Tyaga, Tyāga: 30 definitions


Tyaga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Tyag.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to the “renunciation”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Tyāga (त्याग).—Is to look on the useful and the useless equally; renunciation from affection, desire and difficulty; giving up of all Karmas and having an equal eye on good and evil;1 result of Jñāna or knowledge; gives the result of Karma, but difficult to achieve;2 leads to Vairāgya.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 53.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 3. 45.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 66.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to “renunciation of possessiveness”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to “avoidance”, as mentioned in verse 4.33-34 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] avoidance [viz., tyāga] of offences against wisdom, assuagement of the senses, awareness, knowledge of region, season, and constitution, (and) imitation of the conduct of sages: this method (has been) taught in brief for the non-arising of endogenous and accidental diseases and for the alleviation of (those which have) arisen”.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Tyāga (त्याग):—[tyāgaḥ] Giving up, Renunciation

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Sankara’s Vedanta through His Upanisad Commentaries

Tyāga (त्याग) means “letting go” or “abandoning” and represents a term used for renunciation.—Śaṅkara often uses terms for renunciation drawn from the Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad: vyutthāna (“transcendence”—literally “intensely rising up or away from”), bhikṣācārya (“begging”) and parivrājin (“one who goes forth”—appearing mostly in its derivative form parivrājaka, which by the medieval period designated the most radical type of renunciation). But he also interjects the synonyms saṃnyāsa (“set down completely”) and tyāga (“letting go” or “abandoning”) or parityāga (“complete letting go” or complete abandoning) both widely used in epic sources such as the Bhagavadgītā and in more specialized medieval Vedānta sources focusing exclusively on renunciation.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to “renunciation”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] From the Void of Oḍḍiyāna arises the undifferentiated (niṣkala) exhaled breath (prāṇa) of the Sun in Jālandhara. Its movement generates the Moon of inhaled breath (apāna), which is full and ‘filling’ (pūraka) in Pūrṇagiri. These three are Rudra's undivided fertilizing energy, which is Kāmarūpa present within the pure seminal potency of consciousness. Tisra is the bliss of the Yoni (bhagā-hlāda). Finally, Koṅkaṇa is the condition of supreme repose. It is the supreme state where the Yoga, transcendent and immanent, that penetrates into the Space (ākāśa) of supreme reality, practiced in the seat Tisra attains its ultimate goal. Thus is it the symbol (bimba) of renunciation (tyāga) of the other seats and their states, which is the liberated condition.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to “(being) devoid (of particularities)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 1.93.—Accordingly, “[...] It is also this [set of six elements] that is manifest in cognitions that arise from hypothetical inferences or scripture [and not only in perceptions; and] anything else is nothing but a mere combination [of these elements]. For example, [the property of] consisting in the subtle sensory object of smell lies in the [element (dhātu) of earth]—that same earth that may possess various smells, some pleasant, others unpleasant, etc.—insofar as [earth] is devoid of particularities (viśeṣa-tyāga) and subtle”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to the “true abandonment (of action)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Whenever volition dissolves through constant practice, then the true abandonment of action (karma-tyāga) arises for the Yogin. One should reveal this teaching [only] to those superior students [who are] restrained, clever, constantly desiring liberation and have confidence [in the efficacy of this path]. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Tyāga (त्याग) is a Sanskrit word referring to renunciation of activities, performed with material consciousness.

Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia

Tyāga is associated with offering. There are three kinds of offerings:

  1. yāga (sacrifice)
  2. dāna (giving)
  3. homa (offering)

Of these, the word yāga refers to principal rite and the other two are associated with subsidiary rites.

Dāna is transferring one’s right over what is given, to the one who is taking. This does not involve any expectation of result (though it has an invisible result, and it ensues only when the result is not desired for).

Homa is offering of havis in Agni. This involves tyāga of what is being offered, with the mention “na mama”, meaning what is being offered is no more mine, it belongs to the Devata (or the pitri as the case may be) to whom the offering is being made[8]. There is no expectation of result in the homa itself, but its result will become part of the result of the entire sacrifice.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Tyāga (त्याग, “abandonment”) refers to giving up of all anxieties for enjoying the fruits of actions; through practice of this kind of tyāga infusing discipline in daily activities the momentary anxiety to enjoy fruits of actions is overcome. It is a subjective renunciation of selfishness and desire. The Tejobindu Upanishad belonging to Krishna- yajurveda explains that in Tyāga (renunciation) one abandons the manifestations or objects of the universe through the cognition of Atman that is Sat and Cit and this is practiced by the wise as the giver of immediate salvation.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Tyāga (त्याग):—Generosity (tyāga) is of two kinds:

  1. Making a gift by giving up a material object (āmiṣa);
  2. obtaining bodhi by giving up the fetters (saṃyojana).

The former is ‘abandoning’ insofar as it rejects avarice (mātsarya); by contrast, the latter, the ‘abandoning’ of the fetters, plays the role of cause and condition (hetupratyaya). It is necessary to reach the seventh ground in order to abandon the fetters.

According to chapter 36, there are two kinds of abandonment (tyāga):

  1. abandonment consisting of generosity (dāna-tyāga);
  2. abandonment of all the disturbing emotions (sarvakleśa-tyāga).

Abandonment consisting of generosity is of two kinds: i) material gifts (āmiṣadāna); ii) gift of the Dharma (dharmadāna) or preaching. Altogether these three kinds of abandonment make up abandonment (tyāga).

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to the “renunciation”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “What then, son of good family, is the recollection of renunciation (tyāga-anusmṛti), which is authorized by the Lord for the sake of the Bodhisattvas? What we called renunciation (tyāga) is to abandon and renounce any material thing. Why is that? There is not any dharma that is to be renounced, and any dharma to be renounced does not appear. That which is not to be entangled in any dharma is the highest renunciation. That which is not entangled is without renunciation That which is without renunciation is without haughtiness. That which is without haughtiness is without apprehending. That which is without apprehending is without [mental] activity. That which is without [mental] activity is without information by thinking. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Tyāga (त्याग, “generosity”) or Tyāgānusmṛti refers to one of the “six recollections” (anusmṛti) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 54). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., tyāga). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

Tyāga (त्याग, “renunciation”).—Ahiṃsa-vrata practiced by the Śvetāmbras refers to the renunciation of killing. Basically, there are five kinds of tyāgas included in the eleven pratimās viz.

  1. sacitta-tyāga pratimā, the stage of renouncing uncooked food;
  2. ārambha-tyāga pratimā, the stage of abandonment of all professional activity;
  3. parigraha-tyāga pratimā, the stage of transferring publicly one’s property to a son or relative;
  4. anumati-tyāga pratimā, the stage of leaving the household and refraining from counselling in household matters,
  5. uddiṣṭa-tyāga pratimā, the stage of not eating food especially prepared for oneself.
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to the “abandoning (of infatuation)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “One who is restrained continually accumulates good karma by the activity of the body through his body which is well-controlled or by abandoning the body [com.—the abandoning (utsargaḥ), which is the abandoning of infatuation (mohatyāgaḥ), with regard to the body (kāye)]. The body of embodied souls attaches to bad karmas through actions which possess constant exertion and which kill living beings”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tyāga (त्याग).—m (S) Leaving, abandoning, forsaking, quitting. 2 The remuneration made to the gōndhaḷī, bharāḍī, ḍaurakarū &c. for their services.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tyāga (त्याग).—m Leaving, quitting, abandoning.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—[tyaj-bhāve ghañ]

1) Leaving, forsaking, abandoning, deserting, separation; न माता न पिता न स्त्री न पुत्रस्त्यागमर्हति (na mātā na pitā na strī na putrastyāgamarhati) Manusmṛti 8.389;9.79.

2) Giving up, resigning, renouncing; Manusmṛti 1.112; सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान् (sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 12.11.

3) Gift, donation, giving away as charity; करे श्लाघ्यस्त्याग (kare ślāghyastyāga) Bhartṛhari 2.65; वित्तं त्यागनियुक्तम् (vittaṃ tyāganiyuktam) (durlabham) H. 1.139; त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् (tyāgāya saṃbhṛtārthānām) R.1.7; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.169.

4) Liberality, generosity; Manusmṛti 2.97; R.1.22.

5) Secretion, excretion.

6) Dismissing, discharging.

7) Sacrificing oneself; मिथो यत् त्यागमुभयासो अग्मन् (mitho yat tyāgamubhayāso agman) Ṛgveda 4.24.3.

8) A sage.

Derivable forms: tyāgaḥ (त्यागः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Gift, donation. 2. Abandoning, leaving, parting from, separation, deserting, &c. 3. A sage, one who separates himself from worldly thoughts. E. tyaj to abandon, bhāve ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—i. e. tyaj + a, m. 1. Abandoning, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 111; [Pañcatantra] 261, 6; forsaking, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 389; resigning, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 7, 9. 2. Giving away, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 499; liberality, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 16; prodigality, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1260. 3. Secretion, Mahābhārata 14, 630.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—[masculine] leaving, abandoning, rejecting, avoiding, giving up; donation, sacrifice (also [figuratively] of one’s life); also = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tyāga (त्याग):—[from tyaj] m. ([Pāṇini 6-1, 216]) leaving, abandoning, forsaking, [Manu-smṛti] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] quitting (a place, deśa-), [Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] discharging, secretion, [Mahābhārata xiv, 630; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] giving up, resigning, gift, donation, distribution, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] sacrificing one’s life, [Ṛg-veda iv, 24, 3]

5) [v.s. ...] liberality, [Manu-smṛti ii, 97; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] a sage, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] cf. ātma-, tanu-, deha-, prāṇa-, śarīra-.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग):—(gaḥ) 1. m. A gift, donation; abandoning; a sage, forsaking all.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tyāga (त्याग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Cāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tyaga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग) [Also spelled tyag]:—(nm) abandonment; relinquishment, renunciation forsaking; sacrifice, abnegation; -[patra] (letter of) resignation; ~[maya] full of sacrifice/renunciation; ~[śīla] sacrificing, renunciative, prone to forsake/abnegate/sacrifice; hence ~[śīlatā] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Tyāga (ತ್ಯಾಗ):—

1) [noun] a giving of something valuable that belongs to oneself to others for a noble cause; the act of offering one’s life, time, enjoyment, pursuit, etc. for the good of others.

2) [noun] that which is so given; a gift; a donation.

3) [noun] the quality of being generous; willingness to sacrifice, donate; unselfishness.

--- OR ---

Tyāga (ತ್ಯಾಗ):—[noun] the deciduous tree Tectona grandis of Verbenaceae family with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown wood used for shipbuilding, furniture, etc,; teak.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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