Tyaga, Tyāga: 17 definitions

Introduction

Tyaga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Tyāga (त्याग).—Is to look on the useful and the useless equally; renunciation from affection, desire and difficulty; giving up of all Karmas and having an equal eye on good and evil;1 result of Jñāna or knowledge; gives the result of Karma, but difficult to achieve;2 leads to Vairāgya.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 53.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 3. 45.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 66.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to the “renunciation”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to “renunciation of possessiveness”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Tyāga (त्याग) refers to “avoidance”, as mentioned in verse 4.33-34 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] avoidance [viz., tyāga] of offences against wisdom, assuagement of the senses, awareness, knowledge of region, season, and constitution, (and) imitation of the conduct of sages: this method (has been) taught in brief for the non-arising of endogenous and accidental diseases and for the alleviation of (those which have) arisen”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Tyāga (त्याग) is a Sanskrit word referring to renunciation of activities, performed with material consciousness.

Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia

Tyāga is associated with offering. There are three kinds of offerings:

  1. yāga (sacrifice)
  2. dāna (giving)
  3. homa (offering)

Of these, the word yāga refers to principal rite and the other two are associated with subsidiary rites.

Dāna is transferring one’s right over what is given, to the one who is taking. This does not involve any expectation of result (though it has an invisible result, and it ensues only when the result is not desired for).

Homa is offering of havis in Agni. This involves tyāga of what is being offered, with the mention “na mama”, meaning what is being offered is no more mine, it belongs to the Devata (or the pitri as the case may be) to whom the offering is being made[8]. There is no expectation of result in the homa itself, but its result will become part of the result of the entire sacrifice.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Tyāga (त्याग, “abandonment”) refers to giving up of all anxieties for enjoying the fruits of actions; through practice of this kind of tyāga infusing discipline in daily activities the momentary anxiety to enjoy fruits of actions is overcome. It is a subjective renunciation of selfishness and desire. The Tejobindu Upanishad belonging to Krishna- yajurveda explains that in Tyāga (renunciation) one abandons the manifestations or objects of the universe through the cognition of Atman that is Sat and Cit and this is practiced by the wise as the giver of immediate salvation.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Tyāga (त्याग):—Generosity (tyāga) is of two kinds:

  1. Making a gift by giving up a material object (āmiṣa);
  2. obtaining bodhi by giving up the fetters (saṃyojana).

The former is ‘abandoning’ insofar as it rejects avarice (mātsarya); by contrast, the latter, the ‘abandoning’ of the fetters, plays the role of cause and condition (hetupratyaya). It is necessary to reach the seventh ground in order to abandon the fetters.

According to chapter 36, there are two kinds of abandonment (tyāga):

  1. abandonment consisting of generosity (dāna-tyāga);
  2. abandonment of all the disturbing emotions (sarvakleśa-tyāga).

Abandonment consisting of generosity is of two kinds: i) material gifts (āmiṣadāna); ii) gift of the Dharma (dharmadāna) or preaching. Altogether these three kinds of abandonment make up abandonment (tyāga).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Tyāga (त्याग, “generosity”) or Tyāgānusmṛti refers to one of the “six recollections” (anusmṛti) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 54). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., tyāga). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

Tyāga (त्याग, “renunciation”).—Ahiṃsa-vrata practiced by the Śvetāmbras refers to the renunciation of killing. Basically, there are five kinds of tyāgas included in the eleven pratimās viz.

  1. sacitta-tyāga pratimā, the stage of renouncing uncooked food;
  2. ārambha-tyāga pratimā, the stage of abandonment of all professional activity;
  3. parigraha-tyāga pratimā, the stage of transferring publicly one’s property to a son or relative;
  4. anumati-tyāga pratimā, the stage of leaving the household and refraining from counselling in household matters,
  5. uddiṣṭa-tyāga pratimā, the stage of not eating food especially prepared for oneself.
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tyāga (त्याग).—m (S) Leaving, abandoning, forsaking, quitting. 2 The remuneration made to the gōndhaḷī, bharāḍī, ḍaurakarū &c. for their services.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tyāga (त्याग).—m Leaving, quitting, abandoning.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—[tyaj-bhāve ghañ]

1) Leaving, forsaking, abandoning, deserting, separation; न माता न पिता न स्त्री न पुत्रस्त्यागमर्हति (na mātā na pitā na strī na putrastyāgamarhati) Ms.8.389;9.79.

2) Giving up, resigning, renouncing; Ms.1.112; सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान् (sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān) Bg.12.11.

3) Gift, donation, giving away as charity; करे श्लाघ्यस्त्याग (kare ślāghyastyāga) Bh.2.65; वित्तं त्यागनियुक्तम् (vittaṃ tyāganiyuktam) (durlabham) H. 1.139; त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् (tyāgāya saṃbhṛtārthānām) R.1.7; Pt.1.169.

4) Liberality, generosity; Ms.2.97; R.1.22.

5) Secretion, excretion.

6) Dismissing, discharging.

7) Sacrificing oneself; मिथो यत् त्यागमुभयासो अग्मन् (mitho yat tyāgamubhayāso agman) Rv.4.24.3.

8) A sage.

Derivable forms: tyāgaḥ (त्यागः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Gift, donation. 2. Abandoning, leaving, parting from, separation, deserting, &c. 3. A sage, one who separates himself from worldly thoughts. E. tyaj to abandon, bhāve ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—i. e. tyaj + a, m. 1. Abandoning, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 111; [Pañcatantra] 261, 6; forsaking, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 389; resigning, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 7, 9. 2. Giving away, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 499; liberality, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 16; prodigality, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1260. 3. Secretion, Mahābhārata 14, 630.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tyāga (त्याग).—[masculine] leaving, abandoning, rejecting, avoiding, giving up; donation, sacrifice (also [figuratively] of one’s life); also = seq.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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