Duhkha, Duḥkha, Duḥkhā: 31 definitions


Duhkha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Dukh.

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In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Duḥkha (दुःख, “pain”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “time of sorrow” and is one of the six reasons for “conjugal union” (vāsaka) between a king and a women, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “conjugal union (vāsaka) being due, kings should go to the bed-chamber of a wife even if she may be in her menses and may not be his favourite”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Duḥkha (दुःख).—Agni Purāṇa tells the following about the origin of Duḥkham.

Hiṃsā (violence) is the wife of Adharma (unrighteousness). To the couple were born two daughters called Anṛta (falsehood) and Nikṛta (fraud) and from them were born the daughters Bhayā (fear) Naraka (hell) Māyā (illusion) and Vedanā (pain). Māyā brought forth Mṛtyu (death), the annihilator of all living objects, and Vedanā, from Raurava (a particular hell) brought forth Duḥkha (sorrow, grief). From Mṛtyu were born Jāti (caste), Jarā (wrinkles), Śoka (sorrow), Tṛṣṇā (covetouseness) and Krodha (anger). (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “suffering” (i.e., that which brings ‘misery’), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] At the same time, several phenomena of evil portent forboding misery and distress happened, when the son of Varāṅgī was born making the gods miserable. O dear, the phenomena of three varieties indicating great calamity and terrifying the worlds occurred in the sky, heaven and earth. I shall narrate them. With a terrifying noise, thunderbolts fell along with comets; shooting meteors rose up, making the world miserable [i.e., duḥkha]. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Duḥkha (दुःख, “pain”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “duḥkha (pain) is caused from the painful and bitter experience of everybody”.

2) Duḥkha (दुःख, “pain”) and Sukha (pleasure) refers to two of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Sukha (pleasure) and duḥkha (pain) are the special qualities (guṇa) of the self. These two qualities are treated in pair, but these are not contradictory qualities. That means duḥkha is not the negation of sukha or the vice-versa. Both these are positive qualities. According to Praśastapāda sukha is a positive feeling which is produced from the contact of the sense-organs with agreeable objects together with the conjunction of the self and mind. These contacts together with the merit of the self-bring about a felling the effect of which is characterized by affection brightness of the eye etc. Praśastapāda also maintains that pleasure can be smṛtija (produced by memory) and saṃkalpaja (produced by imagination). Smṛtija-sukha is produced from the recollection of past pleasurable objects. Saṃkalpaja-sukha is produced from the expectation of future objects.

While defining sukha and duḥkha in the Tarkasaṃgraha Annaṃbhaṭṭa follows Praśastapāda. Thus, in his view also that which is experienced by all with agreeable feeling is called sukha. Similarly that which is experienced by all as disagreeable feelings is called duḥkha. However, it appears that he finds these definitions of pleasure and pain as not adequate and faulty and as such he offers a better definition of sukha in the Dīpikā. Pleasure is that which is qualified by the generality sukhatva generated by apperception (anuvyavasāya) of the judgement ‘I am happy’. The similar will be the case of duḥkha though Annaṃbhaṭṭa has not specifically mentioned it. He also says that the description of pleasure and pain mentioned earlier are only descriptions of their nature and not definitions.

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Duḥkha (दुःख):—It refers to Unhappiness, sarrow, woe, grief, misery, pain, anguish, agony, affliction, wretchedness, suffering, trouble, hardship, adversity, infliction, trial, tribulation. Any action which gives pain to Indriya (Sense-organs) and Atma due to perception of Adharma / Papa karma is Duhlha

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “pain”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a cord is cut, there is death or deadly pain (duḥkhaduḥkhaṃ vā maraṇāntikam). [The officiant] who has knowledge of the ritual should perform the fire rite for quelling of calamities, if he becomes aware of such [omens]. Since a levelled house brings every comfort and prosperity [to the residents], one should divide the site properly with cords and examine extraneous substances beneath the site. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “sorrow”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[This rite] should be employed by utterly glorious Sovereigns when they are in distress—[for this rite] removes the three kinds of sorrow which begin with the one relating to oneself (duḥkhaādhyātmikādiduḥkhānāṃ); causes the destruction of all afflictions; is marked by auspiciousness; destroys all enemies; pacifies (i.e. removes unwanted consequences of ritual mistakes etc.); is the cause of triumph; kills the Demons; brings about prosperities; subdues all; bestows the longest of lives; is meritorious; [and] was perfomed by ancient Kings”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “suffering”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi (verse 24.1-2).—Accordingly, [while describing kāyasiddhi in terms redolent of tapas (i.e., purification and bindu):] “When the accomplishment of [destroying] the [five] impurities [is achieved], as well as the union of the two Bindus, then one should know the body to be perfected and endowed with all good qualities. [Such a Siddha] is free from cold, heat, thirst, fear, desire and greed. He has crossed over the ocean of anxiety, disease, fever, suffering (duḥkha) and grief”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (samkhya philosophy)

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to a “sorrow”, according to Vācaspatimiśra’s commentary on Sāṅkhyakārikā (Kārikā 19).—Accordingly, [while equating udāsīna with neutrality—mādhyasthya]: “Therefore, because the three Guṇasare absent, neutrality [is mentioned]. A happy person who is satisfied with happiness and a sad person who detests sorrow (duḥkha) are not neutral. Thus, one who is neutral is free of [happiness and sorrow] and he is also called udāsīna”.

Samkhya book cover
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Duḥkha (दुःख) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Duḥkha).

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Duḥkhā (दुःखा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Duḥkhacinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Duḥkhā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Duḥkha (दुःख, “suffering”) refers to “life is suffering” and represents one of the “four noble truths”, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).—The primary teaching of Śākyamuni Buddha was the Catvāri Āryasatyāni (“The Four Noble Truths”, which are as follows: 1. duḥkha "life is suffering" 2. samudaya "suffering arises from craving" 3. nirodha "the cessation of craving is the end of suffering" 4. mārga "there is a path which leads to the end of suffering".

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Duḥkha (दुःख, “suffering ”) refers to one of the eight kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among the Buddha’s disciples, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 16). Accordingly, “for them, everything is impermanent (anitya), suffering (duḥkha), empty (śūnya), egoless (anātmaka), like a sickness (roga), an ulcer (gaṇḍa), like an arrow (śalya) stuck in one’s body, like an agony (agha)”.

According to chapter 31, there are two kinds of suffering (duḥkha):

  1. inner suffering (ādhyātmika-duḥkha),
  2. outer suffering (bāhyaduḥkha-duḥkha).

According to chapter 37,  there are two kinds of suffering:

  1. bodily suffering (kāyika-duḥkha),
  2. mental suffering (caitasika-duḥkha).

By the power of their wisdom (prajñābala), the holy individuals (āryapudgala) have no further mental suffering like sadness (daurmanasya), jealousy (īrṣyā), malice (vyāpāda), etc. On the other hand, because they have received a body composed of the four great elements as a result of actions in their previous existences, they still have bodily sufferings such as old age (jarā) and sickness (vyādhi), hunger and thirst (kṣutpipāsa), cold and heat (śītoṣṇa), etc., but these bodily sufferings are slight and quite rare.

2) Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “sensation of displeasure” and represents one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., duḥkha] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “suffering”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Son of good family, there are eight purities of the insight (prajñā) of the Bodhisattvas. What are the eight? To with, [...] (5) although they teach four summaries of the dharma, they never see anything in impermanence (anitya), suffering (duḥkha), selfless (anātma), or quiescence (śānta); (6) although they teach to enter into action and duties, they are free from karmic result and also not disturbed by performing deeds; (7) although they are established in the knowledge of teachings which is beyond discursive thinking, they elucidate the division of words of all teachings; (8) they attain the illumination of all teachings and teach living beings about impurity and purification”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Duḥkha (दुःख, “suffering”) refers to the first of the “four noble truths” (caturāryasatya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 21). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., duḥkha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Duḥkha refers to one of the “eight worldly conditions” (lokadharma) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 61).

Duḥkha or Duḥkhajñāna refers to the “knowledge of suffering” and represents one of the “ten knowledges” (jñāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 93).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Duḥkha (दुःख, “misery”) refers “feeling of misery” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending unpleasant feelings (asātāvedanīya).

Duḥkha is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Duḥkha (दुःख, “suffering”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.20.—“The function of matter (pudgala) is also to contribute to pleasure (sukha), suffering (duḥkha), life (jīvita) and death (maraṇa) of living brings”. What is misery (duḥkha)? Owing to the rise of the asātā-vedanīya (experience of misery) karma and due to the external efficient causes like place, time, substance or modes, the disposition of affliction of the soul is called misery.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Duḥkha (दुःख) refers to “(the fire of) suffering”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[This self] whose intention is confounded by the poison of manifestly false knowledge, desire and so forth falls into an existence that is difficult to endure, inflamed by the fire of endless suffering (ananta-duḥkha-agni-pradīpta)”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

duḥkha (दुःख).—n (S) Pain, sorrow, affliction, unhappiness. 2 A difficulty, disease, trouble; a cause or an occasion of pain. 3 Lues Venerea. duḥkha pāhūna ḍāga dyāvā Apply the remedy to the evil. duḥkha mānaṇēṃ g. of s. To be pained or grieved about; to be sorry for. duḥkha vēśīsa bāndhaṇēṃ To tell a grievance or pain to the whole world. duḥkhācā vāṇṭā ucalaṇēṃ-ghēṇēṃ To take part in the pain or trouble of. duḥkhāvara ḍāga dēṇēṃ or phāsaṇyā ghālaṇēṃ or ṭākaṇēṃ To triumph over an unfortunate person; to apply salt to a sore: also to touch a sore point. duḥkhēṃ pāpēṃ (With pain and sin.) With painful effort and great ado.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Duḥkha (दुःख).—a. [duṣṭāni khāni yasmin, duṣṭaṃ khanati khan-ḍa, duḥkh-ac vā Tv.]

1) Painful, disagreeable, unpleasant; सिंहानां निनदा दुःखाः श्रोतुं दुःखमतो वनम् (siṃhānāṃ ninadā duḥkhāḥ śrotuṃ duḥkhamato vanam) Rām.

2) Difficult, uneasy.

-kham 1 Sorrow, grief, unhappiness, distress, pain, agony; सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते (sukhaṃ hi duḥkhānyanubhūya śobhate) Mṛcchakaṭika 1.1; यदेवोपनतं दुः- खात्सुखं तद्रसवत्तरम् (yadevopanataṃ duḥ- khātsukhaṃ tadrasavattaram) V.3.21; so दुःखसुख, समदुःखसुख (duḥkhasukha, samaduḥkhasukha) &c.

2) Trouble, difficulty; Ś. Til.12; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखमर्जितानां च रक्षणे । आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः (arthānāmarjane duḥkhamarjitānāṃ ca rakṣaṇe | āye duḥkhaṃ vyaye duḥkhaṃ dhigarthāḥ kaṣṭasaṃśrayāḥ) || Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.163. (duḥkham and duḥkhena are used as adverbs in the sense of 'hardly' 'with difficulty' 'or trouble' Ś.7.13. avyaktā hi gatirduḥkhaṃ dehavadbhiravāpyate Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 12.5; Kumārasambhava 4.13; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.; R.19.49; H.1.158).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duḥkha (दुःख).—n.

(-khaṃ) 1. Pain, sorrow. affliction, distress, unhappiness. 2. The world. 3. Difficulty, trouble. E. duḥkha to give pain, affix ac; or du bad, and khyā to call; or khan to dig, ḍa aff. duṣṭāni khāni yasmin, or duṣṭaṃ khanati .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duḥkha (दुःख).— (properly duṣkha duṣkha), i. e. dus-kha, I. n. Pain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 26; [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 218. Instr. ºkhena, With difficulty, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 263. Ii. adj., f. khā. 1. Painful, unpleasant, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 12661; [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 28, 7. 2. Difficult, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 18, 8. ºkham, adv. Scarcely, hardly, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 53, 6; [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 172.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Duḥkha (दुःख).—[adjective] uneasy, unpleasant; [neuter] uneasiness, pain, sorrow ([comparative] duḥkha++tara† [neuter]), as [adverb] = [instrumental], [ablative], & °— with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, unwillingly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Duḥkha (दुःख):—1. duḥkha mfn. (according to grammarians properly written duṣ-kha and said to be from dus and kha cf. su-kha; but more probably a Prākritized form for duḥ-stha q.v.) uneasy, uncomfortable, unpleasant, difficult, [Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa] ([Comparative degree] -tara, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa])

2) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) uneasiness, pain, sorrow, trouble, difficulty, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv, 7, 2, 15; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (personified as the son of Naraka and Vedanā, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa])

3) n. [impersonal or used impersonally] it is difficult to or to be ([infinitive mood]with an [accusative] or [nominative case] [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 6, 38; Bhagavad-gītā v, 6])

4) duḥkham -√as, to be sad or uneasy, [Ratnāvalī iv, 19/20]

5) -√kṛ, to cause or feel pain, [Yājñavalkya ii, 218; Mahābhārata xii, 5298.]

6) 2. duḥkha [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] khati, to pain, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Duḥkha (दुःख):—(khaṃ) 1. n. Pain, distress.

2) [labhya (bhyaḥ-bhyā-bhyaṃ) a.] Obtained or effected with trouble.

3) [saṃvardvita (taḥ-tā-taṃ) a.] Reared with trouble and difficulty.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Duḥkha (दुःख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Dukkha, Dukkhāva, Duhāva, Dūbha, Dūhava.

[Sanskrit to German]

Duhkha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Duḥkha (दुःख) [Also spelled dukh]:—(nm) sorrow; unhappiness; suffering, grief, distress; ~[kara] distressing, grievous, bringing sorrow and suffering in its wake; ~[traya] the three sorrows viz. physical, mundane and divine; ~[da] painful, grievous/sorrowful; dolorous; ~[dāyaka/~dāyī] painful, causing grief/sorrow; distressing, agonising; -[dvaṃdva] distress and affliction; ~[prada] see [duḥkhada; ~sādhya] difficult, that which can be attained or achieved through sorrow/suffering; -[sukha meṃ] through thick and thin; •[śarīka honā] to cast one’s lot with, to stand through thick and thin; —[uṭhānā] to endure suffering/sorrow; to undergo hardships; —[ko pahāḍa ṭūṭanā] grave calamity to befall; to be in terrible distress; —[dekhanā] to pass through a suffering; —[denā] to grieve, to inflict grief/sorrow/suffering (on), to trouble; —[pahuṃcanā] to feel sorry, to be grieved/distressed, to feel unhappy; —[pānā] to endure suffering/sorrow, to suffer, to undergo hardships; —[baṃṭānā] to share one’s sorrow, to minimize sorrow through sympathy; —[mānanā] to be sorry, to be sorrowful, to be unhappy; —[meṃ sumirana saba karaiṃ sukha meṃ karai na koya] the devil sick would be a monk.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Duḥkha (ದುಃಖ):—

1) [noun] mental suffering; sadness; grief; sorrow.

2) [noun] an uncomfortable, distressing or unpleasant situation or condition.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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