Carya, Caryā, Cāryā: 27 definitions


Carya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Charya.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Carya (चर्य).—A Yoganātha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 37. 29.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Caryā (चर्या) refers to ‘right conduct’ or “the practice of the observance of vows”.—The Siddhānta Āgamas define caryā simply as ‘(right) conduct’ (caraṇa). Theoretically all Siddhānta Āgamas should contain a section (pāda) specifically dedicated to this topic, although in practice most do not. [...] The caryā taught in the various schools of the Bhairavāgamas and Kaula Tantras shares much in common with that of the Siddhāntāgamas, but there are also major differences. The observance of the Rule (samaya), for example, is basic to all of them, although all the rules may not be the same.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (shaivism)

Carya (चर्य, “conduct”) or caryapada refers to the first division of the āgamas.—The four classes of devotees (bhakta) or the states of spiritual life somewhat correspond to the four divisions of the Āgamas and the four modes of sādhana, spiritual practice, they entail. Thus, sālokya corresponds to carya, ritual and moral conduct, sāmīpya to kriyā, architectural and iconographic making, sārūpya to yoga, meditation, and sāyūjya ta jñāna, theology and gnosis.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Caryā (चर्या) refers to “ascetic observance” or “rules governing the conduct”, and refers to one of the four categories of the subject-matter of the Āgamas, according to Alexis Sanderson in his 2006 article on the Lākulas (before presenting the vratas in the ninth chapter of the caryāpāda of the Mataṅgapārameśvara).—The Śaivas have conventionally divided the means of liberation taught in the Āgamas, that is to say their subject matter, into the four categories, ritual (kriyā), doctrine or gnosis (jñāna, vidyā), meditation (yoga), and ascetic observance and other rules governing the conduct of the various classes and kinds of initiate (caryā).

Note: caryā, in early Śaiva works, may refer specifically to ascetic observance, presumably indeed because it is a contraction of the collocation vratacaryā/vratacaraṇa, “the performance (caryā/caraṇa) of timed religious observances (vrata)”. The verb car, “to move,” but also “to be engaged in”, has indeed long been the natural idiomatic verb of choice for use with vrata, and this accounts for the frequency of such bahuvrīhi expressions as cīrṇavrata (“who has observed his observances”), both in non-Mantramārga works (e.g. Bodhāyanagṛhyasūtra 4.12.2 on p. 118, Yājñavalkyasmṛti 3.298c, Mahābhārata 3.81.135c) and in works of the Mantramārga (e.g. Mālinīvijayottara 10.17c and 10.34c, Mohacūḍottara 1.14a, etc), as well as for the distinctively Tantric bahuvrīhi expression cīrṇavidyāvrata (e.g. Siddhayogeśvarīmata 13.1a).

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Caryā (चर्या) or Caryāpāda refers to the third of four sections (pāda) of the Pāñcarātra system of thought.—Caryā is the detailed description of the ritual of daily pūjā ceremony as well as of periodical festivals. The best description of all these four aspects of Pāñcarātra (e.g., jñāna) is found in the Padma-saṃhitā, a simplified elaboration of the Jayākhya-saṃhitā.

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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Caryā (चर्या) refers to “conduct”, and is mentioned in verse 2.1 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Caryā (“conduct”) corresponds to spyad-pa (more commonly spelt spyod-pa), which is found only in NP. dpyad-pa (or dpyod-pa), as given by CD, properly means “examination” (vicāra), but here appears to be a secondary spelling of spyad-pa. Similar eases could not be traced. The reverse phenomenon, however, that spyod-pa occurs instead of dpyod-pa seems to be far more frequent; cf. Jaschke, Diet, p. 329, and Suvarṇaprabhāsasūtra p. 42.20 & 25.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Caryā (चर्या) refers to the forms of “Kaula practice”.—The caryā taught in the Kubjikā Tantras is typical of that found in the Bhairavāgamas and Kaula Tantras in general. This involves the ingestion of various sacrificial substances (dravya) offered to the deity such as meat and wine as well as bodily fluids, including those produced by sexual intercourse. Ingested in the form of sacrificial food called caru offered by Yoginīs, the adept acquires magical and yogic powers and ultimately attains liberation.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Caryā (चर्या) refers to the “four practices of the Bodhisattva”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 52.

The four practices (caryā) of the Bodhisattva are:

  1. prakṛticaryā, the natural qualities and virtues of the Bodhisattva.
  2. praṇidhānacaryā, the production of the mind of bodhi.
  3. anulomacaryā, conduct in conformity with vow.
  4. anivartanacaryā, assured and non-regressing conduct up to bodhi.

Notes:These four bodhisasattvacaryās are proposed by the Mahāvastu, a work derived from the branch of the Mahāsāṃghikas called the Lokottaravādins of Madhyadeśa. This classification is different from and independent of the preceding one but, like it, is modeled on the scheme of the śrāvaka’s career, the adept of the Lesser Vehicle who, after being instructed by the Buddha and after a long period of effort, enters into the path of nirvāṇa, successively conquers the fruits of Srotaāpanna, Sakṛdāgāmin and anāgāmin and finally accedes to Arhathood. There is, thus, a parallelism between the career of the śrāvaka and that of the Bodhisattva, with the essential difference that the former pursues his own benefit (svārtha) above all, whereas the latter assures both his own benefit and that of others (parārtha).

Source: Kunpal: Shantideva's Bodhisattva-charyavatara

Carya means ’practice’, ’conduct’, or ’action’.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Caryā (चर्या) refers to “practice”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (5) When you teach your practice (caryā) to living beings (jagat), there is no change in the body of the Sugata. But still, you teach in a manner in accordance with the power of retaining [in memory], the thinking, the qualities, characteristics and behavior (īryāpatha) [of you listeners]. [...]”.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

1) Caryā (चर्या, “performance”) or Caryātantra refers to one of the divisions of Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhism, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).—Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna is commonly divided into four modes of practice, kriyā, "action", worshiping and serving a deity seen as outside oneself, caryā, "performance", embodying a deity by performing its ritual music and dance, yoga, "meditation", visualizing a deity or deities and absorbing them into oneself, and anuttarayoga, "the highest yoga", using sophisticated yogic meditation practices to actively turn oneself into an enlightened divinity. [...] Caryā Tantra is primarily the performance of caryā gīti, "tantric music", caryā nṛtya, "tantric dance", and the performance of pūjā by a priest for the laity.

2) Caryā (चर्या) refers to “(wise) conduct”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Until awakening I seek refuge, in the highest assembly of Buddha dharma, I hasten to accomplish awakened mind, for the success of self and others. I raise the highest enlightened mind, I invite all beings to this place, Following the wisest conduct (vara-bodhi-caryā) desired, becoming a Buddha for the world”.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Caryā (चर्या, “wandering”) refers to one of the  hardships (parīṣaha), or “series of trials hard to endure” according to the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra 10.1 (Incarnation as Nandana). While practicing penance for a lac of years, Muni Nandana also endured a series of trials hard to endure (e.g., caryā). Nandana is the name of a king as well as one of Mahāvīra’s previous births.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Caryā.—(CII 4), discipline in Śaivite practices. Note: caryā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caryā (चर्या).—f (S) Deportment, manner, way, usual course or conduct. 2 Air, look, mien, cast of the countenance: also character of the complexion or look (as to healthiness or sickness). 3 S Constant or regular observance of prescribed rites or established customs. Ex. vratācī hē caryā || tvarita phaḷa dēīla sabaḷā ||. caryā pālaṭaṇēṃ or badalaṇēṃ g. of s. To recover healthiness and freshness of look (after sickness).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caryā (चर्या).—f Deportment, manner. Air, look, mien. caryā pālaṭaṇēṃ or badalaṇēṃ To recover healthiness and freshness of look (after sickness).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Carya (चर्य).—a. [car-karmaṇi yat] To be gone; to be practised &c.

-ryā 1 Going about, moving, walking about; driving or going in a carriage; रथ° (ratha°) Uttararāmacarita 5.

2) Course, motion; as in सहचर्या (sahacaryā).

3) Behaviour, conduct, deportment.

4) Practice, performance, observance; Manusmṛti 1.111; व्रतचर्या, तपश्चर्या (vratacaryā, tapaścaryā).

5) Regular performance of all rites or customs.

6) Eating.

7) A custom, usage; Manusmṛti 6.32.

8) Pervading; visiting.

-ryam 1 Going about.

2) Behaviour, conduct.

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Caryā (चर्या).—See under चर् (car).

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Cāryā (चार्या).—f.

1) A path, A road which is eight cubits broad दण्डान्तरा द्विदण्डान्तरा वा चार्याः कारयेत् (daṇḍāntarā dvidaṇḍāntarā vā cāryāḥ kārayet) Kau. A.1.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Caryā (चर्या).—(Sanskrit) = cari, q.v., used like that form (regu-larly in prose, but also in verses) especially of the course of conduct of Bodhisattvas, which has four aspects or stages: catvārīmāni bodhisattvānāṃ bodhisattvacaryāṇi Mahāvastu i.1.2, listed in 3 as prakṛti-caryā, praṇidhāna-c°, anuloma-c°, anivartana-c° (compare Senart i p. xxi); same list, called cata- sraḥ…bodhisattvacaryāḥ i.46.6; they are discussed in the following 46.8 ff. (prakṛti-c° 46.8—47.11; praṇidhi-c° 47.12—63.10; anuloma- and avivarta-c°, very briefly, 63.11—14); they seem to be aspects, or possibly successive stages, of the Bodhisattva's long course of development; prakṛti- refers to his original, basic andowment; praṇi- dhāna- (°dhi-) to his vows to attain enlightenment; anuloma- (also ānulomikī, see s.v. ānulomika) alludes to his progressive approach to the goal, and anivartana- (avivarta-) refers to the point at which it becomes im- possible for him to backslide. We also find bodhicaryā(ṇi, with nt. ending, as above) Mahāvastu i.252.4, °ryāṃ ii.341.1 (both of these verses), and duṣkara-caryāṃ ii.241.4 (prose), parallel to bodhi-cari and duṣkara-cari.See further artha- caryā, dharma-caryā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carya (चर्य) or Caryya.—mfn.

(-ryaḥ-ryā-ryaṃ) To be gone, (in or by) nf.

(-ryaṃ-ryā) 1. Perseverance in religious austerities. 2. Due and regular observance of all rites or custom. 3. Following the rules of studentship. 4. Going. 5. Eating. 6. Practice usage. 7. Behaviour. E. car to go, and yat or ṇyat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carya (चर्य).—I. ptcple. of the fut. pass. of car, To be practised, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 1. Ii. f. . 1. Roaming, Mahābhārata 8, 2099. 2. Visiting, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 9, 16, 1. 3. Going, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 19, 19. 4. Observance, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 111. 5. Practising, occupation, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 40, 6. 6. Conduct, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 32. Iii. n. 1. Going, Mahābhārata 8, 4215. 2. Practising.

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Cārya (चार्य).—m. The son of a Vrātya, or outcaste Vaiśya, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 23.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carya (चर्य).—[adjective] to be done, practised, kept, etc.; [feminine] ā going, wandering, visiting; behaviour, conduct, morality, piety; practice, performance, occupation with ([instrumental] or —°).

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Cārya (चार्य).—[neuter] a cert. outcast; state of a spy or scout.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Carya (चर्य):—[from car] a mfn. ([Pāṇini 3-1, 100]) to be practised or performed, [Manu-smṛti iii, 1]

2) [v.s. ...] m. (= cara) the small shell Cypraea moneta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] n. ifc. driving (in a carriage), [Mahābhārata viii, 4215]

4) Caryā (चर्या):—[from carya > car] a f. going about, wandering, walking or roaming about, visiting, driving (in a carriage, ratha-, [Mahābhārata ix, xiii; Rāmāyaṇa i, 19, 19]), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 16, 1]

5) [v.s. ...] (often ifc.) proceeding, behaviour, conduct, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xi, 5, 7, 1; Lāṭyāyana viii; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra xii, 4; Manu-smṛti vi, 32 etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] due observance of all rites and customs, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha vi ff.]

7) [v.s. ...] a religious mendicant’s life, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] practising, performing, occupation with, engaging in ([instrumental case] [Gautama-dharma-śāstra] or generally in [compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra iii, 7; Manu-smṛti i, 111; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] deportment, usage, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of composition

11) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes] (cf. brahma-, bhikṣā-, bhaikṣya-).

12) [v.s. ...] b f. of rya q.v.

13) Carya (चर्य):—b caryā See √car.

14) Cārya (चार्य):—[from cāra] a n. espionage, [Kathārṇava]

15) [v.s. ...] m. the son of an outcaste Vaiśya ([varia lectio] for ac° or ācārya), [Manu-smṛti x, 23].

16) b See cāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Carya (चर्य):—[(ryyaṃ-ryyā)] 1. f. n. Perseverance in religious austerities; observance of rites; going; eating; practice; behaviour.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Caryā (चर्या) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Cajjā, Cariyā, Cāriyā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Carya in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Caryā (चर्या) [Also spelled charya]:—(nf) routine; goings, conduct; performance (of rites and ceremonies).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Carya (ಚರ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the way a person behaves or acts; conduct; manners; behaviour.

2) [noun] the act or practice of observing or keeping, a law, duty, custom, rule, etc.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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