say five hundred. But as the Mahāyāna is great, there are innumerable samādhis.

According to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13, “producing and playing with a hundred thousand samādhis” is another quality of the Bodhisattvas. Samādhi is the “fixing on one point of a good mind, the immobility of the mind”.

There are three kinds of samādhis:

  1. samādhi with vitarka (investigation) and vicāra (analysis);
  2. samādhi without vitarka but with vicāra;
  3. samādhi with neither vitarka nor vicāra.

There are four other kinds of samādhi:

  1. samādhi connected with the world of desire (kāmadhātu-avacara);
  2. samādhi connected with the world of form (rūpadhātu-avacara),
  3. samādhi connected with the formless world (ārūpyadhātu-avacara);
  4. samādhi not connected with anything.

2) Samādhi (समाधि) refers to one of ten constituents (dravya) of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “these thirty-seven auxiliaries (bodhipākṣika) have ten things (dravya) as roots (mūla). Concentration (samādhi) constitutes: a. the four foundations of magical power (ṛddhipāda); b. the faculty of concentration (samādhīndriya); c. the power of concentration (samādhibala); d. the factor-of-enlightenment called concentration (samādhi-saṃbodhyaṅga); e. the [factor-of-the-path] called right concentration (samyaksamādhi)”.

3) Samādhi (समाधि, “concentration”) refers to one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., samādhi] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Samādhi (समाधि, “visualisation”) refers to one of six limbs of Yoga to be employed in Uttamasevā (excellent worship), according to the Guhyasamāja chapter 18.—[...] By this process [viz., of Anusmṛti (memory)] the transcendental knowledge is suddenly realised by the worshipper and is known as Samādhi (visualisation). For the purpose of visualisation it is necessary that the process should be continued for six months and this is done according to the Guhyasāmaja always while enjoying all kinds of desired objects If within six months the deity does not show herself the process should be repeated thrice while following the rules of restraint duly prescribed. If the deity is not visualised even after this, it should be forced by the practice of Haṭhayoga. By this Yoga the ascetic most certainly attains the knowledge of the deity.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Samādhi (समाधि, “concentration”) refers to one of the “five super-mundane components” (lokottara-skandha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 23). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., samādhi). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Samādhi als orefers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30).

Samādhi also refers to one of the “five faculties” (pañcendriya), one of the “five strengths” (pañcabala) as well as one of the “seven factors of awakening” (bodhyaṅga), as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 47-49), all forming part of the “thirty-seven things on the side of awakening” (bodhipākṣika-dharma).

Samādhi or Samādhibala refers to the “the strength of concentration” and represents one of the “ten strengths of the Bodhisattvas” (bala) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 75).

2) Samādhi (समाधि) refers to the “four concentrations” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 101):

  1. āloka-samādhi (concentration on light),
  2. vṛtāloka-samādhi ((concentration on enclosed light),
  3. ekādaśa-pratiṣṭha-samādhi (the eleven establishments of concentration),
  4. ānantarya-samādhi (the concentration giving immediate result).

3) Samādhi (समाधि) also refers to the “four concentrations” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 136):

  1. śūraṅgama (heroic march),
  2. gagaṇa-gañja (sky-jewel),
  3. vimala-prabha (pure light),
  4. siṃha-vikrīḍita (lion’s sport).
Source: Buddhist Door: GlossarySanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Samādhi (समाधि) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Samādhi] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Samādhi.—(CII 4), poetic quality of a composition. (EI 33), explained as a ‘granary’; probably ‘an agreement’. Cf. sallekhanā. Note: samādhi is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samadhi in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

samādhi : (m.) meditation; onepointedness of the mind.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Samādhi, (fr. saṃ+ā+dhā) 1. concentration; a concentrated, self-collected, intent state of mind and meditation, which, concomitant with right living, is a necessary condition to the attainment of higher wisdom and emancipation. In the Subha-suttanta of the Dīgha (D. I, 209 sq.) samādhi-khandha (“section on concentration”) is the title otherwise given to the cittasampadā, which, in the ascending order of merit accruing from the life of a samaṇa (see Sāmaññaphala-suttanta, and cp. Dial. I. 57 sq.) stands between the sīla-sampadā and the paññā-sampadā. In the Ambaṭṭha-sutta the corresponding terms are sīla, caraṇa, vijjā (D. I. 100). Thus samādhi would comprise (a) the guarding of the senses (indriyesu gutta-dvāratā), (b) self-possession (sati-sampajañña), (c) contentment (santuṭṭhi), (d) emancipation from the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇāni), (e) the 4 jhānas. In the same way we find samādhi grouped as one of the sampadās at A. III, 12 (sīla°, samādhi°, paññā°, vimutti°), and as samādhi-khandha (with sīla° & paññā°) at D. III, 229 (+vimutti°); A. I, 125; II, 20; III, 15; V, 326; Nd1 21; Nd2 p. 277 (s. v. sīla). It is defined as cittassa ekaggatā M. I, 301; Dhs. 15; DhsA. 118; cp. Cpd. 89 n. 4; identified with avikkhepa Dhs. 57, and with samatha Dhs. 54.—sammā° is one the constituents of the eightfold ariya-magga, e.g. D. III, 277; VbhA. 120 sq.—See further D. II, 123 (ariya); Vin. I, 97, 104; S. I, 28; Nd1 365; Miln. 337; Vism. 84 sq. (with definition), 289 (+vipassanā), 380 (°vipphārā iddhi); VbhA. 91; DhA. I, 427; and on term in general Heiler, Buddhistische Versenkung 104 sq.—2. Description & characterization of samādhi: Its four nimittas or signs are the four satipaṭṭhānas M. I, 301; six conditions and six hindrances A. III, 427; other hindrances M. III, 158. The second jhāna is born from samādhi D. II, 186; it is a condition for attaining kusalā dhammā A. I, 115; Miln. 38; conducive to insight A. III, 19, 24 sq. , 200; S. IV, 80; to seeing heavenly sights etc. D. I, 173; to removing mountains etc. A. III, 311; removes the delusions of self A. I, 132 sq.; leads to Arahantship A. II, 45; the ānantarika s. Sn. 226; cetosamādhi (rapture of mind) D. I, 13; A. II, 54; III, 51; S. IV, 297; citta° id. Nett 16. dhammasamādhi almost identical with samatha S. IV, 350 sq.—Two grades of samādhi distinguished, viz. upacāra-s. (preparatory concentration) and appanā-s. (attainment concentration) DA. I, 217; Vism. 126; Cpd. 54, 56 sq.; only the latter results in jhāna; to these a 3rd (preliminary) grade is added as khaṇika° (momentary) at Vism. 144.—Three kinds of s. are distinguished, suññata or empty, appaṇihita or aimless, and animitta or signless A. I, 299; S. IV, 360; cp. IV. 296; Vin. III, 93; Miln. 337; cp. 333 sq.; DhsA. 179 sq. , 222 sq. , 290 sq.; see Yogāvacara’s Manual p. xxvii; samādhi (tayo samādhī) is savitakka savicāra, avitakka vicāramatta or avitakka avicāra D. III, 219; Kvu 570; cp. 413; Miln. 337; DhsA. 179 sq.; it is fourfold chanda-, viriya-, citta-, and vīmaṃsā-samādhi D. II, 213; S. V, 268.—Another fourfold division is that into hāna-bhāgiya, ṭhiti°, visesa°, nibbedha° D. III, 277 (as “dhammā duppaṭivijjhā”).

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

samādhi (समाधि).—f m (S) pop. samādha f Deep and devout meditation; restraining the senses and confining the mind to contemplation (on the nature of spirit &c.): also abstracted or absorbed state. 2 Self-immolation (of a Sanyasi) by drowning or by burying himself alive. 3 The rite of burying in water of a deceased Sanyasi. 4 The little edifice to contain the Tulsi plant which is erected over the burial place of a Sanyasi.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samādhi (समाधि).—1 Collecting, composing, concentrating (as mind).

2) Profound or abstract meditation, concentration of mind on one object, perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation, i. e. the Supreme Spirit, (the 8th and last stage of Yoga); व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते (vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate) Bg.2.44; आत्मेश्वराणां न हि जातु विघ्नाः समाधिभेदप्रभवो भवन्ति (ātmeśvarāṇāṃ na hi jātu vighnāḥ samādhibhedaprabhavo bhavanti) Ku.3.4,5; Mk.1.1; Bh.3.54. R.8.79; Śi.4.55.

3) Intentness, concentration (in general), fixing of thoughts; यथा भानुगतं तेजो मणिः शुद्धः समाधिना । आदत्ते राजशार्दूल तथा योगः प्रवर्तते (yathā bhānugataṃ tejo maṇiḥ śuddhaḥ samādhinā | ādatte rājaśārdūla tathā yogaḥ pravartate) || Mb.12.298.12; तस्यां लग्नसमाधि (tasyāṃ lagnasamādhi) (mānasam) Gīt.3; अहःसु तस्या हृदि ये समाधयः (ahaḥsu tasyā hṛdi ye samādhayaḥ) Rām. ch.2.41.

4) Penance, religious obligation, devotion (to penance); अस्त्येतदन्यसमाधिभीरुत्वं देवानाम् (astyetadanyasamādhibhīrutvaṃ devānām) Ś1; तपः- समाधि (tapaḥ- samādhi) Ku.3.24; अथोपयन्तारमलं समाधीना (athopayantāramalaṃ samādhīnā) 5.24;5.6;1.59; सर्वथा दृढसमाधिर्भव (sarvathā dṛḍhasamādhirbhava) Nāg.5.

5) Bringing together, concentration, combination, collection; union, a set; सा तस्य धर्मार्थसमाधियुक्तं निशम्य वाक्यम् (sā tasya dharmārthasamādhiyuktaṃ niśamya vākyam) Rām.4.33.5; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना (taṃ vedhā vidadhe nūnaṃ mahābhūtasamādhinā) R.1.29.

6) Reconciliation, settling or composing differences.

7) Silence.

8) Agreement, assent, promise.

9) Requital.

1) Completion, accomplishment.

11) Perseverance in extreme difficulties.

12) Attempting impossibilities.

13) Laying up corn (in times of famine), storing grain.

14) A tomb.

15) The joint of the neck; a particular position of the neck; अंसाववष्टब्धनतौ समाधिः (aṃsāvavaṣṭabdhanatau samādhiḥ) Ki.16.21.

16) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa; समाधिः सुकरं कार्यं कारणान्तरयोगतः (samādhiḥ sukaraṃ kāryaṃ kāraṇāntarayogataḥ) K. P.1; see S. D.614.

17) One of the ten Guṇas or merits of style; अन्यधर्मस्ततोऽन्यत्र लोकसीमानुरोधिना । सम्यगाधीयते यत्र स समाधिः स्मृतो यथा (anyadharmastato'nyatra lokasīmānurodhinā | samyagādhīyate yatra sa samādhiḥ smṛto yathā) || Kāv.1.93.

18) A religious vow or self-imposed restraint.

19) Support, upholding.

Derivable forms: samādhiḥ (समाधिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Samādhi (समाधि).—concentration, trance, in Sanskrit and Pali recorded only as m.; according to [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary] only m. in AMg., but also f. in Prakrit according to [Paia-sadda-mahaṇṇavo]; here f. and nt. occasion- ally: f., mahāvyūhāya (loc.) sthitaḥ samādhiye (loc.) Lalitavistara 60.4 (verse; in prec. prose mahāvyūhasya samādher 59.20-21); etatpraveśo (v.l. °śā, so read?) yat samādhiḥ paramā jāyata iti Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 21.4 (prose); -vipañcitāyāḥ (all mss., Régamey em. °citāt, which indeed occurs 19.5, 14) samādher (gen.) Samādhirājasūtra 19.1 (prose); samādhiya (certainly gen.) lābhī Samādhirājasūtra 19.27 (verse); also in ceto-samādhi, q.v., Mahāvastu iii.409.12; nt., tāni samādhīni Kāraṇḍavvūha 51.7—8 (prose; line 2 above ete samādhayaḥ). As 8th step in the 8-fold [Page569-a+ 71] Path, samyak-sa°, see mārga. Sa° is 5-fold, ārya-pañcāṅ- gika-samādhi-saṃpannā(ḥ) Mahāvastu ii.292.9, of bodhisattvas; according to a Pali list (Childers s.v.) the 5 aṅga are pīti-phara- ṇatā, sukha-phar°, ceto-phar°, āloka-phar°, and pacca- vekkhanānimittaṃ; see also s.v. pañcāṅgika (2). Four kinds of sa° Mahāvyutpatti 967—970: chanda-, citta-, vīrya-, mīmāṃ- sā-sa° (= Pali cha°, ci°, viriya-, vīmaṃsā-); another list of four kinds Dharmasaṃgraha 101, somewhat corrupt, compare the adhimukticaryābhūmi-nāmāni Mahāvyutpatti 896—901, and Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xiv.24—26 with commentary; according to Dharmasaṃgraha āloka- (Mahāvyutpatti 898 °ka-labdha, read °lābha, Lévi on Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra)), vṛtāloka- (read vṛddhā°, compare Mahāvyutpatti 899 āloka-vṛddhiḥ), ekādaśa-(read ekadeśa-)-pratiṣṭha- (compare Mahāvyutpatti 900 tattvārthaikadeśānu- praveśaḥ), and ānantarya-sa° (= Mahāvyutpatti 901, misprinted an°). There are a number of lists, some of them very long, of particular samādhis; over 100 in Mahāvyutpatti 505—623, from ‘Prajñāpāramitā’, e.g. Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 1412.8 ff. (these are all included in this Dict.); a very different list Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 490.8—492.6; nearly 70 (practised by Avalokiteśvara) Kāraṇḍavvūha 51.9 ff.; list of 17, Kāraṇḍavvūha 77.8 ff.; of 37, Kāraṇḍavvūha 92.17 ff.; only four, Śūraṃgama (which occurs frequently), Gagaṇagañja, Vimalaprabha, and Siṃhavikrīḍita, Dharmasaṃgraha 136; 100 Bodhisattva-sa° Gaṇḍavyūha 36.22 ff. (this term occurs elsewhere in Gaṇḍavyūha and other works, e.g. Daśabhūmikasūtra 2.27, of named samādhis practised by Bodhisattvas). Few of the names in these and other lists recur, and most of them are not separately listed in this Dict.; they seem mostly to be ad hoc inventions of the respective authors. For samādhi in relation to samāpatti see the latter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samādhi (समाधि).—m.

(-dhiḥ) 1. Deep and devout meditation, restraining the senses and confining the mind to contemplation on the true nature of spirit, &c. 2. A religious vow or obligation. 3. Silence. 4. Promise, assent, engagement. 5. Composing or reconciling differences, putting a stop to a dispute. 6. Requital, return, retaliation. 7. Attempting impossibilities; exertion or perseverance in extreme difficulties. 8. Storing corn on account of a dearth. 9. A Jaina saint of a future age. 10. A figure of rhetoric; connection or proximity of two events accidentally connected, and expressed by a common verb and the government of the verb by a double nominative, as utkaṇṭhitā ca kulaṭā jagāmāstañca bhānumān the disloyal woman went sorrowfully, and the sun (went) down. 11. Collection, combination. 12. Demonstrated conclusion. 13. The joint of the neck. 14. A tomb, a grave. E. sam together, dhā to have or hold, with āṅ prefix, and ki aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samādhi (समाधि).—[masculine] putting together, conjunction, union, a whole; performation, accomplishment, arrangement, reconcilement; attention, meditation, devotion.

--- OR ---

Samadhī (समधी).—[Middle] study, learn.

Samadhī is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms samadhi and i (इ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Samadhī (समधी):—[=sam-adhī] (-adhi-√i) [Ātmanepada] -adhīte, to go over, repeat or read through or study thoroughly, [Manu-smṛti vi, 93.]

2) Samādhi (समाधि):—[=sam-ādhi] [from samā-dhā] m. putting together, joining or combining with ([instrumental case]), [Lāṭyāyana]

3) [v.s. ...] a joint or a [particular] position of the neck, [Kirātārjunīya]

4) [v.s. ...] union, a whole, aggregate, set, [Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa; Raghuvaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] completion, accomplishment, conclusion, [Kumāra-sambhava]

6) [v.s. ...] setting to rights, adjustment, settlement, [Mahābhārata]

7) [v.s. ...] justification of a statement, proof, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

8) [v.s. ...] bringing into harmony, agreement, assent, [Horace H. Wilson; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

9) [v.s. ...] intense application or fixing the mind on, intentness, attention (dhiṃ-√kṛ, ‘to attend’), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] concentration of the thoughts, profound or abstract meditation, intense contemplation of any particular object (so as to identify the contemplator with the object meditated upon; this is the eighth and last stage of Yoga [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 93]; with Buddhists Samādhi is the fourth and last stage of Dhyāna or intense abstract meditation [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 209]; in the Kāraṇḍa-vyūha several S° are enumerated), [Upaniṣad; Buddhist literature; Mahābhārata] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] intense absorption or a kind of trance, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] a sanctuary or tomb of a saint, [Horace H. Wilson; Religious Thought and Life in India 261]

13) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) Name of various figures of speech (defined as ārohāvarohakrama, artha-dṛṣṭi, anya-dharmāṇām anyatrādhirohaṇa etc.), [Kāvyādarśa; Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti; Kāvyaprakāśa] etc.

14) [v.s. ...] Name of the 17th Kalpa (q.v.), of the 17th Arhat of the future Utsarpiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] of a Vaiśya, [Catalogue(s)] ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also ‘silence; a religious vow of intense devotion or self-imposed abstraction; support, upholding; continuance; perseverance in difficulties; attempting impossibilities; collecting or laying up grain in times of dearth’)

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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