Maitri, Maitrī: 26 definitions


Maitri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Maitrī (मैत्री) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in jurisdiction, referring to “too much affection”. It is mentioned as one of the causes for giving false evidence. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya 8.120)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Dharmashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Maitrī (मैत्री).—Daughter of Dakṣa. Thirteen daughters of Dakṣa were married to Dharmadeva. Maitrī was one of them. Maitrī bore a son named Abhaya to Dharmadeva. (4th Skandha, Bhāgavata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Maitrī (मैत्री).—A daughter of Dakṣa and a wife of Dharma; mother of Prasāda.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 49-50.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Maitrī (मैत्री) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds an unkown musical instrument with both hands. She wears a bodice of light-green colour and a scarf with crimson-coloured design, and a trouser of light-green colour bearing a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Maitrī) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Shilpashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Maitrī (मैत्री) is another name for Anurādhā, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Anurādhā [i.e., maitrī] will be valiant; heads of parties; fond of the company of Sādhus, keep vehicles and grow every species of crop. Those who are born on the lunar day of Jyeṣṭhā will be valiant, of good descent, wealthy, famous; disposed to cheat others of their property, fond of travelling, rulers of provinces or commanders of armies. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Jyotisha from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Mahayana Buddhism

Maitrī (मैत्री) is the daughter of Siṃhaśrī, and is included in the list of spiritual friends of Sudhana: the son of a merchant from Sukhākara who received a prophecy from Mañjuśrī, according to the Avataṃsaka-sūtra. Accordingly, Sudhana devoted himself to 110 spiritual friends in a great building adorned with the ornaments of Vairocana. These spiritual friends included monks, bodhisattvas, ṛṣis, brāhmaṇas, girls (e.g., Maitrī), kings, youths, goddesses, householders, etc. From these beings, Sudhana took the vows without the need for any formal basis.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Maitrī (मैत्री, “loving-kindness”) or Maitrā refers to one of the “four immeasurables” (apramāṇa), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32.—Accordingly, “Maitrī is to think about beings with love and always to seek for the safety (yogakṣema) and happy things in order to bring them good. Maitrī is practiced to remove hostility (vyāpāda) toward beings”.

There are three kinds of maitrī:

  1. that which has beings as object (sattvālambana),
  2. that which has things as object (dharmālambana),
  3. that which has no object (anālambana).

Maitrī is a mental event capable of counteracting the corruptions (kaṣāya) contained in the mind, namely, hatred (dveṣa), hostility (upanāha), avarice (mātsarya), lust (rāga), and the other passions (kleśa). Thus, when the purifying pearl (maṇi) is placed in dirty water, it becomes clear.

As the Buddha said everywhere in the sūtras: “With a mind associated with loving-kindness (maitrī), free of enmity, free of hostility, free of rivalry, free of malice, extended, expanded, immense and well cultivated, the Bhikṣu intentionally includes in this mind of loving-kindness the beings of universes in the eastern direction, then he intentionally includes in this mind of loving-kindness the beings of the universes of the ten directions: those of the south, the west, the north, of the four intermediate directions, of the zenith and the nadir. And in the same way, he includes them by means of a mind associated with compassion (karuṇā), associated with joy (muditā) and associated with equanimity”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Maitrī (मैत्री) refers to “friendliness”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, from innumerable aeons ago (asaṃkhyeya-kalpa), the Bodhisatvas in the Mahāvyūha universe have been in accordance with the [perfection of] giving as adorned with generosity, [...] have practiced the protection of all living beings as adorned with great friendliness (mahā-maitrī), have practiced never giving up any being as adorned with great compassion (mahā-karuṇa), have never ceased to make joy, happiness, and great delight of all living beings as adorned with great happiness (mahā-mudita), and have been punctilious in the practice without interruption, which has made all living beings not to be conceited or depressed as adorned with great equanimity (mahā-upekṣa) [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Maitrī (मैत्री) refers to “friendliness”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the afflicted Nāgas said to Bhagavān]: “[...] Then, O Bhagavān, the hostile Nāgas become agitated and destroy crops. [...] They send down excessive rain, a lack of rain and untimely rain. However, O Bhagavān, the spell-master, the reciter of spells, should abide by friendliness. He should have the armour of a friendly being. He should have the sword of friendliness in his hand. [For] friendliness (maitrī) pacifies the hostile”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Maitrī (मैत्री) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Maitrī).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Maitrī (मैत्री) refers to “benevolence”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Benevolence (maitrī), compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. Oṃ the natural state of all conditions is pure... First crossing onto a cremation ground, fixed high on a mountain, A yogi having all the sacred threads, loose hair, and facing southward, The five ambrosias and lamps, interpolated into the face”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) refers to one of the “four spiritual states” (brahmavihāra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 16). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., brahma-vihāra and Maitrī). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) or Maitrīdāna also refers to the “gift of friendliness” and represents one of the “three kinds of gifts” (dāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 105).

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Indian Ethics: Individual and Social (buddhism)

Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) is a concept defined within Buddhist ethical conduct (nītiśāstra).—In Buddhism, the two most important ethical virtues are compassion (karuṇa) and friendliness (maitrī). One should have deep sympathy and goodwill for the suffering people and should have the qualities of a good friend.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) refers to “friendliness to all creatures”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly:—“[...] after he had thus installed his son in the kingdom, Śatabala himself assumed the sovereignty of tranquillity at the feet of an Ācārya. [... ] With unbroken meditation augmented by the mental attitudes—friendliness, etc. [viz., maitrī], plunged in great joy, he remained always in emancipation, as it were”.

Note: Cf. Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 7.6. Yogaśāstra 4.117.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Maitrī (मैत्री, “benevolence”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.11.—What is meant by benevolence (maitrī) towards all living beings? The desire that others should be free from suffering and not to cause suffering to others is called benevolence towards all living beings. What is the subject of the observance on benevolence towards all? The subject of this observance is the realm of entire living beings. It enhances magnanimous disposition in the observer and eliminates the feelings of mine/ yours.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Maitrī (मैत्री, “friendliness”) refers to one of  the four brahmavihāras “four practices”, according to the Yogaśāstra 4.75 (vol. 2, p. 863).—Hemacandra explains that by the phrase “friendliness, etc.” (maitryādi), he means to say “friendliness” (maitrī), “joy” (muditā), “compassion” (karuṇā) and “equanimity” (upekṣā). These constitute the four practices known as the brahmavihāras mentioned in various Buddhist texts. They are also listed by Patañjali in Yogasūtra 1.33 as means for purification of the mind (see Mukerji 2000: 77-8; Bryant 2009: 128-30).

2) Maitrī (मैत्री) refers to “friendship”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Certainly, O friend, these twelve reflections are the female friends of those whose good fortune is liberation [and] they are practised to procure their friendship (maitrya; var.—maitrī) by wise men who are absorbed in connection [with them]. When these [reflections] are correctly done constantly for the pleasure of the lords of Yogīs (i.e. the Jinas), a joyful woman in the form of liberation with a heart kindly disposed to love, is produced”.

Synonyms: Maitrya.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Maitrī.—(CII 4), benevolence; one of the bhāvanās. Note: maitrī is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Maitri in India is the name of a plant defined with Smilax ovalifolia in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Smilax ovalifolia Roxb..

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Hortus Bengalensis (1814)
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ (1832)
· Species Plantarum. (1806)
· Prodromus Florae Nepalensis (1825)
· Monographiae Phanerogamarum (1878)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Maitri, for example extract dosage, health benefits, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Biology from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

maitrī (मैत्री).—f Friendship.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Maitrī (मैत्री).—(used as in Sanskrit = [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] maitrā, see s.v. apramāṇa; also) (1) name of a kind of magic (vidyā): Divyāvadāna 636.26; (2) name of a goddess: Mahāsamājasūtra, Waldschmidt, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 4, 181.11; followed by Varuṇikā, which W. prints as part of the same name with this.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Maitrī (मैत्री):—[from maitra] a f. See below

2) Maitri (मैत्रि):—[from maitra] m. a [metronymic] of a teacher, [Maitrī-upaniṣad]

3) Maitrī (मैत्री):—[from maitra] b f. friendship, friendliness, benevolence, good will (one of the 4 perfect states with Buddhists, [Dharmasaṃgraha 16]; cf. [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 128]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] Benevolence personified (as the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] close contact or union, [Meghadūta; Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) equality, similarity, [Prasannarāghava]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of the Nakṣatra Anurādhā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of an Upaniṣad (cf. under maitri).

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Maitrī (मैत्री) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Mittī, Mettī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Maitri in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Maitrī (मैत्री):—(nf) friendship, cordiality.

context information


Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Maitri (ಮೈತ್ರಿ):—[noun] the state of being a friend; association as friends; friendship.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of maitri in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: