Maitri, Maitrī: 16 definitions
Maitri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Maitrī (मैत्री) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in jurisdiction, referring to “too much affection”. It is mentioned as one of the causes for giving false evidence. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya 8.120)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Maitrī (मैत्री).—Daughter of Dakṣa. Thirteen daughters of Dakṣa were married to Dharmadeva. Maitrī was one of them. Maitrī bore a son named Abhaya to Dharmadeva. (4th Skandha, Bhāgavata).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Maitrī (मैत्री).—A daughter of Dakṣa and a wife of Dharma; mother of Prasāda.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 49-50.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Maitrī (मैत्री) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds an unkown musical instrument with both hands. She wears a bodice of light-green colour and a scarf with crimson-coloured design, and a trouser of light-green colour bearing a black design.
The illustrations (of, for example Maitrī) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Mahayana Buddhism
Maitrī (मैत्री) is the daughter of Siṃhaśrī, and is included in the list of spiritual friends of Sudhana: the son of a merchant from Sukhākara who received a prophecy from Mañjuśrī, according to the Avataṃsaka-sūtra. Accordingly, Sudhana devoted himself to 110 spiritual friends in a great building adorned with the ornaments of Vairocana. These spiritual friends included monks, bodhisattvas, ṛṣis, brāhmaṇas, girls (e.g., Maitrī), kings, youths, goddesses, householders, etc. From these beings, Sudhana took the vows without the need for any formal basis.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Maitrī (मैत्री, “loving-kindness”) or Maitrā refers to one of the “four immeasurables” (apramāṇa), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32.—Accordingly, “Maitrī is to think about beings with love and always to seek for the safety (yogakṣema) and happy things in order to bring them good. Maitrī is practiced to remove hostility (vyāpāda) toward beings”.
There are three kinds of maitrī:
- that which has beings as object (sattvālambana),
- that which has things as object (dharmālambana),
- that which has no object (anālambana).
Maitrī is a mental event capable of counteracting the corruptions (kaṣāya) contained in the mind, namely, hatred (dveṣa), hostility (upanāha), avarice (mātsarya), lust (rāga), and the other passions (kleśa). Thus, when the purifying pearl (maṇi) is placed in dirty water, it becomes clear.
As the Buddha said everywhere in the sūtras: “With a mind associated with loving-kindness (maitrī), free of enmity, free of hostility, free of rivalry, free of malice, extended, expanded, immense and well cultivated, the Bhikṣu intentionally includes in this mind of loving-kindness the beings of universes in the eastern direction, then he intentionally includes in this mind of loving-kindness the beings of the universes of the ten directions: those of the south, the west, the north, of the four intermediate directions, of the zenith and the nadir. And in the same way, he includes them by means of a mind associated with compassion (karuṇā), associated with joy (muditā) and associated with equanimity”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Maitrī (मैत्री) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Maitrī).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) refers to one of the “four spiritual states” (brahmavihāra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 16). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., brahma-vihāra and Maitrī). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) or Maitrīdāna also refers to the “gift of friendliness” and represents one of the “three kinds of gifts” (dāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 105).Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Indian Ethics: Individual and Social (buddhism)
Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) is a concept defined within Buddhist ethical conduct (nītiśāstra).—In Buddhism, the two most important ethical virtues are compassion (karuṇa) and friendliness (maitrī). One should have deep sympathy and goodwill for the suffering people and should have the qualities of a good friend.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) refers to “friendliness to all creatures”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly:—“[...] after he had thus installed his son in the kingdom, Śatabala himself assumed the sovereignty of tranquillity at the feet of an Ācārya. [... ] With unbroken meditation augmented by the mental attitudes—friendliness, etc. [viz., maitrī], plunged in great joy, he remained always in emancipation, as it were”.
Note: Cf. Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 7.6. Yogaśāstra 4.117.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows
Maitrī (मैत्री, “benevolence”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.11.—What is meant by benevolence (maitrī) towards all living beings? The desire that others should be free from suffering and not to cause suffering to others is called benevolence towards all living beings. What is the subject of the observance on benevolence towards all? The subject of this observance is the realm of entire living beings. It enhances magnanimous disposition in the observer and eliminates the feelings of mine/ yours.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Maitrī.—(CII 4), benevolence; one of the bhāvanās. Note: maitrī is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
maitrī (मैत्री).—f Friendship.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Maitrī (मैत्री).—(used as in Sanskrit = [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] maitrā, see s.v. apramāṇa; also) (1) name of a kind of magic (vidyā): Divyāvadāna 636.26; (2) name of a goddess: Mahāsamājasūtra, Waldschmidt, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 4, 181.11; followed by Varuṇikā, which W. prints as part of the same name with this.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Maitrī (मैत्री):—[from maitra] a f. See below
2) Maitri (मैत्रि):—[from maitra] m. a [metronymic] of a teacher, [Maitrī-upaniṣad]
3) Maitrī (मैत्री):—[from maitra] b f. friendship, friendliness, benevolence, good will (one of the 4 perfect states with Buddhists, [Dharmasaṃgraha 16]; cf. [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 128]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] Benevolence personified (as the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] close contact or union, [Meghadūta; Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]
6) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) equality, similarity, [Prasannarāghava]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of the Nakṣatra Anurādhā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] Name of an Upaniṣad (cf. under maitri).
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+2): Maitribala, Maitribhava, Maitrichitta, Maitrichittamaniskara, Maitricitta, Maitricittamaniskara, Maitridana, Maitrika, Maitrikarunamudita, Maitriki, Maitrimaya, Maitrimurchana, Maitrimurchhana, Maitrin, Maitrinatha, Maitrini, Maitripakshapata, Maitripurva, Maitrivala, Maitrivyakarana.
Full-text (+289): Maitridana, Maitryupanishad, Mahamaitri, Kshayishnu, Maitriki, Maitrikarunamudita, Maitrimaya, Brahmavihara, Maitrinatha, Maitripakshapata, Kayagni, Maitripurva, Madhutva, Koradi Maitri, Maitra, Antarhridaya, Antaratmaka, Sayujyatva, Udvartman, Anuhya.
Search found 42 books and stories containing Maitri, Maitrī; (plurals include: Maitris, Maitrīs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter IX - Theology of om in the monads of monotheistic creeds < [The om tat sat]
Chapter VIII - Application of om in the vedas and vedanta < [The om tat sat]
Chapter XIII - The pentads &c., of om < [The om tat sat]
Baudhayana Dharmasutra (by Georg Bühler)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
III. Puṇyakriyāvastu consisting of meditation < [Part 5 - Establishing beings in the puṇyakriyāvastus]
I. Definition of the immeasurables (apramāṇa) < [Class 3: The four immeasurables]
Appendix 2 - The benefits of loving-kindness (maitrī or metta) < [Chapter XXXII-XXXIV - The eight classes of supplementary dharmas]
A Happy Married Life (by Venerable K. Sri Dhammananda)
Blue Annals (deb-ther sngon-po) (by George N. Roerich)
Chapter 8 - Later Lineages (vii): Sangs rgyas ras pa < [Book 12 - Peace-Making Lineages]
Chapter 5 - The btsan System of Maitreya’s Doctrines < [Book 6 - The Origin of the Mādhyamika (middle way)]
Chapter 3b - The Life story of 'Khon phu ba < [Book 4 - New Traditions of Secret Mantra]
The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha (by E. B. Cowell)