Vinaya: 23 definitions
Vinaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Vinaya (विनय) or Vinayocita refers to “humble behaviour”, which is preferred above evil propensities (duśceṣṭita), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.17. Accordingly, as Guṇanidhi, who was addicted to gambling (dyūta), was told by his mother as follows:—“[...] how is it that you do not feel ashamed of wickedness (durvṛtta)? Dear son, your maternal uncles too are matchless in learning (vidyā), conduct (śīla) and pedigree (kula) and other things. You are not afraid even of them. [...] See the Brahmin boys of your neighbourhood. Even in our house see the disciples of your father. How humbly do they behave (vinaya-ucita)? Dear son, if the king hears of your evil propensities (duśceṣṭita), he will cease to respect your father and may even suspend the regular maintenance allowance”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vinaya (विनय).—A son of Lajjā.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 61; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 36.
1b) A son of Cancu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 118.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsThe monastic discipline, spanning six volumes in printed text, whose rules and traditions define every aspect of the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis way of life. The essence of the rules for monastics is contained in the Patimokkha. The conjunction of the Dhamma with the Vinaya forms the core of the Buddhist religion: "Dhamma vinaya" - "the doctrine and discipline" - is the name the Buddha gave to the religion he founded.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
M (Refusal, (morality). (Refusal of everything that is mean, disrespectful, careless, and propitious to sensuous delight and ignorance). Set of that which Buddha has taught in the field of conduct designed for bhikkhus.
The vinaya, whose patimokkha does constitute the core, is the first among the three portions of the tipitaka. The vinaya tends to be unfortunately often neglected. However it does deserve a great deal of consideration as it is the unavoidable foundation of the practice conducive to nibbana.
See also: The vinayaSource: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
book of Discipline for the monks
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Amaravati: Glossary
the monastic discipline, or the scriptural collection of its rules and commentaries.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Vinaya (विनय, “reverence”) represents a characteristic of six-fold inner penance: one of the two kinds of tapas, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] that is called penance (tapas) that burns away karma. Outer penance is fasting, etc., and inner is confession and penance, etc. [...] Confession and penance (prayaścitta), service to others (vaiyāvṛtta), study of sacred texts (svādhyāya), reverence (vinaya), indifference to the body (vyutsarga), good meditation (śubhadhyāna) are the sixfold inner penance”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas
Vinaya (विनय).—How many types of reverence (vinaya) are there? It is of four types, namely:
- knowledge (jñāna),
- faith (darśana),
- conduct (cāritra),
- custom of homage (upacāra).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vinaya.—(IE 8-8; EI 30), fines. (EI 13), same as indriya-jaya. Note: vinaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
vinaya : (m.) discipline; the code of monastic discipline; removal.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Vinaya, (fr. vi+nī, cp. vineti) 1. driving out, abolishing destruction, removal Vin. I, 3 (asmi-mānassa), 235= III, 3 (akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ vinayāya dhammaṃ desemi); S. I, 40; Sn. 921; A. I, 91 (kodha°, upanāha°); II, 34 (pipāsa°); IV, 15 (icchā°); V, 165 (id.); SnA 12; PvA. 114 (atthassa mūlaṃ nikati°). Often in phrase rāga°, dosa°, moha°, e.g. S. IV, 7 sq.; V, 137 sq. 241; A. IV, 175; Nett 22.—2. rule (in logic), way of saying or judging, sense, terminology (cp. iminā nayena) S. IV, 95 (ariyassa vinaye vuccati loko); A. I, 163 (ariyassa vinaye tevijjo one called a threefold wise in the nomenclature of the Buddhist); II, 166 (ariyassa v.); SnA 403.—3. norm of conduct, ethics, morality, good behaviour Sn. 916, 974; J. IV, 241 (=ācāra-vinaya C.); A. II, 112; III, 353 sq. (ariya-vinaye saddhā yassa patiṭṭhitā etc. faith established in Buddhist ethics).—4. code of ethics, monastic discipline, rule, rules of morality or of canon law. In this sense applied to the large collection of rules which grew up in the monastic life and habits of the bhikkhus and which form the ecclesiastical introduction to the “Dhamma, ” the “doctrine, ” or theoretical, philosophical part of the Buddhist Canon. The history & importance of the Vinaya Piṭaka will be dealt with under the title “Vinaya” in the Dictionary of Names. Only a few refs. must suffice here to give a general idea. See also under Dhamma C. and in detail Geiger, Dhamma pp. 55—58.—Often combined with dhamma: dhammato vinayato ca on the ground of Dh. and V. Vin. I, 337; cp. II. 247.—dhammo ca vinayo ca Vin. I, 356; II, 285, 302; or (as (Dvandva) dhammavinaya (i.e. the teaching of the Buddha in its completeness) D. I, 229; Vin. II, 237 sq.; M. I, 284; II, 181 sq.; A. I, 283; III, 297, 327; S. I, 9; III, 65; Ud. 53; VvA. 3. Often approaches the meaning of “Buddhist order, ” e.g. Vin. I, 69; D. I, 176; M. I, 68, 459, 480; III, 127; S. II, 120; A. I, 185; II, 123; V, 122.—See further Vin. II, 96 (vinaye cheko hoti); A. II, 168 (ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ v. idaṃ Satthu-sāsanaṃ); Vism. 522; VbhA. 273; KhA 106, 151; SnA 4, 195, 310.—a-vinaya one who sins against the V. (like a-dhamma one who neglects the Dh.) Vin. II, 295 sq.; III, 174; A. I, 18; V, 73 sq.—The division of the books of the Vinaya is given at DhsA. 18. Its character (as shown by its name) is given in the foll. verse at DhsA. 19: “(vividha-visesa-) nayattā vinayanato c’eva kāya-vācānaṃ vinayy’attha-vidūhi ayaṃ vinayo Vinayo ti akkhāto, ” i.e. “Because it shows precepts & principles, and governs both deed and word, therefore men call this scripture V. for so is V. interpreted” (Expos. I. 23).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vinaya (विनय).—m (S) Humility, lowliness, meekness: also condescension, affability, graciousness, courteousness or mildness towards inferiors.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vinaya (विनय).—m Humility. Condescension.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Cast, thrown.
-yaḥ 1 Guidance, discipline, instruction (in one's duties), moral training; सर्वक्षत्त्रनिवर्हणस्य विनयं कुर्युः कथं क्षत्त्रियाः (sarvakṣattranivarhaṇasya vinayaṃ kuryuḥ kathaṃ kṣattriyāḥ) Mv.3.37; प्रजानां विनयाधानात् (prajānāṃ vinayādhānāt) R.1.24; Māl.1.5; विनया- धिकारिकं प्रथमाधिकरणम् (vinayā- dhikārikaṃ prathamādhikaraṇam) Kau. A.
2) Sense of propriety, decorum, decency; अनुयास्यन् मुनितनयां सहसा विनयेन वारित- प्रसरः (anuyāsyan munitanayāṃ sahasā vinayena vārita- prasaraḥ) Ś.1.28.
3) Polite conduct, gentleman-like bearing, good breeding or manners; गुणैश्च तैस्तैर्विनयप्रधानैः (guṇaiśca taistairvinayapradhānaiḥ) R.6.79; Māl.1.18.
4) Modesty, humility; सुष्ठु शोभसे आर्यपुत्र एतेन विनयमाहात्म्येन (suṣṭhu śobhase āryaputra etena vinayamāhātmyena) U.1; विद्या ददाति विनयम् (vidyā dadāti vinayam); तथापि नीचैर्विनयाददृश्यत (tathāpi nīcairvinayādadṛśyata) R.3.34;1.71 (where Malli. renders vinaya by indriyajaya or restraint of passions, unnecessarily in our opinion).
5) Reverence, courtesy, obeisance.
6) Conduct in general.
7) Drawing off, taking away, removing; उत्तरीयविनयात् त्रपमाणा (uttarīyavinayāt trapamāṇā) Śi.1.42.
8) A man who has subdued his senses.
9) A trader, merchant.
1) Chastisement (daṇḍa); शीलवृत्तमविज्ञाय धास्यामि विनयं परम् (śīlavṛttamavijñāya dhāsyāmi vinayaṃ param) Mb.3. 36.19.
11) An office, business; विफलविनययत्नाः कामिनीनां वयस्याः (viphalavinayayatnāḥ kāminīnāṃ vayasyāḥ) Śi.11.36.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vinaya (विनय).—m. (= Pali id.), (book of) discipline, one of the sections of the canon: Mahāvyutpatti 1414 (after sūtram, abhi- dharmaḥ); sūtra-vinayābhidharmeṇa Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 290.8; Vinaye, in the (text of the) V., Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 59.18; 60.9; 71.10; 158.17. In Śikṣāsamuccaya 190.4, kim-ākāraṃ śrutaṃ bodhisattva-vinaye praśastaṃ, Bendall in text and translation(s) understands bodhi- sattvavinaya as name of a work, but I believe it means merely in the training of Bodhisattvas; there follows immediately a citation from the Akṣayamati-sūtra. See next items.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-yaḥ) 1. Modesty, affability, humility, mildness. 2. Reverence, obeisance. 3. Decorum, decency, propriety of conduct or behaviour. 4. Training, discipline. 5. Subduing the senses. 6. A man of subdued senses. 7. A merchant. f.
(-yā) 1. Secret. 2. Cast, thrown. 3. A plant. (Sida cordifolia, &c.) E. vi before, nī to obtain or guide, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vinaya (विनय).—i. e. vi-nī + a, m. 1. Training, discipline, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 10, 80. 2. Good behaviour, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 122. 3. Behaviour, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 109, 6. 4. Reverence, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 35, 11. 5. Modesty, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 12.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vinaya (विनय).—[adjective] removing. [masculine] removal, withdrawal; training, breeding, discipline, good manners, modesty, courtesy.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vinaya (विनय):—[=vi-naya] 1. vi-naya (said to be artificially formed [from] vi nṛ; for 2. See under vi-√nī) [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] yati (with prefix 3. vi; [indeclinable participle] vi-vinayya), [Pāṇini 1-4, 1], [vArttika] 7, [Patañjali]
2) [=vi-naya] [from vi-nī] 2. vi-naya mfn. (for 1. See p.969) leading away or asunder, separating, [Ṛg-veda ii, 24, 9]
3) [v.s. ...] cast, thrown, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] secret, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] m. taking away, removal, withdrawal, [Śiśupāla-vadha x, 42]
6) [v.s. ...] leading, guidance, training ([especially] moral tr°), education, discipline, control, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
7) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) the rules of discipline for monks, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 55 etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] good breeding, propriety of conduct, decency, modesty, mildness, [ib.] (in the Purāṇas sometimes personified as son of Kriyā or of Lajjā)
9) [v.s. ...] an office, business, [Śiśupāla-vadha xi, 36]
10) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Sudyumna, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
11) [v.s. ...] a man of subdued senses, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] a merchant, trader, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) Vinayā (विनया):—[=vi-nayā] [from vi-naya > vi-nī] f. Sida Cordifolia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Vinaya (विनय):—(von 1. nī mit vi)
1) adj. entfernend [Ṛgveda 2, 24, 9.] —
2) m. a) Zucht, Erziehung, Unterweisung, Dressur; = śikṣā [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 507.] [Medinīkoṣa y. 104.] = śāstrajñasaṃskāra [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 432,] [Scholiast -] [Spr. 2819.] śastrāstravinayeṣu [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 20, 5.] na tasya vinayaḥ kṛtaḥ (na tasyāvi ed. Bomb. tasya avinayaḥ na kṛtaḥ na nāśitaḥ [Nīlakaṇṭha]) so v. a. man konnte ihn nicht eines Bessern belehren [Mahābhārata 4, 675.] vinaye caiva yukto vāraṇavājinām [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 1, 20.] aśvānāṃ prakṛtiṃ vedmi vinayaṃ cāpi sarvaśaḥ [Mahābhārata 4, 318.] — b) Zucht so v. a. gutes —, gesittetes Benehmen, Anstand; bescheidenes Benehmen; = vainayika [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 4, 34.] = praṇati [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] audāryaṃ vinayaḥ sadā [Sāhityadarpana 134.] = indriyajaya [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 432,] [Scholiast -] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 9, 62.] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 1, 1, 28. 9, 60. 53, 1. 3, 70, 21.] kaccitte vinayaḥ prāptaḥ [77, 10.] nayaśca vinayaśca [4, 16, 25. 5, 66, 17.] abhinavasevakavinayaiḥ kaścidavañcito nāsti [Spr. (II) 488.] prathita adj. [(I) 2978.] vanasthā api rājyāni vinayātpratipedire [4621.] [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 34. 6, 79.] [Śākuntala 28. 44.] [Mālavikāgnimitra 81.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 15, 10.] [BṚH. 13, 1.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 17, 56. 34, 159.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 51.] saṃpanno vinayena [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 42, 5.] saṃpanna [1, 1, 25.] vinayānvita [52, 10.] cyuta adj. [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 104, 63.] guruvinayavṛtti dem Lehrer u. s. w. gegenüber [Spr. (II) 1871.] pitrośca vinayaparaḥ [ŚUK.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 35, 11. 6.] prajānāṃ vinayādhānāt [Raghuvaṃśa 1, 24.] vinayāvaloka [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 5, 2, 6.] prabodhavinayau [Raghuvaṃśa 10, 72.] lakṣmīvinayau [Kathāsaritsāgara 25, 171.] jña [Mahābhārata 12, 2538.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 37, 1. 40, 10. 84, 11.] vinayāvanatā sthitā [Mahābhārata 3, 2467.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 24, 15.] tebhyo dhigacchadvinayam [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 39.] vinayaṃ samālambate [Spr. 3168.] nayaśca vinayaṃ vinā [Śatruṃjayamāhātmya 10, 187.] akīrtiṃ vinayo hanti [Spr. (II) 28.] nirdhano vinayaṃ yāti [1020.] kulasya vinayo vibhūṣaṇam [1487.] madena vinayo hataḥ [1674.] vidyā dadāti vinayam [(I) 2795.] jitendriyatvaṃ vinayasya kāraṇam [972.] jāyate vinayaḥ śrutāt [3038.] sakalaguṇabhūṣā ca vinayaḥ [4323.] vinayaṃ rājaputrebhyaḥ śikṣeta [5006.] Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā [1675.] vinayopapanna (aśva) gut gezogen [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 93, 13.] a (s. auch bes.) ungebührliches Benehmen: bhavanam (strīyantram) [Spr. (II) 1038. (I) 1934.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 19, 8.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 20, 183. 27,63. ] [Sāhityadarpana 181.] drohāvinaya [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 247.] adj. (f. ā) sich ungesittet betragend [Scholiast] zu [Kapila 1, 66.] Personificirt ist der Vinaya ein Sohn der Kriyā [Viṣṇupurāṇa 55.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 50, 26.] der Lajjā [27.] Bei den Buddhisten ist vinaya die über die Disciplin handelnde Lehre [Burnouf 37. fgg.] — c) Nomen proprium eines Sohnes des Sudyumna (vgl. vinata und vinatāśva) [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 111, 15.] —
3) f. ā Sida cordifolia [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] (wo balāyāṃ st. kalāyāṃ zu lesen ist). [Ratnamālā 167.] — Vgl. durvinaya, sa und unter mahīśāsaka .
--- OR ---
2) b) pl. [Spr. (II) 4518.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+85): Vinaya School, Vinaya Vagga, Vinayabhaj, Vinayadatta, Vinayadeva, Vinayadhara, Vinayadhara Sutta, Vinayadharasobhana Sutta, Vinayadi, Vinayadidhara, Vinayaditya, Vinayadityapura, Vinayagandhi, Vinayaganthipada, Vinayagrahin, Vinayagulhatthadipani, Vinayajyotis, Vinayaka, Vinayaka bhatta, Vinayaka Chaturthi.
Ends with (+12): Abhivinaya, Aghatapativinaya, Amudhavinaya, Avinaya, Caritravinaya, Charitravinaya, Darshanavinaya, Dhammavinaya, Durvinaya, Gihivinaya, Hatavinaya, Icchavinaya, Jivavinaya, Jnanavinaya, Kilesavinaya, Kodhavinaya, Lakshmivinaya, Makkhavinaya, Pativinaya, Pranashtavinaya.
Full-text (+1686): Tipitaka, Vinayabhaj, Vinayavac, Vinayagrahin, Vinayastha, Vinayapramathin, Vinayadhara, Vinayavastu, Vinayavati, Durvinaya, Vinayapitaka, Vinayakarman, Vinayavalli, Vinayavibhanga, Vinayadidhara, Vinayapattra, Vinayasundara, Vinayajyotis, Vinayasvamini, Vinayata.
Search found 127 books and stories containing Vinaya, Vi-naya, Vinayā, Vi-nayā; (plurals include: Vinayas, nayas, Vinayās, nayās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 2 - The journey of the Buddha to southern India and Koṭikarṇa < [Chapter XV - The Arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the Ten Directions]
Seventh aṅga (member): Avadāna < [Part 2 - Hearing the twelve-membered speech of the Buddha]
Appendix 1 - The story of the vaiśya Meṇḍaka < [Chapter XXVI - Exertion]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 29 - The Discourse at Bhoga on the Four Great Authorities (Mahāpadesas) < [Chapter 40 - The Buddha Declared the Seven Factors of Non-Decline for Rulers]
Biography (35): Upāli Mahāthera < [Chapter 43 - Forty-one Arahat-Mahatheras and their Respective Etadagga titles]
Part 4 - Righteous (Dhammavādi) and Unrighteous (Adhammavādi) < [Chapter 28 - The Buddha’s Tenth Vassa at Pālileyyaka Forest]
Chapter IX - On Wrong and Right < [Section One]
Chapter V - On the Adamantine Body < [Section One]
Chapter XIII - On Letters < [Section Two]
Dipavamsa (study) (by Sibani Barman)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.195 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 2.1.234 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Settlement in Early Historic Ganga Plain (by Chirantani Das)
Part 4 - From Arama to Vihara < [Chapter III - Nālandā: Evidence for rise and progress of the settlement]
Part 2 - Buildings of Rājagṛha < [Chapter II - Origin and Function of Rājagṛha as the seat of Monarchy]
Part 4 - The Buddha’s arrival and the first sermon < [Chapter VII - Sārnāth: The Satellite Religious Centre]