Samyojana, aka: Sanyojana, Saṃyojana; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Samyojana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Fetter that binds the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see vatta) - self identification views (sakkaya ditthi), uncertainty (vicikiccha), grasping at precepts and practices (silabbata paramasa); sensual passion (kama raga), resistance (vyapada); passion for form (rupa raga), passion for formless phenomena (arupa raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddhacca), and unawareness (avijja).(Source): Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

'fetters'.

There are 10 fetters tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely:

  • (1) personality-belief (sakkāya-ditthi)
  • (2) sceptical doubt (vicikicchā)
  • (3) clinging to mere rules and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa; s. upādāna)
  • (4) sensuous craving (kāma-rāga)
  • (5) ill-will (vyāpāda)
  • (6) craving for fine-material existence (rūpa-rāga)
  • (7) craving for immaterial existence (arūpa-rāga)
  • (8) conceit (māna)
  • (9) restlessness (uddhacca)
  • (10) ignorance (avijjā)

The first five of these are called 'lower fetters' (orambhāgiya-samyojana), as they tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called 'higher fetters' (uddhambhāgiya-samyojana), as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world (A.IX.67-68; A.X.13; D.33, etc.).

  • He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotāpanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to Nibbāna, as it were.
  • He who, besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a Sakadāgāmi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous world).
  • He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anāgāmī, or 'Non-returner' (to the sensuous world).
  • He who is freed from all the 10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy One.

For more details, s. ariya-puggala.

The 10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are:

  1. sensuous craving,
  2. ill-will,
  3. conceit,
  4. wrong views,
  5. sceptical doubt,
  6. clinging to mere rules and ritual,
  7. craving for existence,
  8. envy,
  9. stinginess,
  10. ignorance.

(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Saṃyojana (संयोजन) refers to “fetters” and forms part of a title given to the Bhikṣus that accompanied the Buddha when he went to Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata at Rājagṛha according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VI). Accordingly, “the Arhats have broken the fetters (parikṣīṇabhava-saṃyojana) of this existence”.

These fetters (saṃyojana) are nine in number:

  1. attraction (anunaya),
  2. aversion (pratigha),
  3. pride (māna),
  4. ignorance (avidyā),
  5. doubt (vicikitsā),
  6. wrong view (dṛṣṭi),
  7. unjustified esteem (parāmarśa),
  8. avarice (mātsarya),
  9. envy (īrṣya).

These saṃyojanas encompass all of existence and this existence encompasses all the saṃyojanas. Hence the expression parikṣīṇabhava-saṃyojana.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

saṃyojana : (nt.) connection; fettering.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

saṃyōjana (संयोजन).—n S Uniting, joining, conjoining, connecting: also mingling, mixing, blending. 2 Copulation.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃyōjana (संयोजन).—n Uniting, joining.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃyojana (संयोजन).—

1) Union, conjunction.

2) Copulation, sexual union.

Derivable forms: saṃyojanam (संयोजनम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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