Shravaka, Śrāvaka: 15 definitions

Introduction

Shravaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śrāvaka can be transliterated into English as Sravaka or Shravaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śrāvaka (श्रावक).—In the śrāvaka system, the Buddha, by the power of his skillful means (upāya), pretends to assume human qualities: he undergoes birth (jāti), old age (jarā), sickness (vyādhi), cold and heat (śītoṣṇa), hunger and thirst (kṣutpipāsā), etc. As no human is born without passions, the Buddha must likewise conform to human qualities and [seem] to have passions. Under the king of trees, first outwardly, he crushed Māra’s armies (mārasenā); then inwardly, he destroyed his enemies that are the fetters (saṃyojana). Having destroyed his external and internal enemies, he realized supreme complete enlightenment (anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhi).

Source: Kunpal: Shantideva's Bodhisattva-charyavatara

Śrāvakas have compassion but are not endowed with bodhicitta, neither relative nor absolute bodhicitta.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography (b)

Śrāvaka (श्रावक) refers to an adherent of the Śrāvakayāna, one of the various Buddhist paths (yāna).—Lord Buddha prescribed Yānas in the beginning, namely, the Śrāvakayāna and the Pratyekabuddhayāna. [...] The Śrāvakas were to near IFom a Buddha but they had to wait till the advent of another Buddha for their emancipation. In the meanwhile the Śrāvakas could teach, but they could neither attain Nirvāṇa themselves nor help others to attain it. The Pratyekas were eminent men; they could attain Nirvāṇa by their own efforts, without the help of a Buddha but they could not impart Nirvāṇa to others.

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryThe first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second being that of Praetyka Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word, means a hearer. It generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble Truth in entering Nirvana.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Śrāvaka (श्रावक, “layman”).—The śrāvaka is one who listens (śṛṇoti), or one who has recourse to faith (śraddhālutāṃ śrāti), or one whose sins flow away from him (śravanti yasya pāpāni). With the nāma, sthāpanā, dravya, bhāva category we find:

  1. nāma-śrāvaka,
  2. sthāpanā-śrāvaka,
  3. dravya-śrāvaka,
  4. bhāva-śrāvaka.

Amongst the Digambaras Cāmuṇḍarāya has taken over the Hindu concept of the four āśramas, which, following Jinasena, he terms brahmacārin, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and bhikṣu.

Some Digambaras, Āśādhara, and Medhāvin, for example, have a threefold division of the śrāvaka and on this their expositions of the doctrine are based:

  1. pākṣika,
  2. naiṣṭhika,
  3. sādhaka.

Āśādhara, who repeats Cāmuṇḍarāya’s categories of brahmacārins and the list of the four āśramas, also gives a classification of the śrāvaka based on his progress through the pratimās:

  1. jaghanya (least satisfactory),
  2. madhyama (next best),
  3. uttama or utkṛṣṭa (best).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Śrāvaka (श्रावक) refers to a “householder votary” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.21.—What are twelve vows of a householder votary (śrāvaka)? These are five minor vows (aṇuvrata), three enhancing vows (guṇavrata) and four teaching vows (śikṣāvrata).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śrāvaka.—(EI 7, 8, 24; ML; LL; HA), a lay follower of Jainism or Buddhism; cf. the feminine form Śrāvikā, sometimes called Śrāvikā bhaginī in Jain records. Note: śrāvaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Śrāvaka.—(CII 1), ‘a matter relating to a declaration’. Note: śrāvaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śrāvaka (श्रावक).—m (S) A pupil or follower of a Jina; one of a sect or distinction amongst the Jyn-people.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

srāvaka (स्रावक).—a That causes to ooze.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śrāvaka (श्रावक).—[śri-ṇvul]

1) A hearer.

2) A pupil, disciple; श्रावकावस्थायाम् (śrāvakāvasthāyām) Māl.1 'in their pupilage'.

3) A class of Buddhist saints or votaries.

4) A Buddhist votary in general.

5) A heretic.

6) A crow.

7) A sound audible from afar.

Derivable forms: śrāvakaḥ (श्रावकः).

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Srāvaka (स्रावक).—a. (-vikā f.) [स्रु-णिच्-ण्वुल् (sru-ṇic-ṇvul)] Causing to flow, pouring out, exuding.

-kam Black pepper.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śrāvaka (श्रावक).—(so in Sanskrit, and Pali sāvaka, in Sanskrit also of Jains and other sects), a (Buddhist) disciple, in Mahāyāna texts regularly used of followers of the Hīnayāna, passim: technical description, sarveṣām arhatāṃ kṣīṇāśravāṇām uṣitavratānāṃ samyagājñāsuvimuktacittānāṃ parikṣīṇa- bhavasaṃyojanānām anuprāptasvakārthānām Mahāvastu i.248.10 f., repeated below; a similar formula in Pali, Vin. i.183.24 etc.; stages and types of śr° Mahāvyutpatti 1008—1028; names of well-known śr° ib. 1029—1073; their qualities 1075—1126. [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] says a sāvaka is ‘never an Arahant’, but see Critical Pali Dictionary s.v. araha(t) 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śrāvaka (श्रावक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The lay votary of a Budd'ha or Jina. 2. A crow. 3. A hearer. 4. A pupil. E. śru to hear, causal form, ṇvul aff.

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Srāvaka (स्रावक).—n.

(-kaṃ) Black-pepper. f.

(-vikā) Adj. Exuding, letting flow. E. sru to ooze, causal form, ṇvul aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śrāvaka (श्रावक).—[adjective] listening to (—°); audible far and wide. [masculine] hearer, pupil, follower, [especially] of Buddha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śrāvaka (श्रावक):—[from śrava] a mf(ikā)n. hearing, listening to ([compound]), [Vāsavadattā]

2) [v.s. ...] audible from afar, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a pupil, disciple, [Mālatīmādhava]

4) [v.s. ...] a disciple of the Buddha (the disciples of the Hīna-yāna school are sometimes so called in contradistinction to the disciples of the Mahā-yāna school; properly only those who heard the law from the Buddha’s own lips have the name śrāvaka, and of these two, viz. Sāriputta and Moggallāna, were Agra-śrāvakas, ‘chief disciples’, while eighty, including Kāśyapa, Upāli, and Ānanda, were Mahā-śrāvakas or ‘great disciples’), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 47, 75]

5) [v.s. ...] a Jaina disciple (regarded by orthodox Hindūs as a heretic), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

6) [v.s. ...] a crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a sound audible from afar, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

8) [v.s. ...] that faculty of the voice which makes a sound audible to a distance, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [from śru] b etc. See p. 1097, col. 1.

10) Sravaka (स्रवक):—[from sru] mfn. flowing, dropping etc., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Srāvaka (स्रावक):—[from sru] mfn. ([from] [Causal]) causing to flow, shedding, exuding (-tva n.), [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

12) [v.s. ...] n. black pepper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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