Samyojana, Sanyojana, Saṃyojana: 14 definitions
Samyojana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsFetter that binds the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see vatta) - self identification views (sakkaya ditthi), uncertainty (vicikiccha), grasping at precepts and practices (silabbata paramasa); sensual passion (kama raga), resistance (vyapada); passion for form (rupa raga), passion for formless phenomena (arupa raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddhacca), and unawareness (avijja).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
There are 10 fetters tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely:
- (1) personality-belief (sakkāya-ditthi)
- (2) sceptical doubt (vicikicchā)
- (3) clinging to mere rules and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa; s. upādāna)
- (4) sensuous craving (kāma-rāga)
- (5) ill-will (vyāpāda)
- (6) craving for fine-material existence (rūpa-rāga)
- (7) craving for immaterial existence (arūpa-rāga)
- (8) conceit (māna)
- (9) restlessness (uddhacca)
- (10) ignorance (avijjā)
The first five of these are called 'lower fetters' (orambhāgiya-samyojana), as they tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called 'higher fetters' (uddhambhāgiya-samyojana), as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world (A.IX.67-68; A.X.13; D.33, etc.).
- He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotāpanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to Nibbāna, as it were.
- He who, besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a Sakadāgāmi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous world).
- He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anāgāmī, or 'Non-returner' (to the sensuous world).
- He who is freed from all the 10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy One.
For more details, s. ariya-puggala.
The 10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are:
- sensuous craving,
- wrong views,
- sceptical doubt,
- clinging to mere rules and ritual,
- craving for existence,
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Saṃyojana (संयोजन) refers to “fetters” and forms part of a title given to the Bhikṣus that accompanied the Buddha when he went to Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata at Rājagṛha according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VI). Accordingly, “the Arhats have broken the fetters (parikṣīṇabhava-saṃyojana) of this existence”.
These fetters (saṃyojana) are nine in number:
- attraction (anunaya),
- aversion (pratigha),
- pride (māna),
- ignorance (avidyā),
- doubt (vicikitsā),
- wrong view (dṛṣṭi),
- unjustified esteem (parāmarśa),
- avarice (mātsarya),
- envy (īrṣya).
These saṃyojanas encompass all of existence and this existence encompasses all the saṃyojanas. Hence the expression parikṣīṇabhava-saṃyojana.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
saṃyojana : (nt.) connection; fettering.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
saṃyōjana (संयोजन).—n S Uniting, joining, conjoining, connecting: also mingling, mixing, blending. 2 Copulation.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
saṃyōjana (संयोजन).—n Uniting, joining.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Union, conjunction.
2) Copulation, sexual union.
Derivable forms: saṃyojanam (संयोजनम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Saṃyojana (संयोजन).—nt., once (Gaṇḍavyūha 387.3) °nā (= Pali °na, or saññojana, Pugg. 22.11 ff.), fetter, as binding to existence, to misery: parikṣīṇa-bhava-°na ity ucyate (Buddha) Lalitavistara 425.21; without listing or number, °naiḥ Udānavarga iii.6; (sg.) iv.29; xv.6 (pl. ?); xx.1; sāvaśeṣa-°na (kālaṃ kṛ-) Divyāvadāna 302.21; 553.24; 555.27—8, (to die) while having (some) fetters remaining; °nam Mahāvyutpatti 2134, followed by bandhana, anuśaya, paryutthāna, upakleśa, paryupasthāna (read with var. paryavasth°); compare °na-bandhanānuśayopakleśa- paryavasthānānāṃ Bodhisattvabhūmi 202.20; na °nayā (by any fetter) bandhanānuśayaparyavasthāna-vaśagatāḥ Gaṇḍavyūha 387.3; there are 10, as in Pali (see [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], order slightly diff.), listed Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. v.84 and 87, in two groups (also in Pali), called avarabhāgīya, q.v. (viz. satkāyadṛṣṭi, śīlavra- taparāmarśa, vicikitsā, kāmacchanda, vyāpāda), and ūr- dhvabhāgīya, q.v. (viz. rūparāga, ārūpyarāga, auddhatya, māna, avidyā); the first three are also specially listed as three saṃyojana, e.g. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 117.14 (with vicikitsā as No. 2 and śīlavrata° as 3, as in Pali), for reasons explained Abhidharmakośa op. cit. 85—87; they are probably meant by trīṇi °nāṃ (tyaktvā) Mahāvastu i.192.7 (verse); trayāṇāṃ °nānāṃ Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.86.11; Divyāvadāna 534.3; but Divyāvadāna 533.28 may intend to name [Page539-a+ 71] rāga, dveṣa, and moha as 3 saṃyojana (but there is probably a lacuna in text, read as in Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.87.1—2); Divyāvadāna 533.24—25 also speaks of pañcānām avarabhāgīyānām °nānāṃ pra- hāṇād, without listing them; same Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.87.7; further, Divyāvadāna 95.22 knows nine saṃy° (see s.v. visaṃyojanaka), which no doubt refers to the nine listed Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. v.81 f. (shortly before the place cited above), viz. anunaya, pratigha, māna, avidyā, dṛṣṭi, parāmarśa, vicikitsā, īrṣyā, mātsarya; compare īrṣyā-mātsarya-°na-saṃprayuktā devamanu- ṣyā Mahāvastu i.350.8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. Copulation, coition. 2. Conjunction. E. sam with yuj to join, aff. lyuṭ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃyojana (संयोजन).—i. e. sam-yuj + ana, n. 1. Joining, uniting, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
Saṃyojana (संयोजन).—[neuter] joining or uniting with ([instrumental] or [locative]).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Saṃyojana (संयोजन):—[=saṃ-yojana] [from saṃ-yojaka > saṃ-yuj] n. the act of joining or uniting with ([instrumental case] or [locative case]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] all that binds to the world, cause of re-birth, [Divyāvadāna]
3) [v.s. ...] copulation, sexual union, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] (with mitrā-varuṇayoḥ, aśvinoḥ, and prahitoḥ) Name of Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa],
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Saṃyojana (संयोजन):—(von yuj mit sam) n.
1) das Vereinigen [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 11, 5, 3, 2. 5.] teṣāṃ caturṇāṃ bhāgānām [Vedānta lecture No. 68.] das Zusammenbringen mit (instr.) [Daśakumāracarita 62, 6.] saṃyojanamaśvinoḥ, prahitoḥ und mitrāvaruṇayoḥ Namen von Sāman [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 204],a. ,b. ,b. —
2) fleischliche Vermischung, Beischlaf [Hārāvalī 50.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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