Dana, Dāna, Daṅa: 45 definitions


Dana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Daan.

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In Hinduism

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)

Dāna (दान, “bribery”) is of five types—

  1. surrendering of one’s own wealth,
  2. taking other’s wealth,
  3. giving away an exclusive thing as gift,
  4. inspiring to grab the rival’s wealth,
  5. getting released from the debt.

These should be employed when one is weak, while it is obligatory with regard to the enemy. (see the Nītiprakāśikā 8.76-77)

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Dāna (दान).—“Charity”, one of the six duties of a brāhmaṇa.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dāna (दान) refers to “charitable gifts”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.5 (“The Tripuras are fascinated).—Accordingly, as Arihan said to the Lord of the Three Cities: “O ruler of the Asuras, listen to my statement, pregnant with wisdom. It is the essence of the Vedānta and bears high esoteric importance. [...] There are many kinds of charitable gifts (dāna). Of what avail are these which give very insignificant results. There is no other gift (dāna) equal to that of protection. Four types of gifts have been mentioned by the great sages for the welfare of the people here and hereafter as a result of discussions and deliberations of various sacred texts. Protection shall be granted to the frightened, medicine to the sick, learning to the student and food to the hungry. All sorts of charitable gifts (dāna) recommended by the sages do not merit even a sixteenth part of the gift of protection to a living being. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Dāna (दान).—A Sukha God.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 19.

1b) A Mukhya gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 18.

1c) A dharma;1 a śiṣṭācāra;2 three kinds of; superior, middling and inferior; the first and last of which are called respectively jyeṣṭha and kaniṣṭha; the lower and the higher not fit for one's own welfare; the middling is the equal distribution among the deserving; the superior gift leads to Mokṣa and the inferior to one's own welfare;3 he who performs sacrifice by ill-gotten wealth does not attain the fruits thereof; his gifts are not for dharma but only for show; but well-earned money given to right men without expecting fruits, merits Bhoga while Satya leads to heaven;4 the making of, in a śrāddha and the fruits thereof;5 one of the upāyas of a king; even Gods are brought under control by gifts; sixteen kinds of; done by Kāma, Ambarīṣa, Pṛthu, Prahlāda and others;6 the vidhi of, enquired by Manu from the Matsya.7 Incumbent on all castes8 useless if given to a nonśrotriya;9 conditions appropriate to.10

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 101.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 32. 41.
  • 3) Ib. II. 32. 54-56; Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 49-50.
  • 4) Ib. 67. 27; 91. 106-12; 104. 14.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 4. 24; 16. 1.
  • 6) Matsya-purāṇa 222. 2; 224. 1-4; 246. 25-7; 274 (whole).
  • 7) Ib. 2. 23.
  • 8) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 8. 22.
  • 9) Ib. V. 38. 30.
  • 10) Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 107-13.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices

Dāna (दान, “donation”) forms part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person. Education in India was supported by the community. A gift in support of education was seen as the highest donation (dāna). All members of society supported the cause of education by offering food, gifts, shelter, etc. The wealthier sections of society substantially supported education by building hostels and making educational endowments (adhyāyanavṛttis).

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (dharma)

Dāna (दान) refers to “gift” or “donation” and represents an aspect of Dharmaśāstra, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The ethics of dāna consists in the fact that it benefits both the giver and the receiver, while it humanizes and sublimates the former, it materially benefits the latter and conduces to contentment and harmony in society allowing for a fair distribution of riches. There is a regular praise of giving gifts.

The Saurapurāṇa describes the importance and enumeration of dāna in chapters nine and ten. The donation of the various Purāṇas to various recipients on different tithis along with the merits thereof are given in the ninth chapter. [...] the tenth chapter the Saurapurāṇa elucidates the types of dāna, the merits of dāna, the worthy recipient of donation and the various dānas.

The Saurapurāṇa classifies dāna into four types:

  1. nitya-dāna,
  2. naimittika-dāna,
  3. kāmya-dāna,
  4. vimala-dāna.

It is stated in the Saurapurāṇa that there is nothing greater than dāna in the three worlds. Heaven, sovereignty, peace, beauty, splendour, fame, vigour, victory, power and emancipation can be acquired by giving gifts. By donation one can win his enemy, can
destory desease, can acquire knowledge and spouse. Dāna is one of the best means of attaining dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa. [...] The gift to the poor is highly extolled by the compiler of the Saurapurāṇa. Then the text describes bhūmidāna, vidyādāna, annadāna, jaladāna, tiladāna, vāsadāna, dīpadāna, yānadāna, śayyādāna, dhānyadāna etc. along with their accruing results. [...] Thus it appears that the Saurapurāṇa lays emphasis on dāna to the devotees of Śiva and categorically says that if somebody surpassing śivabhaktas donates to others, his dāna becomes futile and he goes to hell.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (nirukta)

Dāna (दान) is derived from the root “to give” with the suffix lyut meaning thereby the act of giving. It also means gift, donation etc. From the very ancient time the act of gift making is regarded as a very religious and sacred duty which is based on the feeling of piety, grace and morality .

context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dāna (दान) refers to “(one who is) generous”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Pūrvaphālguni will delight in dance, in young women, in music, in painting, in sculpture and in trade; will be dealers in cotton, salt, honey and oil and will be forever in the enjoyment of the vigour of youth. Those who are born on the lunar day of Uttaraphālguni will be mild, cleanly, modest, heretical, generous (dāna) and learned; will be dealers in grains; will be wealthy, virtuous and in the company of princes. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (shaktism)

Dāna (दान) refers to “ceremonies for donation”, according to the 17th century Kaulagajamardana (“crushing the Kaula elephant”) authored by Kāśīnātha or Kṛṣṇānandācala.—Accordingly, [as Īśvara said to Pārvatī]: “[...] [Now,] my dear, hear about the Kāpālika. He eats from a skull bowl and is addicted to wine and flesh; he neglects the disciplines of purification and he is adorned with a bald head and Mālās; he eats from the fires of the cremation ground; he alone is a Kāpālika, he never does [the proper] repetition of Mantras, nor ascetic practices nor [follows] the rules of personal restraint. He is without such [rituals] as bathing and ceremonies for donation (dāna) [snānadānādirahitaḥ]. [Thus,] he is proclaimed a Pāṣānḍa. [...]”

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Dāna (दान) refers to “giving (food)” (while training hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the training of hawks]: “[...] Thus gradually by touching it with the hand, by rousing it with soft words, by giving it water and meat (pānīyamāṃsa-dāna) at regular intervals, by petting it, by protecting it from heat and cold, and by degrees opening the eyes, it should be tamed carefully. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Dāna (दान) refers to “ichor”, and is used by certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, such as turning plants into creepers, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “Musa paradisiaca tree definitely produces fruits as long as the pestle if the hollow tooth of a boar or a monkey, filled with the ichor (dāna) [dānābhiḥ pūrṇānihitaprayatnāt] is carefully kept in the core of its root”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

Dana (giving, liberality; offering, alms).—Specifically, giving of any of the four requisites to the monastic order. More generally, the inclination to give, without expecting any form of repayment from the recipient. Dana is the first theme in the Buddhas system of gradual training (see anupubbi katha), the first of the ten paramis, one of the seven treasures (see dhana), and the first of the three grounds for meritorious action

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Dāna (“almsgiving”), liberality, offering.—“He who gives alms, bestows a fourfold blessing: he helps to long life, good appearance, happiness and strength. Therefore long life, good appearance, happiness and strength will be his share, whether amongst heavenly beings or amongst men” (A.IV.57).

Five blessings accrue to the giver of alms (see A.V.34).:

  1. the affection of many,
  2. noble association,
  3. good reputation,
  4. self-confidence,
  5. and heavenly rebirth.

Seven further blessings are given in A.VII.54.

Liberality, especially the offering of robes, food, etc., to the monks, is highly praised in all Buddhist countries of Southern Asia as a fundamental virtue and as a means to suppress man's inborn greed and egoism. But, as in any other good or bad action, so also in offering gifts, it is the noble intention and volition that really counts as the action, not the mere outward deed.

Almsgiving or liberality (dāna), constitutes the first. kind of meritorious activity, the two others being morality (sīla) and mental development (bhāvanā); s. puñña-kiriya-vatthu. Liberality (cāga) forms one of the 10 recollections (anussati) and almsgiving one of the 10 perfections (s. pāramī).

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Dana (“gift”, “offering”, “generosity”) [N].—Dana is the practice of gift, which takes place through the development of states of mind such as generosity and disinterestedness. This practice does constitute the foundation of the three sections of kusalas (dana, sila and bhavana).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dāna (दान, “generosity”) is a good volition associated with the mind according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIX).—“Some say that a physical or vocal action (kāyavākkarman) that comes from this good volition is also called dāna. According to others, when there is a person endowed with faith (śraddhāvat), a field of merit (puṇya-kṣetra) and a material object (āmiṣa-dravya), and when these three things are brought together, the mind (citta) produces a thought of renunciation capable of destroying avarice (mātsarya), which is called dāna”.

Note: “Generosity (dāna) is an action consisting essentially of ‘the volition to give’; from this volition there can follow a physical action, the gesture of giving a gift, or a vocal action, e.g., the preaching of the holy Dharma. It is in this way that the volition of giving, which constitutes the properly called generosity, can be completed by an effective action, the gift or the preaching.”.

Note: The five benefits of generosity (dāna) have been pointed out by the Buddha in the Sīhasutta (Aṅguttara III and Tseng yi a han); the first four concern the present life (sadiṭṭhika), the fifth, the future life (samparāyika): the generous teacher of generosity is cherished and appreciated by many people, good honest people love him; an excellent repute is attached to his name; whatever assembly he enters, he enters fearlessly and without worry; after the destruction of his body after death, he is reborn in a blessed heavenly realm.

According to Chapter XX, “there are three kinds of generosity: 1) material generosity (dravya-dāna), 2) the generosity of homage and respect (pūjāsatkāra-dāna); 3) the generosity of the Dharma (dharma-dāna)... The perfection of these three kinds of generosity is called the perfection of the virtue of generosity”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Dāna (दान) refers to “(the act of) giving”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘(39) Their thoughts are satisfied with giving (dāna) and discipline (vinaya), and their vices (kleśa), having been burned (dagdha), do not arise [again]. Giving is taught for the benefit of oneself and others (svapara), and they are happy because the giving causes benefit and comport (hita-sukha). [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Dāna (दान) refers to “charity”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Charity (dāna) (is) cow dung and water united, moral conduct and cleansing, Patience, taking away tiny ants, heroism, bringing forth the religious rite. Meditation, single-minded in each moment, wisdom, splendidly clear lines, These perfections, six indeed are gained, having made the Muni’s maṇḍala”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Dāna (दान, “generosity”) or dānapāramitā represents the first of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 17). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., ṣaṣ-pāramitā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Dāna forms, besides a part of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā), also a part of the “ten perfections” (daśa-pāramitā).

2) Dāna also refers to one of the “four bases of sympathy” (catursaṃgrahavastu) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 19).

3) Dāna (दान, “gift”) or Tridāna refers to the “three kinds of  gifts” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 105):

  1. dharma-dāna (the gift of the dharma),
  2. āmiṣa-dāna (the gift of material things),
  3. maitrī-dāna (the gift of friendliness).
Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Dana:—A gift or offering freely given (charity)

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

Dana is a Sanskrit and Pali term meaning "generosity" or "giving". In Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity. Ultimately, the practice culminates in one of the Perfections (paramitas): the Perfection of Giving (dana paramita). This can be characterized by unattached and unconditional generosity, giving and letting go.

Dana as a formal religious act is directed specifically to a monastic or spiritually developed person. In Buddhist thought, it has the effect of purifying and transforming the mind of the giver. Generosity developed through giving leads to being reborn in happy states and material wealth. Alternatively, lack of giving leads to unhappy states and poverty.

Source: Shambala Publications: General

Dāna Skt., Pali, roughly “gift, alms, dona­tion”; voluntary giving of material, energy, or wisdom to others, regarded as one of the most important Buddhist virtues. Dāna is one of the six perfections (pāramitā), one of the ten con­templations (anussati), and the most impor­tant of the meritorious works (punya).

In the Hīnayāna dāna is regarded above all as a means to overcoming greed and egoism and avoiding suffering a future life. In Mahāyāna dāna is associated with the virtues of kindness (maitrī) and compassion (karunā) and viewed as an essential factor in leading all beings to enlightenment.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Dāna (दान, “charity”) refers to “charity towards living beings (bhūta) in general” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending pleasant feelings (sātāvedanīya).

Dāna is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Dāna (दान, “liberality”) refers to one of the four divisions of dharma, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism. Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Dharma is so-called from supporting creatures who have fallen into a bad condition of existence. It is fourfold with the divisions of liberality (dāna), good conduct (śīla), penance (tapas), and state of mind (bhāva)”.

Liberality (dāna) is said to be of three kinds:

  1. the gift of knowledge (jñānadāna),
  2. the gift of fearlessness (abhayadāna),
  3. the gift of the support of religion (dharmopagrahadāna).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Dāna (दान).—What is meant by charity (dāna)? Bestowing gifts or things owned by one self for the benefit of others (living beings in general and the devout in particular) is called charity.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Dāna (दान, “charity”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.38.—Accordingly, “charity is the giving of one’s wealth to another for mutual benefit”. What is meant by anugraha? Anugraha means beneficial to both the donor and the recipient. What is meant by charity (dāna)? Charity is the giving of one’s wealth to another for mutual benefit. How charity benefits the donor? Donor accumulates merit. This is the benefit accrued by the donor. The recipient of charity develops a feeling of shame. Then how does it benefit him? Donating helps the enhancement of right belief-knowledge-conduct of the recipient also.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Dāna (दान, “charity”) or Dānāntarāya refers to “charity obstructing karmas” and represents one of the dive types of Antarāya (obstructing karmas), representing one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.—What is meant by charity obstructing (dāna-antarāya) karmas? The rise of which obstructs donating gifts even though one is having the intention and capacity to donate is called charity obstructing karmas. 

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Dāna (दान) is a word referring to gifts given to Brāhmaṇas, as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Brāhmaṇas as the recipients of gifts have been mentioned frequently in the Nīlamata. The Nīlamata emphasises the virtue of the gifts given to the Brāhmaṇas. The terms used for such a gift are Dāna, Dakṣiṇā, and Pratigraha. The nature of the gifts varies with religious ceremonies performed in different seasons of the year.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dāna or Dānā.—(ML), a gift. (HRS), known from Maitraka records to mean the so- called voluntary gifts of subjects. Cf. dānā-sambandhe (LP), ‘as regards the sale-tax’. Note: dāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Dāṇa.—(IE 8-5; LP), same as dāna, road-cess; customs duties; cf. the official designation Dāṇī (Sanskrit Dānin). Note: dāṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Dana in India is the name of a plant defined with Artemisia indica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Artemisia vulgaris var. vulgatissima Liou & al. (among others).

2) Dana is also identified with Artemisia sieversiana It has the synonym Absinthium sieversianum Besser (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Prodromus Florae Nepalensis (1825)
· Report of the First Scientific Expedition to Manchoukou (1935)
· Lav. Inst. Bot. Univ. Cagl. (1938)
· Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou (1829)
· Nouveaux Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou (1836)
· Botaničeskij Žurnal (1991)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Dana, for example side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dāna : (nt.) gift; charity; alms; alms-giving.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dāna, (nt.) (Ved. dāna, as in dadāti to give & in dāti, dyāti to deal out, thus: distribution (scil. of gifts); cp. Gr. dάnos (present), Lat. damnum (E. damages); Gr. dώron, Lat. donum; also Ags. tīd (=E. tide, portion, i.e. of time), & tīma (=E. time). See further dadāti, dayati, dātta, dāpeti. definition at Vism.60: dānaṃ vuccati avakhaṇḍanaṃ)

(a) giving, dealing out, gift; almsgiving, liberality, munificence; esp. a charitable gift to a bhikkhu or to the community of bhikkhus, the Saṅgha (cp. deyyadhamma & yañña). As such it constitutes a meritorious act (puññaṃ) and heads the list of these, as enumerated in order, dānamaya puññaṃ, sīlamaya p., bhāvanāmaya p. viz. acts of merit consisting of munificence, good character & meditation (D.III, 218 e. g.; cp. cāga, puñña, sīla). Thus in formula dānâdīni puññāni katvā J.I, 168; PvA.66, 105; cp. cpds. under °maya

(b) Special merit & importance is attached to the mahādāna the great gift, i.e. the great offering (of gifts to the Saṅgha), in character the buddhistic equivalent of the brahmanic mahāyajña the chief sacrifice. On 16 Mahādānas see Wilson Hindu Caste 413; on 4 Beal. Chinese Texts 88.—A.IV, 246; J.I, 50, 74; V, 383 (devasikaṃ chasatasahassa-pariccāgaṃ karonto mahādānaṃ pavattesi “he gave the great largesse, spending daily 600,000 pieces”); PvA.19, 22, 75, 127, etc

(c) Constituents, qualities & characteristics of a dāna: 8 objects suitable for gifts form a standard set (also enumerated as 10), viz. anna pāna vattha yāna mālā gandha-vilepana seyyāvasatha padīpeyya (bread, water, clothes, vehicle, garlands, scented ointment, conveniences for lying down & dwelling, lighting facility) A.IV, 239; cp. Pv.II, 49 & see °vatthu & deyyadhamma. Eight ways of giving alms at D.III, 258= A.IV, 236, five ways, called sappurisa-dāna (& asapp°) at A.III, 171 sq.; eight sapp° at A.IV, 243. Five manners of almsgiving metaphorically for sīlas 1–5 at A.IV, 246= DA.I, 306. Five characteristics of a beneficial gift at A.III, 172, viz. saddhāya dānaṃ deti, sakkaccaṃ d.d., kālena (cp. kāladāna A.III, 41), anuggahitacitto, attānañ ca parañ ca anupahacca d.d

(d) Various passages showing practice & value of dāna: Vin.I, 236; D.I, 53 (+dama & saṃyama; cp. It.15; PvA.276); II, 356 sq. (sakkaccaṃ & a°); A.IV, 392 sq. (id.); D.III, 147 sq., 190 sq., 232; S.I, 98 (dānaṃ dātabbaṃ yattha cittaṃ pasīdati); A.I, 91=It.98 (āmisa° and dhamma°, material & spiritual gifts); A.I, 161; III, 41 (dāne ānisaṃsā); IV, 60; 237 sq. (mahapphala), 392 sq. (°ssa vipāka); V, 269 (petānaṃ upakappati); J.I, 8 (aggaḷa°); II, 112 (dinna°), III, 52 (id.); Sn.263, 713 (appaṃ dānaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ) PvA.54 (āgantuka° gift for the newcomer); Sdhp.211–213.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dāṇa (दाण).—f ( P In comp. Holder or receptacle.) A term applied revilingly to the belly (of a gormandizer or glutton).

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dāṇā (दाणा).—m (dhānya S) Grain. 2 A single grain or corn: also a single pearl, a bead, a seed, a pomegranate-pip, anything resembling a grain. 3 A coarse sort of sugar. 4 A little knob or excrescence or roughness upon a smooth surface (as on paper, leather &c.) 5 A piece or single article (of a bale of cloths or stuffs): also a single one of a certain fine kind of mangoes which are sold by ones. Ex. bandachōḍa āmbyācē rupayāsa dāhā dāṇē miḷatāta. 6 (For kiramijī dāṇā) A lump of cochineal. 7 A square or division of the coating of the custard-apple.

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dāṇā (दाणा).—a ( P Wise.) Wise, sensible, shrewd, sagacious. 2 Used freely in the sense of Excellent, superior, fine, capital;--esp. of men or animals.

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dāna (दान).—n (S) Giving, bestowing, conferring: also a gift or donation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dāṇā (दाणा).—m Grain. A single grain; single pearl, &c. A piece or single article (of a bale of cloths or stuffs). a Wise, sensible, excellent, superior, fine.

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dāna (दान).—n A gift, a donation; giving.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dāna (दान).—[dā-lyuṭ]

1) Giving, granting, teaching, &c. (in general); giving in marriage (cf. kanyādāna).

2) Delivering, handing over.

3) A gift, donation, present; Manusmṛti 2.158; दातव्यमिति यद्दान दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे (dātavyamiti yaddāna dīyate'nupakāriṇe) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 17.2; Y.3.274.

4) Liberality, charity, giving away as charity, munificence; R.1.69; दानं भोगो नाशस्तिस्रो गतयो भवन्ति वित्तस्य (dānaṃ bhogo nāśastisro gatayo bhavanti vittasya) Bhartṛhari 2.43; दानं हि उत्सर्गपूर्वकः परस्य स्वत्वसम्बन्धः (dānaṃ hi utsargapūrvakaḥ parasya svatvasambandhaḥ) ŚB. on MS.4.1.3; ननु दानमित्युच्यते स्वत्वनिवृत्तिः परस्वत्वा- पादनम् च (nanu dānamityucyate svatvanivṛttiḥ parasvatvā- pādanam ca) | ŚB. on MS.6.7.1.

5) Ichor or the juice that exudes from the temples of an elephant in rut; स दानतोयेन विषाणि नागः (sa dānatoyena viṣāṇi nāgaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 4.63; Kirātārjunīya 5.9; V.4.25; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.75 (where the word has sense 4 also); R.2.7;4.45;5.43.

6) Bribery, as one of the four Upāyas or expedients of overcoming one's enemy; see उपाय (upāya).

7) Cutting, dividing.

8) Purification, cleaning.

9) Protection.

1) Pasture.

11) Adding; addition.

-naḥ Ved.

1) Distribution (of food), meal, especially a sacrificial meal.

2) Part, possession, share.

3) A distributor.


Derivable forms: dānam (दानम्).

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Dāna (दान).—&c. See under दा ().

Derivable forms: dānam (दानम्).

See also (synonyms): dāka, dāti, dātṛ, dānu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāna (दान).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Gift, giving, donation. 2. The fluid that flows from the temples of an elephant in rut. 3. Nourishing, cherishing. 4. Purification. 5. Cutting, dividing. 6. A present, a special gift. 7. Beating, striking. 8. Wild honey. E. to give, or do to cut, affix lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāna (दान).—i. e. 1. dā + ana, n. 1. Giving, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 90. 2. Gift, Man, 4, 233; 11, 2. 3. Liberality, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 86. 4. Oblation, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 211. 5. Giving in marriage, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 27. 6. The fluid that flows from the temples of an elephant in rut, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 419.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāna (दान).—1. [neuter] giving, imparting, bestowing of ([genetive] or —°) on ([locative] or —°); giving in marriage, giving up, sacrificing, offering, paying; teaching, communicating; granting, conceding; gift, present, donation.

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Dāna (दान).—2. [masculine] distribution (concr. distributer, dispenser), liberality, (sacrificial) meal, share, portion, possession.

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Dāna (दान).—3. [neuter] cutting, dividing; pasture.

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Dāna (दान).—4. [neuter] the rut (of an animal) & the rutfluid (flowing from an elephant’s temples in the time of rutting).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dāna (दान):—[from ] 1. dāna n. the act of giving, [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] giving in marriage (cf. kanyā-)

3) [v.s. ...] giving up (cf. prāṇa-, ātma-, śarīra-, [Pañcatantra ii])

4) [v.s. ...] communicating, imparting, teaching (cf. brahma-)

5) [v.s. ...] paying back, restoring, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya]

6) [v.s. ...] adding, addition ([Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā])

7) [v.s. ...] donation, gift ([Latin] donum), [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. (naṃdā, to offer a g°, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Hitopadeśa] etc.; nam prayam, to bestow a g°, [Manu-smṛti iv, 234])

8) [v.s. ...] oblation (cf. udaka-, havir-)

9) [v.s. ...] liberality (cf. 2. dāna)

10) [v.s. ...] bribery, [Manu-smṛti vii, 198] (cf. upāya).

11) [from ] 2. dāna n. cutting off, splitting, dividing, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] pasture, meadow, [Ṛg-veda]

13) [v.s. ...] rut-fluid (which flows from an elephant’s temples), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

14) [v.s. ...] m. (only in [Ṛg-veda] but cf. vasu-) distribution of food or of a sacrificial meal

15) [v.s. ...] imparting, communicating, liberality

16) [v.s. ...] part, share, possession

17) [v.s. ...] distributor, dispenser, [Ṛg-veda vii, 27, 4.]

18) [from ] 3. dāna n. purification, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāna (दान):—(naṃ) 1. n. Gift; a dividing.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dāna (दान) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Dāṇa, Dāyaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Dāna (दान) [Also spelled daan]:—(nm) donation; charity, alms; a religious gift (in cash or kind); a suffix used to denote a stand, container or pot etc. (e.g. [kamaladāna, pīkadāna, śamādāna]); the fluid that flows from the temples of an elephant while in rut; -[dakṣiṇā] alms and donations; -[dharma] religious practices, charity and munificence; ~[patra] a gift-deed; ~[pātra] a donating box; (one) deserving alms; ~[līlā] a famous sport of Lord Krishna wherein he realised toll from the milk-maids; ~[vīra] a hero characterized by generous disposition; bountiful, munificent; hence ~[vīratā; ~śīla] generous, bountiful, munificent; •[] generous disposition, bounteousness, munificence; —[kī bachiyā ke dāṃta ginanā] to look a gift horse in the mouth; —[denā] to donate, to give in alms.

2) Dānā (दाना):—(nm) grain, parched grain; corn; seed; food; a bead; pustule; pimple, piece; grainy diet of animals; (a) wise; —[pānī] livelihood; food and drink; •[uṭhanā] see [anna-jala uṭhanā; dāne-dāne ko tarasanā] to be in the clutches of starvation, to starve; [dāne-dāne ko muhatāja] starving, poverty-stricken.

3) Dana in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a cup formed by folding up large-sized leaves of certain trees (as [dhaka, bada], etc.)..—dana (दोना) is alternatively transliterated as Donā.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Dāṇa (दाण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Dāna.

2) Dāṇa (दाण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dāraka.

2) Dāṇa has the following synonyms: Dāra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ḍāṇa (ಡಾಣ):—

1) [noun] a small, hard seed or seedlike fruit, esp. that of any cereal plant, as wheat, rice, etc. ; grain.

2) [noun] a kind of eatable made of Bengal gram powder, and fried in oil.

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Dana (ದನ):—

1) [noun] farm animals collectively; cattle; livestock.

2) [noun] any one of them.

3) [noun] an amount of worldly possessions, esp. money or valued property; wealth.

4) [noun] ದನದ ಮೈಲಿ [danada maili] dadnada maili a contagious disease affecting the udders of cattle, the virus contained in which is used to inoculated to people immunising against smallpox;5) [noun] ದನ ಕಾಯಿ [dana kayi] dana kāyi to take the cattle out for grazing; 2. (used scornfully) 'you are good for nothing' or 'do something that does not require the brain.

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Dāṇa (ದಾಣ):—[noun] = ದಾಣೆ [dane]1.

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Dāṇā (ದಾಣಾ):—[noun] = ದಾಣೆ [dane]2.

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Dāna (ದಾನ):—

1) [noun] the act of donating, gifting.

2) [noun] that which is so given.

3) [noun] a giving of bribery, as one of the four expedients used to weaken or defeat one’s enemy.

4) [noun] the liquid exuded from the temples of an elephant in sexual excitement.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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