Anuvyanjana, Anuvyañjana: 12 definitions


Anuvyanjana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Anuvyanjana in Mahayana glossary
Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन) refers to the “eighty minor marks”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, in the buddha-field of the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, there is a Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja who is resplendent by the splendor of merit (puṇya-tejas), is without hindered knowledge, whose body was adorned with [the thirty-two] characteristics (lakṣaṇa), whose friendliness was adorned with [the eighty] minor marks (anuvyañjana), whose voice was adorned with eloquence (pratibhāna), whose thought was adorned with memory (dhāraṇī), [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन) refers to “(eighty) minor marks of beauty” and is used to describe the Bhagavān, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “Now the Bhagavān was residing in the abode of Brahmā. [...] The Bhagavān had a body ornamented with a net of ten million million thousand rays. He was blazing brightly like a golden pillar. He was brilliant like the Sun, displayed the thirty-two marks of beauty and the eighty minor marks of beauty (aśīti-anuvyañjana). He was embellished with a radiance measuring a fathom. He had the body of a Tathāgata, extremely pure, extremely spotless and brilliant”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of anuvyanjana in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Anuvyanjana in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन) refers to the “eighty secondary characteristics” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 84):

  1. tāmranakha (copper-coloured nails),
  2. srigdhanakha (glossy nails),
  3. tuṅganakha (prominent nails),
  4. chatrāṅguli (round fingers),
  5. citrāṅguli (firm fingers),
  6. anupūrvāṅguli (regular fingers),
  7. gūḍhaśira (hidden veins),
  8. nigranthiśira (unhindered veins),
  9. gūḍhagulpha (hidden ankles),
  10. aviṣamapāda (even feet),
  11. siṃhavikrāntagāmi (a gait like that of a lion),
  12. nāgavikrāntagāmi (a gait like that of a elephant),
  13. haṃsavikrāntagāmi (a gait like that of a goose),
  14. vṛṣabhavikrāntagāmi (a gait like that of a bull),
  15. pradakṣiṇagāmi (a respectful stride),
  16. cārugāmi (a beautiful stride),
  17. avakragāmi (straight limbs),
  18. vṛttagātra (rounded limbs),
  19. mṛṣṭagātra (pleasant limbs),
  20. anupūrvagātra (regular limbs),
  21. śucigātra (pure limbs),
  22. mṛdugātra (soft limbs),
  23. viśuddhagātra (purified limbs),
  24. paripūrṇavyañjana (fulsome genitals),
  25. pṛthucārumaṇḍalagātra (broad, beautiful knees),
  26. samakrama (an even step),
  27. viśuddhanetra (purified limbs),
  28. sukumāragātra (delicate limbs),
  29. adīnagātra (noble limbs),
  30. utsāhagātra (upright limbs),
  31. gambhīrakukṣi (a deep belly),
  32. prasannagātra (clear limbs),
  33. suvibhaktāṅgapratyaṅga (well-proportioned minor limbs),
  34. vitimiraśuddhāloka (a pure luminescence that dispels the darkness),
  35. vṛttakukṣi (a rounded belly),
  36. mṛṣṭakukṣi (a pleasant belly),
  37. abhugnakukṣi (a straight belly),
  38. kṣāmakukṣi (a slim belly),
  39. gambhīranābhi (a deep navel),
  40. pradakṣiṇāvartanābhi (a navel that turns to the right),
  41. samantaprāsādika ((an appearance) that is pleasant on all sides),
  42. śucisamudācāra (pure behaviour),
  43. vyapagatatilakagātra (limbs that are free of moles),
  44. tūlasadṛśasukumārapāṇi (hands that are soft as cotton),
  45. snigdhapāṇilekha (glossy palms of the hands),
  46. gambhīrapāṇilekha (deep palms of the hands),
  47. āyatapāṇilekha (long palms of the hands),
  48. nātyāyatavacana (a not overly-long face),
  49. bimbapratibimboṣṭha (a lovely appearance and lips),
  50. mṛdujivha (a soft tongue),
  51. tanujivha (a slim tongue),
  52. raktajihva (a red-coloured tongue),
  53. meghagarjighoṣa (a voice that sounds like thunder),
  54. madhuracārumañjusvara (a voice that is sweet, charming and lovely),
  55. vṛttadaṃṣṭra (rounded eye-teeth),
  56. tīkṣṇaṃdaṃṣṭra (sharp eye-teeth),
  57. śūkladaṃṣṭra (fine eye-teeth),
  58. samadaṃṣṭra (even eye-teeth),
  59. anupūrvadaṃṣṭra (regular eye-teeth),
  60. tuṅganāsa (a long nose),
  61. śucināsa (a clean nose),
  62. viśālanayana (wide eyes),
  63. citrapakṣma (thick eyelashes),
  64. sitāsitakamaladalanayana (having eyes like the black and white lotus),
  65. āyatabhrūka (long brows),
  66. śuklabhrūka (fine brows),
  67. susnigdhabhrūka (very glossy brows),
  68. pīnāyatabhujala (having full and long arms),
  69. samakarṇa (even ears),
  70. anupahatakarṇendriya (unimpaired ear faculty),
  71. avimlānalalāṭa (unfaded forehead),
  72. pṛthulalāṭa (spacious forehead),
  73. suparipūrṇottamāṅga (a very complete head),
  74. bhramarasadṛśakeśa (hair of the head that is like a black bee (in colour)),
  75. citrakeśa (beautiful hair),
  76. guḍākeśa (thick hair),
  77. asaṃlulitakeśa (unconfused hair of the head),
  78. aparuṣakeśa (smooth hair of the head),
  79. surabhikeśa (fragrant hair of the head),
  80. śrīvatsamuktikanandyāvartalakṣitapāṇipādatala (the curl of hair, pearl, and diagram marks on palms and soles).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., anuvyañjana). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: A Prayer for Rebirth in the Sukhāvatī

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन) refers to “eighty minor marks of distinction” mentioned in the 17th century Sukhāvatī.—The list of the eighty minor marks (anuvyañjana) follows the order of the Mahāvyutpatti (269-348).

  1. fingernails of copper colour (tāmranakha);
  2. smooth finger-nails (snigdhanakha);
  3. prominent finger-nails (tuṅganakha);
  4. rounded fingers (vṛttāṅguli);
  5. slender fingers (anupūrvāṅguli);
  6. well developed fingers (citāṅguli);
  7. concealed veins (nigūḍhaśira);
  8. unknotted veins (nirgranthiśira);
  9. concealed ankles (gūḍhagulpha);
  10. even feet (aviṣamapāda);
  11. gait of a lion (siṃhavikrāntagāmī);
  12. gait of an elephant (nāgavikrāntagāmī);
  13. gait of a swan (haṃsavikrāntagāmī);
  14. gait of a bull (vṛṣabhavikrāntagāmī);
  15. gait swaying towards the right (pradakṣiṇāvartagāmī);
  16. pleasing gait (cārugāmī);
  17. steady gait (avakragāmī);
  18. rounded body (vṛttagātra);
  19. smooth body (mṛṣṭagātra);
  20. regular body (anupūrvagātra);
  21. pure body (śucigātra);
  22. tender body (mṛdugātra);
  23. stainless body (viśuddhagātra);
  24. sex organs complete (paripūrṇavyañjana);
  25. body with broad and graceful limbs (pṛthucārumaṇḍalagātra);
  26. even pace (samakrama);
  27. youthful body (sukumāragātra);
  28. zestful body (adīnagātra);
  29. lofty body (unnatagātra);
  30. well-composed body (susaṃhitagātra);
  31. well-proportioned limbs and their parts (suvibhaktāṅgapratyaṅga);
  32. clear and pure sight (vitimiraviśuddhāloka);
  33. rounded sides of the body (vṛttakukṣi);
  34. smooth sides of the body (mṛṣṭakukṣi);
  35. not bulging sides of the body (abhugnakukṣi);
  36. slim abdomen (kṣāmodara);
  37. deep navel (gaṃbhīranābhi);
  38. clockwise coiled navel (pradakṣiṇāvartanābhi);
  39. agreeable in all respects (samantaprāsādika);
  40. pure conduct (śucisamācāra);
  41. body free from freckles and black spots (vyapagatatilakakālagātra);
  42. delicate hands like cotton (tūlasadriśasukumārapāṇi);
  43. fine hand lines (snigdhapāṇilekha);
  44. deep hand lines (gambhīrapāṇilekha);
  45. long hand lines (āyatapāṇilekha);
  46. not too elongated mouth (nātyāyatavadana);
  47. the mouth [its lustre] resembling the bimba [fruit] (bimbapratibimbadarśanavadana);
  48. pliable tongue (mṛdujihva);
  49. slender tongue (tanujihva);
  50. red tongue (raktajihva);
  51. voice of a roaring elephant or thundering clouds (gajagarjitajīmūtaghoṣa);
  52. articulate, attractive and gentle speech (madhuracārumañjusvara);
  53. rounded canine teeth (vṛttadaṃṣṭra);
  54. sharp canine teeth (tikṣṇadaṃṣṭra);
  55. white canine teeth (śukladaṃṣṭra);
  56. even canine teeth (samadaṃṣṭra);
  57. regular canine teeth (anupūrvadaṃṣṭra);
  58. prominent nose (tuṅganāsa);
  59. neat nose (śucināsa);
  60. clear eyes (viśuddhanetra);
  61. large eyes (viśālanetra);
  62. thick eyelashes (citrapakṣma);
  63. [the white and dark sections of] the eyes beautifully [contrast] like the petals of a white and dark lotus (sitāsitakamalaśakalanayana);
  64. long eyebrows (āyatabhrū);
  65. soft eyebrows (ślakṣṇabhrū);
  66. even eyebrows (samaromabhrū);
  67. smooth eyebrows (snigdhabhrū);
  68. thick and long ears (pīnāyatakarṇa);
  69. even ears (samakarṇa);
  70. unimpaired hearing (anupahatakarṇendriya);
  71. well-formed forehead (supariṇatalalāṭa);
  72. broad forehead (pṛthulalāṭa);
  73. well-developed head (suparipūrṇottamāṅga);
  74. black hair like the black bee (bhramarasadṛśakeśa);
  75. thick hair (citakeśa);
  76. soft hair (ślakṣṇakeśa);
  77. undishevelled/untousled hair (asaṃlulitakeśa);
  78. pliable hair (aparuṣakeśa);
  79. fragrant hair (surabhikeśa);
  80. the palms and soles marked with śrīvatsa, svastika, nadyāvarta, and lalita symbols (śrīvatsasvastikanandyāvartalalitapāṇipāda);

The list of the thirty-two major marks (lakṣaṇa) also follows the order, but not always the exact wording, of the Mahāvyutpatti (269-348).

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Anuvyanjana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

anuvyañjana : (nt.) a secondary attribute.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Anuvyañjana, & anubyañjana (e. g. Vin.IV, 15; J.I, 12) (nt.) (anu + vyañjana) accompanying (i. e. secondary) attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary or additional sign or mark (cf. mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇa) Vin.I, 65 (Abl. anuvyañjanaso “in detail”); M.III, 126; S.IV, 168; A.IV, 279 (Abl.); V, 73 sq.; Pug.24, 58; Miln.339; VvA.315; DhsA.400.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of anuvyanjana in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Anuvyanjana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन).—A secondary token.

Derivable forms: anuvyañjanam (अनुव्यञ्जनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन).—nt. (= Pali id.), erroneously written °cana Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 62.3 (WT em.), minor or secondary characteristic, of things in general, associated with nimitta, q.v.; the Buddha (or a Bodhisattva) is neither nimitta-grāhin nor anuvyañjana-grāhin (Pali °gāhi), Mahāvastu iii.52.6, 12; Śikṣāsamuccaya 357.2; also, specifically, one of the 80 minor marks or characteristics of a mahāpuruṣa, especially a Buddha: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 259.4; 264.3; Lalitavistara 34.21; 100.2; 103.12; 270.17—18; 428.4; Mahāvastu i.38. 14; 50.3; 237.8; 335.12; ii.38.16; Divyāvadāna 46.29; 75.3; Avadāna-śataka i.18.1. Lists are given Lalitavistara 106.11 ff.; Mahāvastu ii.43.8 ff.; Mahāvyutpatti 268 ff.; Dharmasaṃgraha 84; a Pali list cited by Burnouf, Lotus App. VIII, 2, from the Dharmapradīpikā; this I have been able to use only at second-hand, from Burnouf. (In Bodhisattvabhūmi 376.11 ff. a wholly discordant list which consists simply of 80 parts of the body.) From the five lists above mentioned I have tried to reconstruct, as well as possible, what may have been the original list; some items are conjectural. In order, the Pali list is quite close to Mahāvyutpatti and Dharmasaṃgraha; Mahāvastu is not too remote from it; Lalitavistara is radically shifted in order. In my list I cite adjectival forms (applied to the Buddha), as in Mahāvyutpatti; some texts add -tā, making abstract nouns: 1. (ā)tāmra-nakha; 2. snigdha-n°; 3. tuṅga-n°; 4. vṛttāṅguli; 5. anupūrvāṅguli; 6. citāṅguli; 7. (ni-)gūḍha-śira (veins); 8. nirgranthi-ś°; 9. gūḍha-gulpha; 10. aviṣama-pāda; 11 siṃha-vikrānta-gāmin; 12. nāga-v°-g°; 13. haṃsa-v°-g°; 14. vṛṣabha-v°-g°; 15. pradakṣiṇāvarta-gāmin; 16. cāru-g°; 17. avakra-g°; 18. vṛtta-gātra; 19. mṛṣṭa-g°; 20. anupūrva- g°; 21. śuci-g°; 22. mṛdu-g°; 23. viśuddha-g°; 24. paripūrṇa- vyañjana (sex organs complete); 25. pṛthu-cāru-jānu-maṇ- [Page034-b+ 71] ḍala; 26. sama-krama; 27. sukumāra-gātra; 28. adīna-g°; 29. (?) anutsanna-g°; 30. susaṃhata-g°; 31. suvibhaktāṅga- pratyaṅga; 32. (?) vitimira-viśuddhāloka; 33. vṛtta-kukṣi; 34. mṛṣṭa-k°; 35. abhugna-k°; 36. (?) kṣāmodara; 37. gam- bhīra-nābhi; 38. (pra-)dakṣiṇāvarta-nābhi; 39. samanta- prāsādika; 40. śuci-samācāra; 41. vyapagata-tila-kālaka- gātra; 42. tūla-(?)sadṛśa-sukumāra-pāṇi; 43. snigdha- pāṇilekha; 44. gambhīra-p°; 45. āyata-p°; 46. (? bimba- prati)-bimboṣṭha; 47. nātyāyata-vadana; 48. mṛdu-jihva; 49. tanu-j°; 50. rakta-j°; 51. gaja-garjita-(?) jīmūta-ghoṣa; 52. madhura-(?)cāru-mañju-svara; 53. vṛtta-daṃṣṭra; 54. tīkṣṇa-d°; 55. śukla-d°; 56. sama-d°; 57. anupūrva-d°; 58. tuṅga-nāsa; 59. śuci-n°; 60. viśuddha-netra; 61. viśāla- n°; 62. citra-pakṣma; 63. sitāsita-kamala-dala-(? śakala-) nayana; 64. (?) āyata(asita?)-bhrū; 65. ślakṣṇa-bhrū; 66. (?) anuloma-bhrū; 67. snigdha-bhrū; 68. pīnāyata-karṇa; 69. (?) sama (or, aviṣama)-k°; 70. (?) anupahata-karṇendriya; 71. (?) supariṇata-lalāṭa; 72. pṛthu-l°; 73. (su-)paripūr- ṇottamāṅga; 74. (?) asita-(or, bhramara-sadṛśa)-keśa; 75. (?) cita (Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti stug pa, thick) -keśa; 76. ślakṣṇa-keśa; 77. asaṃlulita-keśa; 78. aparuṣa-keśa; 79. surabhi-keśa; 80. śrīvatsa-svastika-nandyāvarta-vardhamāna-(? or, lali- ta-)pāṇipāda. There are of course variants for many of these, but except as indicated by question-marks and parentheses, I believe the list is substantially original.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन):—[=anu-vyañjana] n. a secondary mark or token, [Buddhist literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anuvyañjana (अनुव्यञ्जन):—[tatpurusha compound] n.

(-nam) A secondary mark; (the Bud-dhists hold that there are 80 secondary marks of beauty, besides the 32 principal marks or lakṣaṇa, which characterize a great man). E. anu and vyañjana.

[Sanskrit to German]

Anuvyanjana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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